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John Marshall Stone
31st and 33rd Governor of Mississippi
In office
March 29, 1876 – January 2, 1882
LieutenantVacant (1876–1878)
William H. Sims (1878–1882)
Preceded byAdelbert Ames
Succeeded byRobert Lowry
In office
January 13, 1890 – January 20, 1896
LieutenantM.M. Evans
Preceded byRobert Lowry
Succeeded byAnselm J. McLaurin
Member of the Mississippi State Senate
In office
1869–1876
Personal details
Born(1830-04-30)April 30, 1830
Milan, Tennessee
DiedMarch 26, 1900(1900-03-26) (aged 69)
Holly Springs, Mississippi
Political partyDemocratic
Signature

John Marshall Stone (April 30, 1830 – March 26, 1900) was an American politician from Mississippi. A Democrat, he served longer as Governor of that state than anyone else, from 1876 to 1882 and again from 1890 to 1896. He approved a new constitution in 1890 passed by the Democratic-dominated state legislature that disfranchised most African Americans, excluding them from the political system.[1] They were kept out for nearly 70 years.

Early life

Born in Milan, Tennessee, Stone was the son of Asher and Judith Stone, natives of Virginia who were part of the migration to the west. He did not attend college since his family was fairly poor, but he studied a great deal and eventually taught school. He lived in Jacks Creek, Tennessee before moving to Tishomingo County, Mississippi in 1855.[2] Stone became a station agent at Iuka when the Memphis and Charleston Railroad opened.

American Civil War

With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Stone enlisted in the Confederate army that April. He commanded Company K of the Second Mississippi Infantry and saw action in Virginia. Stone, who had the rank of colonel, in 1862 was placed in command of another regiment due to a reorganization in 1862. Colonel Stone was highly commended by his division commander Maj. Gen. Henry Heth and in 1864 he frequently commanded the brigade. In January 1865 he went recruiting in Mississippi and then commanded local defense troops countering Stoneman's Raid. He and his men were captured in North Carolina and held prisoner in Camp Chase, Ohio; later being transferred to Johnson's Island, Ohio.

Political career

Governor John M. Stone
Governor John M. Stone

At the end of the war, Stone returned to Tishomingo County. He was elected mayor and treasurer. In 1869, he won a race to become state senator, winning re-election in 1873. State elections were marked by fraud and violence; the Red Shirts, a paramilitary group, worked to disrupt and suppress black voting, and turned Republicans out of office. After Governor Adelbert Ames resigned in 1876, Stone, who was President Pro Tempore of the Mississippi Senate at that time, served as the acting governor.

In the 1877 election, Stone won the Governor's office in his own right, as a Democrat; in 1881 he was defeated for re-election by Robert Lowry. Stone became Governor again after winning the 1889 election. The gubernatorial term was extended through 1896 by the new state constitution of 1890. Determined to keep control and maintain white supremacy, the Democratic-dominated legislature effectively disfranchised most African Americans in the state by adding a requirement to the constitution for voter registration for payment of poll taxes. Two years later, they passed laws requiring literacy tests (administered by white officials in a discriminatory way), and grandfather clauses (the latter benefited white citizens). These requirements, with additions in legislation of 1892, resulted in a 90% reduction in the number of blacks who voted in Mississippi.[3] In every county a handful of prominent black ministers and local leaders were allowed to vote. African Americans were essentially excluded from the political system for 70 years, until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[3] When this constitution and laws survived an appeal to the US Supreme Court, other southern states quickly adopted the "Mississippi Plan" and passed their own disfranchising constitutions, through 1908.[3] Voter rolls dropped dramatically in other southern states as well, and politics was dominated by white Democrats.

Later life

Following his term as governor, in 1899 Stone accepted a position as the 2nd President of Mississippi A&M (now Mississippi State University) in Starkville. Stone died in Holly Springs, Mississippi, in 1900, at the age of 69. He is buried at Oak Grove Cemetery in Iuka, Mississippi.[4][5][6]

Personal life

After the war, Stone married Mary G. Coman in 1872. The couple had two children who died young. They adopted three children of John's brother and raised them as their own.

Legacy and honors

See also

References

  1. ^ Stone, John M. (March 11, 1890). "Proclamation". Jackson Mississippi: Executive Office of the State of Mississippi. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  2. ^ Chester County, TN Archived November 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  3. ^ a b c Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908 (2000), ch 4
  4. ^ Political Graveyard entry
  5. ^ Mississippi Governor John Marshall Stone
  6. ^ John Marshall Stone: Thirty-first and Thirty-third Governor of Mississippi: 1876–1882; 1890–1896 Archived October 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ E.E. Cooley Building (John M. Stone Cotton Mill) Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
Party political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
Benjamin G. Humphreys
Democratic nominee for Governor of Mississippi
1877
Succeeded by
Robert Lowry
Preceded by
Robert Lowry
Democratic nominee for Governor of Mississippi
1889
Succeeded by
Anselm J. McLaurin
Political offices
Preceded by
Alexander K. Davis
Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi
1876–1878
Succeeded by
William H. Sims
Preceded by
Adelbert Ames
Governor of Mississippi
1876–1882
Succeeded by
Robert Lowry
Preceded by
Robert Lowry
Governor of Mississippi
1890–1896
Succeeded by
Anselm J. McLaurin
Academic offices
Preceded by
General Stephen D. Lee
President of Mississippi State University
1899–1900
Succeeded by
John Crumpton Hardy