A man with congestive heart failure and marked jugular venous distention. External jugular vein marked by an arrow; however, JVP is not measured by looking at the external jugular vein even but is instead measured by pulsations of the skin from the internal jugular vein, which is not visible in this image.

The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein. It can be useful in the differentiation of different forms of heart and lung disease. Classically three upward deflections and two downward deflections have been described.

Method

Visualization

The veins of the neck, viewed from in front.

The patient is positioned at a 45° incline, and the filling level of the external jugular vein determined.[1] The internal jugular vein is visualised when looking for the pulsation. In healthy people, the filling level of the jugular vein should be less than 4 centimetres vertical height above the sternal angle.[2] A pen-light can aid in discerning the jugular filling level by providing tangential light.[3]

The JVP is easiest to observe if one looks along the surface of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, as it is easier to appreciate the movement relative to the neck when looking from the side (as opposed to looking at the surface at a 90-degree angle). Like judging the movement of an automobile from a distance, it is easier for an observer to see the movement of an automobile when it is crossing the observer's path at 90 degrees (i.e., moving left to right or right to left), as opposed to coming towards the observer.[citation needed]

Pulses in the JVP are rather hard to observe, but trained cardiologists do try to discern these as signs of the state of the right atrium.

Differentiation from the carotid pulse

The JVP and carotid pulse can be differentiated several ways:[citation needed]

JVP waveform

A JVP waveform

The jugular venous pulsation has a biphasic waveform.

Quantification

A classical method for quantifying the JVP was described by Borst & Molhuysen in 1952.[4] It has since been modified in various ways. A venous arch may be used to measure the JVP more accurately.

Moodley's sign

This sign is used to determine which waveform you are viewing. Feel the radial pulse while simultaneously watching the JVP. The waveform that is seen immediately after the arterial pulsation is felt is the 'v wave' of the JVP[citation needed].

Abdominojugular test

Main article: Abdominojugular test

The term "hepatojugular reflux" was previously used as it was thought that compression of the liver resulted in "reflux" of blood out of the hepatic sinusoids into the inferior vena cava, thereby elevating right atrial pressure and visualized as jugular venous distention. The exact physiologic mechanism of jugular venous distention with a positive test is much more complex and the commonly accepted term is now "abdominojugular test".[citation needed]

In a prospective randomized study involving 86 patients who underwent right and left cardiac catheterization, the abdominojugular test was shown to correlate best with the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Furthermore, patients with a positive response had lower left ventricular ejection fractions and stroke volumes, higher left ventricular filling pressure, higher mean pulmonary arterial, and higher right atrial pressures.[5]

The abdominojugular test, when done in a standardized fashion, correlates best with the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, and therefore, is probably a reflection of an increased central blood volume. In the absence of isolated right ventricular failure, seen in some patients with right ventricular infarction, a positive abdominojugular test suggests a pulmonary artery wedge pressure of 15 mm Hg or greater.[5]

Interpretation

An elevated JVP is the classic sign of venous hypertension (e.g. right-sided heart failure). JVP elevation can be visualized as jugular venous distension, whereby the JVP is visualized at a level of the neck that is higher than normal. The jugular venous pressure is often used to assess the central venous pressure in the absence of invasive measurements (e.g. with a central venous catheter, which is a tube inserted in the neck veins). A 1996 systematic review concluded that a high jugular venous pressure makes a high central venous pressure more likely, but does not significantly help confirm a low central venous pressure. The study also found that agreement between doctors on the jugular venous pressure can be poor, calling into question its reliability as a clinical decision-making tool.[6] Similarly, a 2016 study examined the use of JVP measurements by clinical examination in the evaluation of central venous pressure in patients with heart failure.[7] This study found that JVP examination was not consistent with actual central venous pressures, such that it was unreliable both for ruling in and ruling out heart failure. JVP measurement was especially unreliable in patients with high body fat. Additionally, it was noted that clinicians seemed to "extrapolate" JVP measurements from other, more easily examinable findings (like lung auscultation, body weight, heart rate, brachial blood pressure, and chest radiography findings).

The paradoxical increase of the JVP with inspiration (instead of the expected decrease) is referred to as the Kussmaul sign, and indicates impaired filling of the right ventricle. The differential diagnosis of Kussmaul's sign includes constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and severe right-sided heart failure.[citation needed]

Certain wave form abnormalities, include cannon a-waves, or increased amplitude 'a' waves, are associated with AV dissociation (third degree heart block), when the atrium is contracting against a closed tricuspid valve, or even in ventricular tachycardia. Another abnormality, "c-v waves", can be a sign of tricuspid regurgitation. The absence of 'a' waves may be seen in atrial fibrillation.[8]

An exaggerated "y" wave or diastolic collapse of the neck veins from constrictive pericarditis is referred to as Friedreich's sign.[9][10]

Abnormal JVP waveforms
Abnormality Causes
Raised JVP, normal waveform
Raised JVP, absent pulsation
Large 'a' wave (increased atrial contraction pressure)
Cannon 'a' wave (atria contracting against closed tricuspid valve)
Absent 'a' wave (no unifocal atrial depolarisation)
  • Atrial fibrillation
Large 'v' wave (c–v wave)
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
Absent 'x' descent
  • Tricuspid regurgitation (sometimes 'x' wave is replaced by a positive wave)
Prominent 'x' descent
  • Cardiac tamponade
Slow 'y' descent
Prominent & deep 'y' descent
  • Constrictive pericarditis
Parodoxical JVP (Kussmaul's sign: JVP rises with inspiration, drops with expiration)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cardiovascular Examination - Cardiovascular Disorders". Archived from the original on 2022-03-06. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  2. ^ "Evaluation of the Pulmonary Patient - Pulmonary Disorders". Archived from the original on 2020-07-30. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  3. ^ Gopal, S.; Nagalli, S. (2022). "Jugular Venous Distention". StatPearls. StatPearls. PMID 31971738. Archived from the original on 2022-09-24. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  4. ^ Borst J, Molhuysen J (1952). "Exact determination of the central venous pressure by a simple clinical method". Lancet. 2 (7): 304–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(52)92474-4. PMID 14955978.
  5. ^ a b Ewy GA (September 1988). "The abdominojugular test: technique and hemodynamic correlates". Annals of Internal Medicine. 109 (6): 456–60. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-109-6-456. PMID 3415106.
  6. ^ Cook DJ, Simel DL (February 1996). "The Rational Clinical Examination. Does this patient have abnormal central venous pressure?". JAMA. 275 (8): 630–4. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03530320054034. PMID 8594245.
  7. ^ Breidthardt, Tobias; Moreno-Weidmann, Zoraida; Uthoff, Heiko; Sabti, Zaid; Aeppli, Sven; Puelacher, Christian; Stallone, Fabio; Twerenbold, Raphael; Wildi, Karin; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Wussler, Desiree (2018). "How accurate is clinical assessment of neck veins in the estimation of central venous pressure in acute heart failure? Insights from a prospective study". European Journal of Heart Failure. 20 (7): 1160–1162. doi:10.1002/ejhf.1111. ISSN 1879-0844. PMID 29314487. S2CID 3581825.
  8. ^ Conover, Mary Boudreau (2003). "Bedside Diagnosis". Understanding electrocardiography. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 82. ISBN 0-323-01905-6.
  9. ^ "Friedreich's sign". BMJ Case Reports.
  10. ^ Pittinger, Brook (2018). "Friedreich's sign". BMJ Case Reports. 2018. doi:10.1136/bcr-2018-226820. PMC 6203036. PMID 30333203. Archived from the original on 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2020-04-05.