Jiang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetTướng
Chữ Hán
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Japanese name
Kanji

Jiang (formerly romanized chiang and usually translated general), is a rank held by general officers in the armed forces of both the People's Republic of China (mainland China) and the Republic of China on Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police use three levels at present while the Republic of China Armed Forces use four.

In both North and South Korea, the same rank is also used but typically romanized as jang. In Japan, the same character is read shō. In Vietnam, the same character is read tướng.

Chinese variant

People's Liberation Army

The same rank names are used for all services, prefixed by haijun (simplified Chinese: 海军; traditional Chinese: 海軍; lit. 'naval force') or kongjun (simplified Chinese: 空军; traditional Chinese: 空軍; lit. 'air force').

Rank group General/flag officers
Chinese 上将 中将 少将
Pinyin Shàngjiàng Zhōngjiàng Shàojiàng
Literal translation Upper commander Middle commander Lower commander
 PLA Ground Forces[1] General Lieutenant General Major General
 PLA Navy[1]
 PLA Air Force[1] General Lieutenant General Major General
People's Armed Police[1] General Lieutenant General Major General
上将
Shàngjiàng
中将
Zhōngjiàng
少将
Shàojiàng
Rank group General/flag officers

Dajiang

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Under the rank system in place in the PLA in the era 1955–1965, there existed the rank of dajiang (Chinese: 大将; lit. 'Grand commander'). This rank was awarded to 10 of the veteran leaders of the PLA in 1955 and never conferred again. It was considered equivalent to the Soviet rank of army general. The decision to name the equivalent rank yiji shangjiang (Chinese: 一级上将; lit. 'Upper commander first class') when it was briefly re-established in 1988-1994 was likely due to a desire to keep the rank of dajiang an honorary one awarded after a war, much as General of the Armies in the United States Army. It was offered to Deng Xiaoping who declined the new rank. Thus it was never conferred and scrapped in 1994.

Republic of China Armed Forces

Rank group General/flag officers
Chinese 一級上將 二級上將 中將 少將
Pinyin Yiji shangjiang Erji shangjiang Zhongjiang Shaojiang
Literal translation First class upper commander Second class upper commander Middle commander Lower commander
 Republic of China Army[2]
Translation[3] Full general General Lieutenant general Major general
 Republic of China Navy[2]
Translation[3] Full admiral Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral
 Republic of China Air Force[2]
Translation[3] Full general General Lieutenant general Major general
 Republic of China Marine Corps[2]
Translation[3] General Lieutenant general Major general
一級上將
Yiji shangjiang
二級上將
Erji shangjiang
中將
Zhongjiang
少將
Shaojiang
Rank group General/flag officers

Japanese variant

The same rank names are used for all services, prefixed by riku (Japanese: , lit.'land'), kai (Japanese: , lit.'sea') or (Japanese: , lit.'air').

Rank group General/flag officers
Japanese 幕僚長たる将 将補
Romanization Bakuryōchō-taru-shō Shō Shō-ho
Literal translation Commander serving as Chief of staff Commander Supplementary commander
 Japanese Army[4] General Lieutenant General Major General
U.S. equivalent[5] General Lieutenant general Major general
 Japanese Navy[4]
U.S. equivalent[5] Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral
 Japanese Air Force[4]
U.S. equivalent[5] General Lieutenant general Major general
幕僚長たる将
Bakuryōchō-taru-shō

Shō
将補
Shō-ho
Rank group General/flag officers

Korean variant

See also: Comparative military ranks of Korea

Jang
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationJang
McCune–ReischauerJang

North Korea

Rank group General/flag officers
Hangul 대장 상장 중장 소장
Hanja 大將 上將 中將 小將
Romanization Daejang Sangjang Chungjang Sojang
Literal translation Grand commander Upper commander Middle commander Lower commander
 Korean People's Army Ground Force[6] Captain general Superior general Middle general Junior general
Army general Colonel general Lieutenant general Major general
 Korean People's Navy[6]
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral
 Korean People's Army Air and Anti-Air Force[6] Captain General Superior General Middle General Junior General
Army general Colonel general Lieutenant general Major general
대장
Daejang
상장
Sangjang
중장
Chungjang
소장
Sojang
Rank group General/flag officers

South Korea

Rank group General/flag officers
Hangul 대장 중장 소장 준장
Hanja 大將 中將 小將 准將
Romanization Daejang Jungjang Sojang Junjang
Literal translation Grand commander Middle commander Lower commander Given commander
Armed Forces[7]
English translation
(Army)[8]
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general

English translation
(Navy)[8]
Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)

English translation
(Air Force)[8]
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general

English translation
(Marine Corps)
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general
대장
Daejang
중장
Jungjang
소장
Sojang
준장
Junjang
Rank group General/flag officers

Vietnamese variant

Main article: Vietnamese military ranks and insignia

Rank group General/flag officers
Vietnamese Đại tướng Thượng tướng Trung tướng Thiếu tướng
Chữ Hán 大將 上將 中將 少將
Literal translation Grand commander Upper commander Middle commander Lower commander
 Vietnam People's Ground Force[9]
Translation[10] Senior general Colonel general Lieutenant general Major general
 Vietnam People's Air Force[9]
Translation[10] Colonel general Lieutenant general Major general
Native name Đại tướng Thượng tướng Trung tướng Thiếu tướng
Rank group General/flag officers

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ping, Xu (7 August 2017). "我军建军九十年军衔制度沿革" [The evolution of our military rank system over the ninety years of its establishment]. mod.gov.cn (in Chinese). Ministry of National Defense. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d "Lùhǎikōng jūnfú zhì tiáolì fù tú" 陸海空軍服制條例附圖 [Drawings of the Uniform Regulations of the Army, Navy and Air Force] (PDF). Gazette of the Presidential Palace (6769): 65–67. 7 November 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d Ministry of National Defense (4 December 2019). "Act of Commission for Officers and Noncommissioned Officers of the Armed Forces". law.moj.gov.tw. Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  4. ^ a b c "自衛官の階級" [Self-Defense Forces rank]. mod.go.jp (in Japanese). Japanese Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Dolan, Ronald E. (1999). "National Security". In Worden, Robert L. (ed.). Japan: a country study. Area Handbook (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. p. 449. LCCN 91029874. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  6. ^ a b c Minnich, James M. (2008). "National Security". In Worden, Robert L. (ed.). North Korea: a country study. Area Handbook (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 266, 268. LCCN 2008028547. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  7. ^ "gyegeubjang-ui jesig(je7joje2hang gwanlyeon)" 계급장의 제식(제7조제2항 관련) [Rank insignia (related to Article 7 (2))]. law.go.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Katz, Rodney P. (1992). "National Security". In Savada, Andrea Matles; Shaw, William (eds.). South Korea: a country study. Area Handbook (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. p. 292. LCCN 91039109. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Quy định quân hiệu, cấp hiệu, phù hiệu và lễ phục của Quân đội nhân dân Việt Nam". mod.gov.vn (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Defence (Vietnam). 26 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b Pike, Douglas (1989). "National Security". In Cima, Ronald J. (ed.). Vietnam: a country study. Area Handbook (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. p. 256. LCCN 88600482. Retrieved 31 December 2023.