Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada

Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis. Use of old mineral names is also discontinued, for example when a name is no longer considered valid. Therefore, a list of recognised mineral species is never complete.

Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety.

The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is the international scientific group that recognises new minerals and new mineral names. However, minerals discovered before 1959 did not go through the official naming procedure. Some minerals published previously have been either confirmed or discredited since that date. This list contains a mixture of mineral names that have been approved since 1959 and those mineral names believed to still refer to valid mineral species (these are called "grandfathered" species). Presently, each year about 90–110 new mineral species (the sum of all mutations c. 120 per year) are officially approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association.[1]

As of July 2023, the IMA - CNMNC Master List of Minerals lists 5,955 valid minerals, including 1,153 pre-IMA minerals (grandfathered), and 97 questionable minerals.[2] Also as of July 2023, the Handbook of Mineralogy lists 5,663 species,[3] and the IMA Database of Mineral Properties/Rruff Project lists 5,956 valid species (IMA/CNMNC) of a total of 6,189 minerals.[4] The IMA/Rruff database includes 1,164 pre-IMA minerals.[4]

Due to the length of this list, it is divided into alphabetical groups. The minerals are sorted by name.

Working practices

Miscellany

Notes

Feldspar series
Phase diagram of Al2SiO5
(aluminosilicates).[51]

Nomenclature dictionary

Special minerals (relaxed sense)
"Ore" minerals (sulfides and oxides)
Evaporite and similar minerals
Mineral structures with a tetrahedral unit, monomeric minerals
Mineral structures with a tetrahedral unit, di- and chain silicates
Mineral structures with a tetrahedral unit, framework silicates
Mineral structures with a tetrahedral unit, other cases
Other cases (relaxed sense)

Gallery

See also

Further reading

Notes

  1. ^ No Webmineral reference
  2. ^ No Webmineral reference
  3. ^ No Handbook of Mineralogy reference
  4. ^ No Webmineral reference

References

  1. ^ a b "Missing Minerals". Elements. 3: 360. 2007.
  2. ^ Pasero, Marco; et al. (July 2023). "The New IMA List of Minerals – A Work in Progress". The New IMA List of Minerals. IMA – CNMNC (Commission on New Minerals Nomenclature and Classification). Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  3. ^ Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C. (eds.). "Handbook of Mineralogy". Mineralogical Society of America. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  4. ^ a b c "IMA Database of Mineral Properties/RRUFF Project". Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  5. ^ "Minerals approved in 2010" (PDF). IMA/ CNMNC. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  6. ^ a b Frank C. Hawthorne; Roberta Oberti; George E. Harlow; Walter V. Maresch; Robert F. Martin; John C. Schumacher; Mark D. Welch (2012). "Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup". American Mineralogist. 97 (11–12): 2031–2048. Bibcode:2012AmMin..97.2031H. doi:10.2138/am.2012.4276.
  7. ^ Nickel, Ernest H.; Grice, Joel D. (1998). "The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names: Procedures and Guidelines on Mineral Nomenclature, 1998" (PDF). The Canadian Mineralogist. 36 (1–4): 237. Bibcode:1998MinPe..64..237N. doi:10.1007/BF01226571. S2CID 10576420.
  8. ^ Nickel EH, Nichols MC (2007). IMA/CNMNC List of Mineral Names: draft (PDF). Materials Data, Inc.
  9. ^ Nickel EH, Nichols MC (2009). IMA/CNMNC List of Mineral Names (PDF). Materials Data, Inc.
  10. ^ "IMA Mineral List". RRUFF Database.
  11. ^ Burke E A J (2006). "A mass discreditation of GQN minerals". The Canadian Mineralogist. 44 (6): 1557–1560. Bibcode:2006CaMin..44.1557B. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.44.6.1557.
  12. ^ de Fourestier, Jeffrey (2002). "The Naming of Mineral Species Approved by the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association: A Brief History". The Canadian Mineralogist. 40 (6): 1721–1735. Bibcode:2002CaMin..40.1721D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.579.3170. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.40.6.1721. S2CID 128701814.
  13. ^ "The New IMA List of Minerals (September 2012)" (PDF). IMA-CNMNC.
  14. ^ MinDat - Hatrurite
  15. ^ Levinson A A (1966). "A system of nomenclature for rare-earth minerals". American Mineralogist. 51: 152–158.
  16. ^ Nickel, E H; Mandarino, J A (1987). "Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature". American Mineralogist. 72: 1031–1042.
  17. ^ Burke E A J (2008). "Tidying up mineral names: an IMA-CNMNC scheme for suffixes, hyphens and diacritical marks" (PDF). The Mineralogical Record. 39: 131–135.
  18. ^ Armbruster, Thomas (2002). "Revised nomenclature of högbomite, nigerite, and taafeite minerals" (PDF). European Journal of Mineralogy. 14 (2): 389–395. Bibcode:2002EJMin..14..389A. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.594.9072. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2002/0014-0389. S2CID 41477140.
  19. ^ Bindi, L; Evain M; Spry P G; Menchetti S (2007). "The pearceite-polybasite group of minerals: crystal chemistry and new nomenclature rules". American Mineralogist. 92 (5–6): 918–925. Bibcode:2007AmMin..92..918B. doi:10.2138/am.2007.2440. S2CID 54853946.
  20. ^ Darrell J. Henry; Milan Novák; Frank C. Hawthorne; Andreas Ertl; Barbara L. Dutrow; Pavel Uher & Federico Pezzotta (2011). "Nomenclature of the tourmaline-supergroup minerals" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 96 (5–6): 895–913. Bibcode:2011AmMin..96..895H. doi:10.2138/am.2011.3636. S2CID 38696645.
  21. ^ Frédéric Hatert; Stuart J. Mills; Marco Pasero; Peter A. Williams (2013). "CNMNC guidelines for the use of suffixes and prefixes in mineral nomenclature, and for the preservation of historical names" (PDF). European Journal of Mineralogy. 25 (1): 113–115. Bibcode:2013EJMin..25..113H. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2013/0025-2267. hdl:2268/136406.
  22. ^ Pasero M, Kampf AR, Ferraris C, Pekov IV, Rakovan JR, White TJ (2010). "Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals". European Journal of Mineralogy. 22 (2): 163–179. Bibcode:2010EJMin..22..163P. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2010/0022-2022.
  23. ^ Armbruster T, Bonazzi P, Akasaka M, Bermanec V, Chopin C, Giere R, Huess-Assbichler S, Liebscher A, Menchetti S, Pan Y, Pasero M (2006). "Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals". European Journal of Mineralogy. 18 (5): 551–567. Bibcode:2006EJMin..18..551A. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.511.9929. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2006/0018-0551.
  24. ^ Hatert F, Mills SJ, Pasero M, Williams PA (2013). "CNMNC guidelines for the use of suffixes and prefixes in mineral nomenclature, and for the preservation of historical names". European Journal of Mineralogy. 25 (1): 113–115. Bibcode:2013EJMin..25..113H. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2013/0025-2267. hdl:2268/136406.
  25. ^ Hålenius U, Hatert F, Pasero M, Mills SJ (2015). "IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) Newsletter 26. New minerals and nomenclature modifications approved in 2015". Mineralogical Magazine. 79 (4): 941–947. doi:10.1180/minmag.2015.079.4.05.
  26. ^ Michael Fleischer (August 1966). "Index of New Mineral Names, Discredited Minerals, and Changes of Mineralogical Nomenclature in Volumes 1–50 of The American Mineralogist". American Mineralogist (8): 1247–1336.
  27. ^ a b "Master List of IMA-approved minerals (May 2015)" (PDF). IMA-CNMNC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
  28. ^ Ernest Nickel; Monte Nichols (9 February 2004). "Mineral Names, Redefinitions & Discreditations Passed by the CNMMN of the IMA" (PDF). Aleph Enterprises.
  29. ^ Mindat.org - Tohdite
  30. ^ Mindat.org - Tellurocanfieldite
  31. ^ Argentit (German)
  32. ^ Mindat.org - Schapbachite
  33. ^ Hey, M H (1982). "International Mineralogical Association: Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names". Mineralogical Magazine. 46 (341): 513–514. Bibcode:1982MinM...46..513H. doi:10.1180/minmag.1982.046.341.25. S2CID 140202196.
  34. ^ Walenta K, Bernhardt HJ, Theye T (2004). "Cubic AgBiS2 (schapbachite) from the Silberbrünnle mine near Gengenbach in the Central Black Forest, Germany". Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Monatshefte. 2004 (9): 425–432. doi:10.1127/0028-3649/2004/2004-0425.
  35. ^ Yoshinaga, N.; Aomine, S. (1962). "Allophane in some Ando soils". Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 8 (2): 6–13. Bibcode:1962SSPN....8....6Y. doi:10.1080/00380768.1962.10430983.
  36. ^ Yoshinaga, N.; Aomine, S. (1962). "Imogolite in some Ando soils". Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 8 (3): 22–29. Bibcode:1962SSPN....8...22Y. doi:10.1080/00380768.1962.10430993.
  37. ^ Hey, M.H. (1967). "International Mineralogical Association: Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names" (PDF). Mineralogical Magazine. 36 (277): 133. Bibcode:1967MinM...36..131.. doi:10.1180/minmag.1967.036.277.20.
  38. ^ Wada, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naganori (January–February 1969). "The structure of "Imogolite"" (PDF). The American Mineralogist. 54: 50–71. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  39. ^ Bailey, S. W. (1971). "Summary of national and international recommendations on clay mineral nomenclature: Clays and Clay Minerals". Clays and Clay Minerals. 19 (2): 131. doi:10.1346/ccmn.1971.0190210.
  40. ^ Fleischer, M. (1983). Glossary of Mineral Species. Tucson, AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  41. ^ Bayliss, P. (1987). "Mineralogical notes: mineral nomenclature: imogolite" (PDF). Mineralogical Magazine. 51 (360): 327. doi:10.1180/minmag.1987.051.360.18. S2CID 95074549.
  42. ^ Mindat
  43. ^ Sokolova, E.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Abdu, Y.A.; Genovese, A.; Cámara, F. (2015). "Reapproval of betalomonosovite as a valid mineral species: single-crystal X-ray diffraction, HRTEM, Raman and IR". Periodico di Mineralogia. ECMS2015: 157–158.
  44. ^ Mineralienatlas
  45. ^ Yu, Z.; Hao, Z.; Wang, H.; Yin, S.; Cai, J. (2011). "Jichengite 3CuIr2S4·(Ni,Fe)9S8, a New Mineral, and Its Crystal Structure". Acta Geologica Sinica. 85 (5): 1022–1027. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2011.00537.x. S2CID 129587895.
  46. ^ Mindat
  47. ^ Back, Malcolm E. (2014). Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species (11 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc. p. 434.
  48. ^ Back, Malcolm E.; Mandarino, Joseph A. (2008). Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species (10 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc. p. 345.
  49. ^ MinDat - Tiragalloite
  50. ^ MinDat - Grenmarite
  51. ^ Whitney, D.L. (2002). "Coexisting andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite: Sequential formation of three Al2SiO5 polymorphs during progressive metamorphism near the triple point, Sivrihisar, Turkey". American Mineralogist. 87 (4): 405–416. doi:10.2138/am-2002-0404.
  52. ^ Mindat.org - Chloromagnesite
  53. ^ Mindat.org - Zinkosite
  54. ^ Mindat.org - Biotite
  55. ^ Handbookofmineralogy - Biotite
  56. ^ Rieder, Milan, Cavazzini, Giancarlo, D'yakonov, Yurii S., Frank-Kamenetskii, Viktor A. (1998). "Nomenclature of the micas (IMA/CNMMN Mica Group Subcommittee Report)" (PDF). Canadian Mineralogist. 36: 905–912.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  57. ^ Mindat.org - Chabazite
  58. ^ Handbookofmineralogy - Chabazite
  59. ^ Mindat.org - Dachiardite
  60. ^ Webmineral - Dachiardite
  61. ^ Mindat.org - Heulandite
  62. ^ Handbookofmineralogy - Heulandite
  63. ^ Mindat.org - Pyrochlore
  64. ^ Webmineral - Pyrochlore
  65. ^ Handbookofmineralogy - Pyrochlore
  66. ^ Mindat.org - Roméite
  67. ^ Webmineral - Roméite
  68. ^ Handbookofmineralogy - Roméite
  69. ^ Mindat.org - Betafite
  70. ^ Webmineral - Betafite
  71. ^ Handbookofmineraology - Betafite
  72. ^ Mindat.org - Microlite group
  73. ^ Mindat.org - Elsmoreite group
  • Web: rruff.info/ima/, 'IMA database of mineral properties' switchboard:
    • 'Not an IMA approved mineral' tag – E.g. buserite
    • 'Discredited' mineral tag – E.g. bindheimite
    • 'Pending publication' tag – E.g. drobecite (IMA 2002-034)
    • 'Questionable mineral species' tag – E.g. shubnikovite