Flag of a Marine Corpslieutenant general
Flag of a Marine Corps
lieutenant general

This is a list of lieutenant generals in the United States Marine Corps from 2000 to 2009. The rank of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is the second-highest rank in the Marine Corps, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above major general (two-star general) and below general (four-star general).

There have been 45 lieutenant generals in the United States Marine Corps from 2000 to 2009, 12 of whom were promoted to four-star general. All 45 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Marine Corps. Lieutenant generals entered the Marine Corps via several paths: 24 via Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 11 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), eight via the United States Naval Academy (USNA), and two via NROTC at a senior military college.

List of generals

Entries in the following list of lieutenant generals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty or was promoted to four-star rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the general's name, date of rank,[a] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[b] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[c] year commissioned and source of commission,[d] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[e] and other biographical notes.[f]

List of U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant generals from 2000 to 2009
# Name Photo Date of rank[a] Position[b] Yrs[c] Commission[d] YC[e] Notes[f]
1 Emil R. Bedard
EmilBedard.jpeg
25 Jun 2000[1] 3 1967 (NROTC) 33 (1943–        )
* William L. Nyland
LtGen William L. Nyland.jpg
30 Jun 2000   2 1968 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        )[g] Promoted to general, 4 Sep 2002.
2 Michael P. DeLong
LtGen Michael P. DeLong, USMC.jpg
7 Sep 2000   3 1967 (USNA) 33 (1945–2018)
3 Gregory S. Newbold
NewboldGS LtGen USMC.jpg
10 Oct 2000   2 1970 (NROTC) 30 (1948–        )
* Michael W. Hagee
LtGen Michael W. Hagee.jpg
1 Nov 2000[3] 3 1968 (USNA) 32 (1944–        )[i] Promoted to general, 14 Jan 2003.
4 Garry L. Parks
LtGen Garry L. Parks.jpg
16 May 2001   3 1969 (Citadel) 32 (1947–        )
5 Dennis M. McCarthy
LtGen Dennis M. McCarthy.jpg
1 Jun 2001   4 1967 (NROTC) 34 (1945–        ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs, 2009–2011.
6 Edward Hanlon Jr.
LtGen Edward Hanlon Jr. (uncovered).jpg
11 Jul 2001   5 1967 (OCS) 34 (1944–        )
* Robert Magnus
LtGen Robert Magnus (uncovered).jpg
20 Aug 2001   4 1969 (NROTC) 32 (1947–        )[g] Promoted to general, 1 Nov 2005.
7 Wallace C. Gregson Jr.
Lt. Gen. Wallace C. Gregson, Jr. (2).jpg
21 Aug 2001   4 1968 (USNA) 33 (1946–        ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asian and Pacific Security Affairs, 2009–2011.[5]
* James E. Cartwright
LtGen James E. Cartwright.jpg
6 May 2002[6] 2 1971 (NROTC) 31 (1949–        )[j][k] Promoted to general, 1 Sep 2004.
8 Richard L. Kelly
LtGen Richard L. Kelly.jpg
7 Jun 2002   2 1971 (NROTC)[l] 31
9 Martin R. Berndt
LtGen Martin R. Berndt.jpg
15 Aug 2002   3 1969 (NROTC) 33 (1948–2011)[8]
10 Gary H. Hughey
LtGen Gary H. Hughey (uncovered).jpg
24 Sep 2002   3 1970 (NROTC) 32 (1947–        )
11 Michael A. Hough
LtGen Michael A. Hough.jpg
2 Oct 2002   3 1969 (USNA) 33 (c. 1947        ) Naval aviator.
* James T. Conway
LtGen James T. Conway (2).jpg
2 Dec 2002[9] 4 1970 (OCS) 32 (1947–        )[i] Promoted to general, 13 Nov 2006.
12 Henry P. Osman
LtGen Henry P. Osman (2).jpg
1 May 2003   3 1969 (OCS)[m] 34 (1947–        )
13 Robert R. Blackman Jr.
RR Blackman USMC.jpeg
1 Jul 2003   4 1970 (NROTC) 33 (1948–        )
14 Robert M. Shea
LtGen Robert M. Shea.jpg
31 Jul 2003  
  • Director, Command, Control, Communications and Computer Systems, Joint Staff, J6, 2003–2006.
3 1968 (NROTC) 35 (1948–        )
15 Jan C. Huly
Jan Huly USMC.jpg
2 Oct 2003   3 1969 (NROTC) 34 (1948–        )
* James F. Amos
LtGen James F. Amos (2).jpg
9 Sep 2004   4 1970 (NROTC) 34 (1946–        )[g][i] Promoted to general, 2 Jul 2008.
16 John F. Sattler
John F. Sattler.jpg
12 Sep 2004   4 1971 (USNA) 33 (1949–        )
* James N. Mattis
James Mattis.jpg
4 Nov 2004   3 1972 (ROTC) 32 (1950–        )[n][j] Promoted to general, 9 Nov 2007. U.S. Secretary of Defense, 2017–2018.
17 John W. Bergman
LtGen John W. Bergman (2).jpg
10 Jun 2005   4 1969 (OCS)[m] 36 (1947–        ) U.S. Representative from Michigan's 1st congressional district, 2017–present.
18 John F. Goodman
LtGen John F Goodman.jpg
3 Aug 2005   3 1971 (USA) 34 (1945–        )[o] Naval aviator.
19 Joseph F. Weber
Lt. Gen. Joseph F. Weber.jpg
30 Aug 2005[10] 3 1972 (Texas A&M) 33 (1950–        ) Executive Director, Texas Department of Transportation, 2014–2016.[11]
20 Emerson N. Gardner Jr.
LtGen Emerson N. Gardner Jr.jpg
1 Sep 2005   5 1978 (NROTC) 27
21 Richard S. Kramlich
LtGen Richard S. Kramlich.jpg
15 Sep 2005   4 1973 (USNA) 32
22 John G. Castellaw
LtGen John G. Castellaw.jpg
3 Nov 2005   2 1972 (NROTC) 33 Naval aviator.
23 Frances C. Wilson
Frances C. Wilson.jpg
14 Jul 2006   3 1972 (NROTC) 34 (1948–        )
24 Keith J. Stalder
USMC-18244.jpg
2 Aug 2006   4 1973 (OCS) 33 Naval aviator.
25 Ronald S. Coleman
LtGen Ronald S. Coleman, USMC.jpg
27 Oct 2006   3 1974 (NROTC) 32 (1948–        )
26 Richard F. Natonski
LtGen Richard F. Natonski (2).jpg
7 Nov 2006   4 1973 (NROTC) 33 (1951–        )
27 George J. Trautman III
LtGen Trautman.jpg
8 Jun 2007   4 1974 (NROTC)[12] 33 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
28 Richard C. Zilmer
Richard C. Zilmer USMC.jpg
16 Jun 2007[13] 4 1974 (NROTC) 30
29 Samuel T. Helland
Samuel T. Helland LTGEN (cropped).jpg
5 Nov 2007   2 1973 (OCS) 34 (c. 1951        )[p] Naval aviator.
* John M. Paxton Jr.
LtGen John M. Paxton Jr. (2).jpg
13 Mar 2008   4 1974 (OCS) 34 (1951–        )[g] Promoted to general, 15 Dec 2012.
30 Duane D. Thiessen
LtGen Duane D. Thiessen.jpg
29 Apr 2008   4 1974 (NROTC) 34 (1951–        ) Inspector General of the Marine Corps, 2002–2004.
31 George J. Flynn
LtGen George J. Flynn, USMC.jpg
23 Jul 2008   5 1975 (USNA) 33 (c. 1954        )
32 Dennis J. Hejlik
LtGen Dennis Hejlik.jpg
25 Jul 2008   4 1975 (OCS)[m] 33 (c. 1950        )
* Joseph F. Dunford Jr.
LtGen Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. USMC.jpg
8 Aug 2008   2 1977 (OCS) 31 (1955–        )[q][g][r][i][s] Promoted to general, 23 Oct 2010.
* John R. Allen
LtGen John R. Allen USMC.jpg
31 Oct 2008[15] 3 1976 (USNA) 32 (1953–        ) Promoted to general, 18 Jul 2011. Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, 2014–2015; President, Brookings Institution, 2017–2022.
33 Willie J. Williams
Willie J. Williams.jpg
31 Jul 2009   4 1974 (NROTC) 35 (1951–        )
34 Terry G. Robling
Terry G. Robling.jpg
Sep 2009   5 1976 (NROTC) 33 (1954–        ) Naval aviator.
* Thomas D. Waldhauser
Lieutenant General Thomas D. Waldhauser.JPG
25 Sep 2009   7 1976 (OCS) 33 (1953–        )[j] Promoted to general, 18 Jul 2016.
35 Frank A. Panter Jr.
Lt. Gen. Frank A. Panter, Jr.jpg
25 Sep 2009   3 1975 (NROTC) 34
* John F. Kelly
JohnFKelly.jpg
17 Oct 2009[16] 3 1976 (OCS)[t] 33 (1950–        )[j] Promoted to general, 19 Nov 2012. U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, 2017; White House Chief of Staff, 2017–2019.

Timeline

2000–2009

John F. KellyFrank A. Panter Jr.Thomas D. WaldhauserTerry G. RoblingWillie Williams (general)John R. AllenJoseph DunfordDennis HejlikGeorge J. FlynnDuane D. ThiessenJohn M. Paxton Jr.Samuel T. HellandRichard C. ZilmerGeorge J. Trautman IIIRichard F. NatonskiRonald S. ColemanKeith J. StalderFrances C. WilsonJohn G. CastellawRichard S. KramlichEmerson N. Gardner Jr.Joseph F. WeberJohn F. GoodmanJack BergmanJim MattisJohn F. SattlerJames F. AmosJan C. HulyRobert M. SheaRobert R. Blackman Jr.Henry P. OsmanJames T. ConwayMichael A. HoughGary H. HugheyMartin R. BerndtRichard L. KellyJames CartwrightWallace C. GregsonRobert MagnusEdward Hanlon Jr.Dennis M. McCarthyGarry L. ParksMichael HageeGregory S. NewboldMichael P. DeLongWilliam L. NylandEmil R. BedardIraq WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

History

See also: List of United States Marine Corps lieutenant generals on active duty before 1960 § History

World War I

James C. Breckinridge

The rank of lieutenant general in the Marine Corps was first proposed in 1918, when the Senate Naval Affairs Committee tried to increase the rank of the major general commandant and his three senior staff officers for the duration of World War I. Instigated by the incumbent commandant, George Barnett, the proposal was blocked by Navy secretary Josephus Daniels and House Naval Affairs Committee member Thomas S. Butler, who was outraged that the headquarters staff would gain a lieutenant general commandant and three major generals at a time when no Marine major generals were deployed in the field. The incident contributed to Daniels' decision to remove Barnett midway through his second term as commandant.[18][19]

A decade later, Butler himself tried to promote Barnett's successor as commandant, John A. Lejeune, to lieutenant general to match the three-star rank proposed for Army corps area commanders in 1928. The Navy had four admirals and three vice admirals, but the highest active-duty Army rank was only major general, so the War Department asked Congress to raise the ex officio ranks of the Army chief of staff and three overseas department commanders to general and nine corps area commanders to lieutenant general. At the President's behest, the House Military Affairs Committee approved only the four-star promotion for the chief of staff. Since the Army still had no lieutenant generals and Navy secretary Curtis D. Wilbur felt the commandant was not equivalent to a three-star fleet commander in the Navy, Lejeune's promotion died in committee.[20][21][22]

In 1925, Congress authorized Marine Corps officers to retire with a tombstone promotion to the rank but not the retired pay of the next higher grade if they were specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat during World War I, but only if they retired because they were too old to be promoted further, a condition that excluded major generals, who already held the highest grade in the Marine Corps. Congress expanded eligibility in 1938 to cover officers with a qualifying combat citation from any time period who retired for any reason,[23] allowing James C. Breckinridge to become the first three-star Marine when he retired with a tombstone promotion to lieutenant general in October 1941.[24][25] Lejeune lobbied Congress to extend tombstone promotions to officers who had retired before 1938, and finally received his third star in April 1942.[26]

World War II

Thomas Holcomb

In January 1942, following the United States entry into World War II, Congress increased the commandant's rank to lieutenant general, making Thomas Holcomb the first three-star Marine to serve on active duty. Holcomb's superior, chief of naval operations Ernest J. King, opposed promoting more Marines to that rank, but King relented after Alexander A. Vandegrift, recently awarded the Medal of Honor for the Battle of Guadalcanal, was assigned to command the first Marine amphibious corps and slated to succeed Holcomb as commandant. Vandegrift was appointed temporary lieutenant general in July 1943,[27] under a 1941 law that anticipated the wartime expansion of the Marine Corps by authorizing an unlimited number of temporary general officers for the duration of the national emergency.[28]

When Vandegrift returned to the United States to become commandant in January 1944, King rejected Holcomb's bid to maintain a three-star Marine in the Pacific theater by promoting the other amphibious corps commander, Holland M. Smith, who had led the ground forces at the Battle of Tarawa. Smith received his third star only after the naval commanders at Tarawa, Raymond A. Spruance and Richmond K. Turner, were rewarded with promotions in March 1944.[29][30]

Unlike Holcomb, whose three-star rank was an aspect of his office of commandant, Vandegrift and Smith held personal three-star grades that followed them regardless of assignment, as did every other temporary lieutenant general appointed before the Officer Personnel Act of 1947 made all three-star ranks ex officio. For example, upon relinquishing his final command in May 1946, Smith remained a lieutenant general for the three months until he actually retired,[31] whereas a postwar lieutenant general would have reverted immediately to his permanent two-star grade. Early promotions to these wartime grades therefore rewarded past personal triumphs—Guadalcanal for Vandegrift and Tarawa for Smith—as much as future organizational efficiency.[27]

By the end of the war, the commandant was a full general. One lieutenant general commanded Marines deployed overseas under Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and a second lieutenant general commanded Marines being readied for deployment under Marine Training and Replacement Command. A third lieutenant general was appointed in January 1947 to command the new Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic.

Postwar

The Officer Personnel Act of 1947 authorized only two lieutenant generals for the Marine Corps after July 1, 1948, except during war or national emergency. All active-duty ranks above major general were temporary and ex officio, so upon vacating an office carrying three-star rank, an officer reverted to his permanent two-star grade unless he retired. The two lieutenant generals were assigned to command the operating forces in the Pacific and Atlantic.[32]

The permanent peacetime limit of two lieutenant generals was imposed during the post-World War II drawdown, but remained in place even as the Marine Corps expanded during the Cold War. The state of emergency declared for the Korean War on December 16, 1950, allowed a third lieutenant general to serve as assistant commandant and chief of staff of the Marine Corps, and a fourth as commandant of Marine Corps Schools. A fifth lieutenant general was assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps as director of aviation in 1953, but its three-star designation shifted to the chief of staff when that job was separated from assistant commandant in 1957.[33]

Congress finally declared in 1977 that up to 15 percent of all active-duty Marine Corps general officers could be lieutenant generals or generals even without an emergency, after the 1976 National Emergencies Act terminated all existing national emergencies, effective September 14, 1978, which would have eliminated five of the seven lieutenant generals then on active duty.[34]

Tombstone promotions

Further information: List of United States Marine Corps tombstone lieutenant generals

Keller E. Rockey

From 1938 to 1959, Marine officers who were specially commended for the performance of duty in actual combat before the end of World War II could retire with the rank but not the pay of the next higher grade. Such honorary increases in rank at retirement were called tombstone promotions, since their only tangible benefit was the right to carve the higher rank on one's tombstone.[35] Tombstone promotions made James C. Breckinridge the first three-star Marine in October 1941,[24][25] and Thomas Holcomb the first four-star Marine in January 1944.

A lieutenant general could only receive a tombstone promotion to four-star general if he still held a three-star job on the day he retired. When Oliver P. Smith was abruptly ordered to relinquish his three-star command on September 1, 1955, and revert to major general for the two months until his statutory retirement, he moved up his retirement date to September 1 and kept his tombstone promotion to general.[36]

Of the 27 lieutenant generals appointed before Congress ended tombstone promotions on November 1, 1959, all but five were promoted to general, either by tombstone promotion, selection as commandant, or posthumous legislation, in the case of Roy S. Geiger, who died only a week before he was scheduled to retire with a tombstone promotion.[37] The exceptions were Keller E. Rockey and Robert H. Pepper, who preferred to revert to major general rather than retire at the end of their three-star assignments;[38] Thomas E. Watson, who relinquished command of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific for an assignment at Headquarters Marine Corps, but retired for ill health only three months later;[39] Merwin H. Silverthorn, who was too young to retire for age when his three-star assignment ended and Congress had suspended early retirements;[40] and Verne J. McCaul, who chose to sacrifice a fourth star to stay on active duty until the new commandant took office two months after tombstone promotions ended.[41]

Commandant successions

Merwin H. Silverthorn

Lieutenant general appointments were inextricably tied to the politics of commandant succession. Any lieutenant general was a viable candidate for commandant if he was young enough to complete a full four-year term before reaching the statutory retirement age of 62, as were prominent major generals.[42]

A commandant tended to appoint lieutenant generals in two waves, one at the start of his term and one in the middle.[42] The first wave filled three-star positions vacated by the newly appointed commandant and any rivals who chose to retire after being passed over. For example, Allen H. Turnage retired after a major general, Clifton B. Cates, was selected to be commandant in 1947,[43] as did all five lieutenant generals after another major general, David M. Shoup, was selected in 1959.[44] An incoming commandant might also choose not to retain his predecessor's lieutenant generals, to clear space for his own favorites. Of the five lieutenant generals who retired at Shoup's accession, at least two, Verne J. McCaul and Robert E. Hogaboom, only did so after he made clear they would not be continued at that rank.[45] Upon succeeding Cates in 1952, Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr. promptly appointed Gerald C. Thomas to be his assistant commandant and chief of staff, sending Cates' appointee, Merwin H. Silverthorn, to a two-star job until retirement.[46]

From the middle of his term, a commandant's choices for lieutenant general were meant to set up his preferred candidates to succeed him and eliminate others from consideration.[42] When picking a commandant in 1947, President Harry S. Truman judged Cates and Shepherd to be equally qualified. Since Cates was senior, Truman appointed Cates first and promised to appoint Shepherd next.[43] Cates duly appointed Shepherd to the next three-star vacancy, but when Oliver P. Smith returned to the United States in 1951 after famously commanding the 1st Marine Division at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Cates gave Smith another two-star command instead of the three-star promotion many expected, reducing the risk that Smith's popularity might derail Shepherd's succession. Smith finally received his third star two years later, after he was too old to be considered for commandant.[47]

Verne J. McCaul

When Cates stepped down as commandant, he had to stay on active duty because a 1951 law froze voluntary officer retirements by withholding retired pay from any regular officer who retired for any reason other than age, disability, hardship, or the best interests of the service.[40] (When Graves B. Erskine retired early to accept a civilian position in the Department of Defense in 1953, Congress had to pass special legislation to exempt him.[48]) At Cates' request, Shepherd gave him the three-star job commanding Marine Corps Schools, repaying his support for Shepherd's succession.[49] Congress repealed the law in 1954 and Cates retired two months later.[50] Shepherd picked Thomas to succeed Cates, which simultaneously avoided creating another rival for the commandancy, since Thomas was too old to be considered, and freed Thomas' three-star job of assistant commandant and chief of staff for Shepherd's preferred candidate, Randolph M. Pate, who eventually did succeed Shepherd.[42]

All such machinations failed when Pate's successor was selected in 1959. The best positioned three-star candidate, Merrill B. Twining, was viewed as too political by the secretary of defense, Thomas S. Gates Jr., who passed over all five lieutenant generals to recommend Shoup instead. Four of the five lieutenant generals collected tombstone promotions to general by retiring on November 1, 1959, the day the tombstone promotion law expired, but Verne J. McCaul chose to remain on duty until Shoup took office on January 1, 1960.[45]

Legislative history

The following list of Congressional legislation includes all acts of Congress pertaining to appointments to the grade of lieutenant general in the United States Marine Corps from 2000 to 2009.[u]

Each entry lists an act of Congress, its citation in the United States Statutes at Large, and a summary of the act's relevance, with officers affected by the act bracketed where applicable. Positions listed without reference to rank are assumed to be eligible for officers of three-star grade or higher.

List of legislation on appointments of lieutenant generals from 2000 to 2009
Legislation Citation Summary
Act of October 30, 2000

[Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001]

 114 Stat. 1654A–104
 114 Stat. 1654A–106
  • Raised statutory rank of the chief of Marine Forces Reserve to lieutenant general (Dennis M. McCarthy).
  • Increased percentage of general officers in the Marine Corps that may be appointed above grade of major general from 15% to 16.2%.
Act of December 2, 2002

[Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003]

 116 Stat. 2487
 116 Stat. 2525
  • Established a Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center and assigned director statutory grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral.
  • Exempted the senior military assistant to the secretary of defense from number and percentage limitations on general or flag officers, if serving in grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral.
Act of January 6, 2006

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006]

 119 Stat. 3226
  • Prohibited frocking of officers below grade of major general or rear admiral to grades above major general or rear admiral.
Act of January 28, 2008

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008]

 122 Stat. 94
 122 Stat. 115
 122 Stat. 278
  • Increased percentage of general or flag officers that may be appointed above grade of major general or rear admiral from 15.7% to 16.3%.
  • Allowed officers serving in grade of lieutenant general, general, vice admiral, or admiral to continue holding such position for up to 60 days following reassignment from such position, unless placed sooner in another designated position.
  • Made position of principal military deputy to the assistant secretary of the Navy (research, development and acquisition) statutory, to be selected from active duty vice admirals of the Navy and lieutenant generals of the Marine Corps.
Act of October 14, 2008

[Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009]

 122 Stat. 4433
 122 Stat. 4435
 122 Stat. 4436
  • Increased percentage of general officers in the Marine Corps that may be appointed above grade of major general from 17.5% to 19%.
  • Revised cap on total number of authorized Marine Corps general officers to be reduced to 160, of which 15 may be appointed above grade of major general pending a congressional report by the secretary of defense.
  • Authorized the secretary of defense to designate up to 68 officers above grade of major general or rear admiral for joint duty assignments.
Act of October 28, 2009

[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010]

 123 Stat. 2273
  • Capped total number of Marine Corps general officers who may be appointed above grade of major general at 15, of whom not more than two to be above grade of lieutenant general, pursuant to changes made under NDAA 2009.

See also

References

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  2. ^ Ricks, Thomas (May 2, 2002). "General With a Key Pentagon Role to Retire". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  3. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 107th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2003. p. 245. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  4. ^ Niman, Katesha (May 25, 2001). "MCRC Welcomes New CG". Marine Corps Recruiting Command. Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. Archived from the original on August 17, 2022. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
  5. ^ Rogin, Josh (January 18, 2011). "Top Pentagon Asia official to step down". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
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  7. ^ "Richard L. Kelly '70" (PDF). Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
  8. ^ Finarelli, Linda (August 17, 2011). "Martin Berndt, Marine general and Springfield grad, dies at 63". Springfield Reporter. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  9. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 109th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 364. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
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  12. ^ "General George Trautman". Career Kōkua. October 7, 2004. Archived from the original on March 8, 2022. Retrieved March 8, 2022.
  13. ^ "Lieutenant General Richard C. Zilmer". III MEF. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  14. ^ "Brigadier General Samuel T. Helland". U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on August 3, 2004. Retrieved August 25, 2022.
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  19. ^ Bartlett, Merrill L. (2004). "George Barnett". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 189, 191.
  20. ^ Bartlett (1996), p. 166.
  21. ^ "Higher Rank Urged For Marine Commander". The Boston Globe. March 12, 1928. p. 5.
  22. ^ "Report No. 1547". House Reports (Public), 70th Congress, 1st Session. Vol. 4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1928.
  23. ^ Acts of March 4, 1925 (43 Stat. 1279) and June 23, 1938 (52 Stat. 951).
  24. ^ a b "General Breckinridge's Views". The Lexington Herald. March 6, 1942. p. 4.
  25. ^ a b "Obituaries". Army and Navy Journal. March 7, 1942. p. 751.
  26. ^ Bartlett (1996), pp. 185–186.
  27. ^ a b Hoffman, Jon T. (2004). "Alexander A. Vandegrift". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 291–293.
  28. ^ Act of July 24, 1941 (55 Stat. 604).
  29. ^ Smith, Holland M.; Finch, Percy (1948). Coral and Brass. New York City, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 153–155. ISBN 9780892010516.
  30. ^ Dyer, George C. (1969). The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner. Vol. II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 849–850.
  31. ^ "Famed Marine Leader Honored". The Los Angeles Times. August 8, 1946. p. 8.
  32. ^ Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 876). Millett (1993), p. 257.
  33. ^ Hearings Before and Special Reports Made by Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives on Subjects Affecting the Naval and Military Establishments. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1959. pp. 345–349.
  34. ^ Acts of September 14, 1976 [National Emergencies Act] (90 Stat. 1255) and July 30, 1977 [Department of Defense Appropriation Authorization Act, 1978] (91 Stat. 336). Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session: National Emergencies Act. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 52.
  35. ^ Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Part 3: Financial Statements: Manpower, Personnel, and Reserves. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1960. pp. 742–743.
  36. ^ Shisler (2009), p. 268.
  37. ^ Full Committee Hearings on H.R. 3049, H.R. 3251, H.R. 3053, H.R. 3056, H.R. 3252, H.R. 1845, H.R. 3191, H.R. 3057, H.R. 2314, H.R. 1380, H.J. Res. 96, H.R. 3055, H.R. 3394, H.R. 3484. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1947. p. 3011.
  38. ^ Smith, Oliver P., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, June 12, 1969, Marine Corps History Division, pp. 329–330.
  39. ^ "Marine General, Wartime CO of 2nd Division, Retires". Guam Daily News. July 17, 1950. p. 2.
  40. ^ a b Acts of October 18, 1951 [Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1952] (65 Stat. 424) and August 1, 1953 [Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1954] (67 Stat. 337). Bartlett, Charles (January 6, 1952). "Washington Report". The Chattanooga Times. p. 16. "2 Staff Chiefs Future Posts Still In Doubt". The Baltimore Sun. May 19, 1953. p. 2.
  41. ^ "Assistant Marine Commandant Won't Retire Until 1960". Independent. September 1, 1959. p. B-6.
  42. ^ a b c d Millett (1993), pp. 334–335.
  43. ^ a b Millett (1993), pp. 258–259.
  44. ^ "More Marine Brass Joins Nov. 1 Exodus". The York Dispatch. September 12, 1959. p. 5.
  45. ^ a b Jablon, Howard (2004). "David Monroe Shoup". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 367–369.
  46. ^ Millett (1993), pp. 315–316, 318.
  47. ^ Shisler (2009), pp. 263–264.
  48. ^ Act of July 17, 1953 [Private Law 92] (67 Stat. A34). "Gen. Graves Erskine Is Slated To Hold High Civilian Post In Defense Department With Act Of Congress". Caldwell Watchman-Progress. June 25, 1953. p. 6.
  49. ^ Shepherd, Lemuel C. Jr., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, February 22, 1967, Marine Corps History Division, p. 194.
  50. ^ Act of May 5, 1954 [Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954] (68 Stat. 70). Macomber, Frank (May 31, 1954). "Military Officer Retirement Cleared". San Pedro News-Pilot. p. 5. Thomas, Gerald C., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, October 7, 1966, Marine Corps History Division, p. 344.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps register of active and retired commissioned officers or the officer's official biography. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to lieutenant general. If such a date cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to lieutenant general should be substituted.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to lieutenant general. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column.
  4. ^ a b Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the Officer Candidates School (OCS); the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university; Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university; and ROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Texas A&M University (Texas A&M), or The Citadel (Citadel).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office. Officers who served as enlisted Marines for 7 years or more prior to commissioning are also noted.
  7. ^ a b c d e Served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps (ACMC).
  8. ^ Newbold voluntarily retired in October 2002 in protest of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's 2003 invasion of Iraq. He was allowed to retire as a lieutenant general despite not fulfilling the necessary time in grade requirements.[2]
  9. ^ a b c d Served as Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC).
  10. ^ a b c d Served as a combatant commander (CCDR).
  11. ^ Served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS).
  12. ^ Enlisted in 1970; commissioned as aviation officer in 1971; redesignated as logistics officer, 1978.[7]
  13. ^ a b c Commissioned as second lieutenant via the Platoon Leaders Course (PLC).
  14. ^ Served as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT).
  15. ^ Transferred to U.S. Marine Corps from U.S. Army Reserve, 1971.
  16. ^ Served with U.S. Army Special Forces, 1968–1971.[14]
  17. ^ Promoted directly from rank of brigadier general.
  18. ^ Served as Commander, International Security Assistance Force (CDRISAF).
  19. ^ Served as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS).
  20. ^ Enlisted in 1970; commissioned as infantry officer in 1976.[17]
  21. ^ Legislative history compiled from the U.S. Congress official website and U.S. Government Publishing Office official website.