United States Secretary of State
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Official seal
Secretary Blinken
Incumbent
Antony Blinken

since January 26, 2021
United States Department of State
AppointerPresident of United States
Inaugural holderJohn Jay (acting)
Thomas Jefferson
FormationJuly 27, 1789
SuccessionFourth
Websitewww.state.gov

This is a list of secretaries of state of the United States.

Secretaries of foreign affairs (1781–1789)

On January 10, 1780, the Confederation Congress created the Department of Foreign Affairs.[1]

On August 10, 1781, Congress selected Robert R. Livingston, a delegate from New York, as the first Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Livingston was unable to take office until October 20, 1781. He served until June 4, 1783, and was succeeded by John Jay on December 21, 1784, who served until March 4, 1789, when the government under the Articles of Confederation gave way to the government under the Constitution.

The office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Foreign Affairs were reinstated by a law signed by George Washington on July 27, 1789. John Jay retained the post on an interim basis, pending the return of Thomas Jefferson from France.

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office
1
Robert R Livingston by Gilbert Stuart crop.jpeg
Robert R. Livingston New York October 20, 1781 June 4, 1783
2
Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg
John Jay New York December 21, 1784 March 4, 1789
Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg
John Jay

Acting

New York July 27, 1789 September 15, 1789

Secretaries of state

On September 15, 1789, before Jefferson could return to take the post, Washington signed into law another act which changed the name of the office from Secretary of Foreign Affairs to Secretary of State, changed the name of the department to the Department of State, and added several domestic powers and responsibilities to both the office of secretary and the department. Thomas Jefferson took office as the first Secretary of State on March 22, 1790.

  Denotes ad interim Secretary of State
Secretary Party Vote[a] Term of office State President(s)
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term
Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg
John Jay
(1745–1829)
Federalist September 15, 1789 March 22, 1790 188 days New York George Washington
1
Thomas-Jefferson.jpg
Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[3]
Democratic-
Republican
March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793 3 years, 284 days Virginia
2
Edmund Randolph (1753-1813) by an unidentified artist.png
Edmund Randolph
(1753–1813)
[4]
Federalist December 31, 1793 August 20, 1795 1 year, 232 days Virginia
3
Timothy-Pickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering
(1745–1829)
[5]
Federalist August 20, 1795 December 10, 1795[b] 4 years, 265 days Pennsylvania
December 10, 1795 May 12, 1800
John Adams
Charleslee.png
Charles Lee
(1758–1815)
[c][6]
Federalist May 13, 1800 June 5, 1800 23 days Virginia
4
John Marshall by Henry Inman, 1832.jpg
John Marshall
(1755–1835)
[7]
Federalist June 13, 1800 February 4, 1801 264 days Virginia
February 4, 1801 March 4, 1801[d]
LeviLincoln.gif
Levi Lincoln Sr.
(1749–1820)
[c][8]
Democratic-
Republican
March 5, 1801 May 1, 1801 57 days Massachusetts Thomas Jefferson
5
James Madison by Gilbert Stuart 1804.jpeg
James Madison
(1751–1836)
[9]
Democratic-
Republican
May 2, 1801 March 3, 1809 7 years, 305 days Virginia
6
Robert Smith SecNavy.jpg
Robert Smith
(1757–1842)
[10]
Democratic-
Republican
March 6, 1809 April 1, 1811 2 years, 26 days Maryland James Madison
7
John Vanderlyn - James Monroe - Google Art Project.jpg
James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[11]
Democratic-
Republican
30–0 April 2, 1811 September 30, 1814 5 years, 335 days Virginia
October 1, 1814 February 28, 1815[b]
February 28, 1815 March 3, 1817
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
John Graham
(1774–1820)
[e][12]
Democratic-
Republican
March 4, 1817 March 9, 1817 5 days Kentucky James Monroe
Richard-Rush.jpg
Richard Rush
(1780–1859)
[c][13]
Federalist March 10, 1817 September 22, 1817 196 days Pennsylvania
8
Gilbert Stuart - John Quincy Adams - Google Art Project.jpg
John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[14]
Democratic-
Republican
29–1 September 22, 1817 March 3, 1825 7 years, 162 days Massachusetts
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Daniel Brent
(1770–1841)
[e][15]
Democratic-
Republican
March 4, 1825 March 7, 1825 3 days Virginia John Quincy
Adams
9
Henry Clay.JPG
Henry Clay
(1777–1852)
[16]
Democratic-
Republican
27–14 March 7, 1825 March 3, 1829 3 years, 361 days Kentucky
National
Republican
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
James Alexander
Hamilton

(1788–1878)
[17]
Democratic March 4, 1829 March 27, 1829 23 days New York Andrew Jackson
10
Van Buren.jpg
Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[18]
Democratic 25–7 March 28, 1829 May 23, 1831 2 years, 56 days New York
11
Portrait of Edward Livingston, by Thomas Sully, c. 1810-1836, oil on canvas - Portland Art Museum - Portland, Oregon - DSC08898.jpg
Edward Livingston
(1764–1836)
[19]
Democratic May 24, 1831 May 29, 1833 2 years, 5 days Louisiana
12
LMcLane.jpg
Louis McLane
(1786–1857)
[20]
Democratic [f] May 29, 1833 June 30, 1834 1 year, 32 days Delaware
13
John Forsyth US Secretary of State.jpg
John Forsyth
(1780–1841)
[21]
Democratic July 1, 1834 March 3, 1841 6 years, 245 days Georgia
Martin Van Buren
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Jacob L. Martin
(?–1848)
[e][22]
March 4, 1841 March 5, 1841 1 day District of
Columbia
William Henry
Harrison
14
1835 DanielWebster byFrancisAlexander Dartmouth.jpg
Daniel Webster
(1782–1852)
[23]
Whig March 6, 1841 May 8, 1843 2 years, 63 days Massachusetts
John Tyler
Hugh S. Legaré.jpg
Hugh S. Legaré
(1797–1843)
[c][24]
Democratic May 9, 1843 June 20, 1843 42 days South Carolina
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
William S. Derrick
(1802–1852)
[e][25]
June 21, 1843 June 23, 1843 2 days Pennsylvania
15
Abel P. Upshur, U.S. Secretary of State (2377415537).jpg
Abel P. Upshur
(1791–1844)
[26]
Whig June 24, 1843 July 23, 1843[g] 220 days Virginia
July 24, 1843 February 28, 1844
John Nelson, bw photo portrait, Brady-Handy collection, circa 1855-1865.jpg
John Nelson
(1791–1860)
[c][27]
Whig February 29, 1844 March 31, 1844 31 days Maryland
16
John C Calhoun by Mathew Brady, March 1849-crop, greyscale.jpg
John C. Calhoun
(1782–1850)
[28]
Democratic April 1, 1844 March 10, 1845[h] 343 days South Carolina
17
James Buchanan, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg
James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[29]
Democratic March 10, 1845 March 7, 1849[h] 3 years, 362 days Pennsylvania James K. Polk
18
John M. Clayton, U.S. Secretary of State (2277592664).jpg
John M. Clayton
(1796–1856)
[30]
Whig March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 1 year, 136 days Delaware Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore
19
DanielWebster.jpg
Daniel Webster
(1782–1852)
[23]
Whig July 23, 1850 October 24, 1852 2 years, 93 days Massachusetts
Charles Magill Conrad.jpg
Charles Magill Conrad
(1804–1878)
[b][31]
Whig October 25, 1852 November 5, 1852 11 days Louisiana
20
The Public Library of the city of Boston - a history (1911) (14594074519) (cropped).jpg
Edward Everett
(1794–1865)
[32]
Whig November 6, 1852 March 3, 1853 117 days Massachusetts
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg
William Hunter
(1805–1886)
[e][33]
March 4, 1853 March 7, 1853 3 days Rhode Island Franklin Pierce
21
William L. Marcy - Brady-Handy.jpg
William L. Marcy
(1786–1857)
[34]
Democratic March 7, 1853 March 6, 1857[h] 3 years, 364 days New York
22
Lewis Cass circa 1855.jpg
Lewis Cass
(1782–1866)
[35]
Democratic March 6, 1857 December 14, 1860 3 years, 283 days Michigan James Buchanan
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg
William Hunter
(1805–1886)
[e][33]
December 15, 1860 December 16, 1860 1 day Rhode Island
23
Judge Jeremiah Black.jpg
Jeremiah S. Black
(1810–1883)
[36]
Democratic December 17, 1860 March 5, 1861[h] 78 days New York
24
William Henry Seward - edited.jpg
William H. Seward
(1801–1872)
[37]
Republican March 5, 1861 March 4, 1869 7 years, 364 days New York Abraham Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
25
Elihu B. Washburne seated - Brady-Handy.png
Elihu B. Washburne
(1816–1887)
[38]
Republican March 5, 1869 March 16, 1869 11 days Illinois Ulysses S. Grant
26
Hamilton Fish Brady Edited.jpg
Hamilton Fish
(1808–1893)
[39]
Republican March 17, 1869 March 12, 1877[h] 7 years, 360 days New York
27
William M. Evarts - Brady-Handy.jpg
William M. Evarts
(1818–1901)
[40]
Republican 44–2 March 12, 1877 March 7, 1881[h] 3 years, 360 days New York Rutherford B.
Hayes
28
James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg
James G. Blaine
(1830–1893)
[41]
Republican March 7, 1881 December 19, 1881 287 days Maine James A.
Garfield
Chester A.
Arthur
29
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen - Brady-Handy.jpg
Frederick Theodore
Frelinghuysen

(1817–1885)
[42]
Republican December 19, 1881 March 6, 1885[h] 3 years, 77 days New Jersey
30
Thomas F. Bayard, Brady-Handy photo portrait, circa 1870-1880.jpg
Thomas F. Bayard
(1828–1898)
[43]
Democratic March 7, 1885 March 6, 1889[h] 3 years, 364 days Delaware Grover Cleveland
31
James Gillespie Blaine, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing front LCCN2011645229.jpg
James G. Blaine
(1830–1893)
[41]
Republican March 7, 1889 June 4, 1892 3 years, 89 days Maine Benjamin Harrison
William F. Wharton.jpg
William F. Wharton
(1847–1919)
[i][44]
Republican June 4, 1892 June 29, 1892 25 days Massachusetts
32
John W. Foster, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg
John W. Foster
(1836–1917)
[45]
Republican June 29, 1892 February 23, 1893 239 days Indiana
William F. Wharton.jpg
William F. Wharton
(1847–1919)
[i][44]
Republican February 24, 1893 March 6, 1893 10 days Massachusetts
Grover Cleveland
33
Walter Q. Gresham - Brady-Handy.jpg
Walter Q. Gresham
(1832–1895)
[46]
Democratic March 7, 1893 May 28, 1895 2 years, 82 days Illinois
Edwin F. Uhl.jpg
Edwin F. Uhl
(1841–1901)
[i][47]
Democratic May 28, 1895 June 9, 1895 12 days Michigan
34
Richard Olney, Bain bw photo portrait, 1913.jpg
Richard Olney
(1835–1917)
[48]
Democratic June 10, 1895 March 5, 1897[h] 1 year, 268 days Massachusetts
35
John Sherman circa 1920 (cropped).jpg
John Sherman
(1823–1900)
[49]
Republican March 6, 1897 April 27, 1898 1 year, 52 days Ohio William McKinley
36
DAY, WILLIAM R. JUSTICE LCCN2016857494 (cropped).jpg
William R. Day
(1849–1923)
[50]
Republican April 28, 1898 September 16, 1898 141 days Ohio
AAAoftheState.jpg
Alvey A. Adee
(1842–1924)
[j][51]
Independent September 17, 1898 September 29, 1898 12 days New York
37
John Hay, bw photo portrait, 1897.jpg
John Hay
(1838–1905)
[52]
Republican September 30, 1898 July 1, 1905 6 years, 274 days District of
Columbia
Theodore Roosevelt
F. B. Loomis, portrait bust LCCN2014680832 (cropped).jpg
Francis B. Loomis
(1861–1948)
[i][53]
Republican July 1, 1905 July 18, 1905 17 days Ohio
38
Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902 (cropped).jpg
Elihu Root
(1845–1937)
[54]
Republican July 19, 1905 January 27, 1909 3 years, 192 days New York
39
BACON, ROBERT LCCN2016857235 (cropped).jpg
Robert Bacon
(1860–1919)
[55]
Republican January 27, 1909 March 5, 1909[h] 37 days New York
40
Philander C Knox-H&E.jpg
Philander C. Knox
(1853–1921)
[56]
Republican March 6, 1909 March 5, 1913[h] 3 years, 364 days Pennsylvania William Howard Taft
41
Unsuccessful 1908.jpg
William
Jennings Bryan

(1860–1925)
[57]
Democratic March 5, 1913 June 9, 1915[k] 2 years, 96 days Nebraska Woodrow Wilson
42
Robert Lansing, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg
Robert Lansing
(1864–1928)
[58]
Democratic June 9, 1915 June 24, 1915 4 years, 249 days New York
June 24, 1915 February 13, 1920
Frank Lyon Polk, LC-DIG-npcc-01132, trimmed.jpg
Frank Polk
(1871–1943)
[l][59]
Democratic February 14, 1920 March 14, 1920 29 days New York
43
Bainbridge Colby, bw photo portrait, 1920.jpg
Bainbridge Colby
(1869–1950)
[60]
Democratic March 23, 1920 March 4, 1921 346 days New York
44
Unsuccessful 1916.jpg
Charles Evans
Hughes

(1862–1948)
[61]
Republican March 5, 1921 March 4, 1925 3 years, 364 days New York Warren G.
Harding
Calvin Coolidge
45
FrankKellogg.jpg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1856–1937)
[62]
Republican March 5, 1925 March 28, 1929 4 years, 23 days Minnesota
Herbert Hoover
46
Henry L. Stimson.jpg
Henry L. Stimson
(1867–1950)
[63]
Republican March 28, 1929 March 4, 1933 3 years, 341 days New York
47
HULL, CORDELL. HONORABLE LCCN2016862713 (cropped).jpg
Cordell Hull
(1871–1955)
[64]
Democratic March 4, 1933 November 30, 1944 11 years, 271 days Tennessee Franklin D.
Roosevelt
48
Edward Stettinius, as lend-lease administrator, September 2, 1941.jpg
Edward Stettinius Jr.
(1900–1949)
[65]
Democratic 68–1 December 1, 1944 June 27, 1945 208 days Virginia
Harry S. Truman
Joseph Clark Grew cph.3b21091.jpg
Joseph Grew
(1880–1965)
[l][66]
Independent June 28, 1945 July 3, 1945 5 days New Hampshire
49
James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg
James F. Byrnes
(1882–1972)
[67]
Democratic July 3, 1945 January 21, 1947 1 year, 202 days South Carolina
50
George C. Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped).jpg
George C. Marshall
(1880–1959)
[68]
Independent January 21, 1947 January 20, 1949 1 year, 365 days Pennsylvania
51
Dean G. Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped).jpg
Dean Acheson
(1893–1971)
[69]
Democratic 83–6 January 21, 1949 January 20, 1953 3 years, 365 days Maryland
H. Freeman Matthews 1956 (cropped).jpg
H. Freeman
Matthews

(1899–1986)
[l][70]
Independent January 20, 1953 January 21, 1953 1 day Maryland Dwight D.
Eisenhower
52
Senator John Foster Dulles (R-NY).jpg
John Foster Dulles
(1888–1959)
[71]
Republican January 21, 1953 April 22, 1959 6 years, 91 days New York
53
Christian Archibald Herter (politician).jpg
Christian Herter
(1895–1966)
[72]
Republican 93–0 April 22, 1959 January 20, 1961 1 year, 273 days Massachusetts
Livingston T. Merchant.jpg
Livingston T.
Merchant

(1903–1976)
[m][73]
Independent January 20, 1961 January 21, 1961 1 day District of
Columbia
John F.
Kennedy
54
Dean Rusk.jpg
Dean Rusk
(1909–1994)
[74]
Democratic January 21, 1961 January 20, 1969 7 years, 365 days New York
Lyndon B.
Johnson
Charles Bohlen.png
Charles E. Bohlen
(1904–1974)
[n][75]
Independent January 20, 1969 January 22, 1969 2 days District of
Columbia
Richard Nixon
55
William P. Rogers, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg
William P. Rogers
(1913–2001)
[76]
Republican January 22, 1969 September 3, 1973 4 years, 224 days Maryland
Kenneth-Rush-1977.jpg
Kenneth Rush
(1910–1994)
[o][77]
Republican September 3, 1973 September 22, 1973 19 days Florida
56
Henry A. Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State, 1973-1977.jpg
Henry Kissinger
(b. 1923)
[78]
Republican 78–7 September 22, 1973 January 20, 1977 3 years, 120 days District of
Columbia
Gerald Ford
Philip Habib.jpg
Philip Habib
(1920–1992)
[m][79]
Independent January 20, 1977 January 23, 1977 3 days California Jimmy Carter
57
CyrusVanceSoS.jpg
Cyrus Vance
(1917–2002)
[80]
Democratic Voice January 23, 1977 April 28, 1980 3 years, 96 days New York
Warren Christopher.jpg
Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[o][81]
Democratic April 28, 1980 May 2, 1980 4 days California
Newsom 1975.png
David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent May 2, 1980 May 3, 1980 1 day California
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Richard N. Cooper
(1934–2020)
[p][83]
Independent May 3, 1980 0 days Connecticut
Newsom 1975.png
David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent May 3, 1980 May 4, 1980 1 day California
Warren Christopher.jpg
Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[o][81]
Democratic May 4, 1980 May 8, 1980 4 days California
58
Edmund Sixtus Muskie cropped.jpg
Edmund Muskie
(1914–1996)
[84]
Democratic 94–2 May 8, 1980 January 18, 1981 255 days Maine
Newsom 1975.png
David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent January 18, 1981 January 22, 1981 4 days California
59
Alexander Haig photo portrait as White House Chief of Staff black and white.jpg
Alexander Haig
(1924–2010)
[85]
Republican 93–6 January 22, 1981 July 5, 1982 1 year, 164 days Connecticut Ronald Reagan
Walter J. Stoessel, Jr.jpg
Walter J. Stoessel Jr.
(1920–1986)
[o][86]
Independent July 5, 1982 July 16, 1982 11 days California
60
George Pratt Shultz.jpg
George Shultz
(1920–2021)
[87]
Republican 97–0 July 16, 1982 January 20, 1989 6 years, 188 days California
Michael Armacost 1987.jpg
Michael Armacost
(b. 1937)
[m][88]
Independent January 20, 1989 January 25, 1989 5 days Maryland George H. W. Bush
61
James A. Baker III, U.S. Secretary of State (2380044355).jpg
James Baker
(b. 1930)
[89]
Republican 99–0 January 25, 1989 August 23, 1992 3 years, 211 days Texas
62
Lawrence Eagleburger 59-N-VS-274-89 (cropped).jpg
Lawrence Eagleburger
(1930–2011)
[90]
Republican August 23, 1992 December 8, 1992[o] 150 days Florida
Recess December 8, 1992 January 20, 1993
Arnold Kanter Photo.jpg
Arnold Kanter
(1945 - 2010)
[p][91]
Independent January 20, 1993 0 days District of
Columbia
Bill Clinton
Frank G. Wisner, US Under Secretary of State (ret.), on gobal growth initiatives (35566644416).jpg
Frank G. Wisner
(b. 1938)
[p][92]
Independent January 20, 1993 0 days District of
Columbia
63
Warren Christopher.jpg
Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[81]
Democratic Voice January 20, 1993 January 17, 1997 3 years, 363 days California
64
Secalbright.jpg
Madeleine Albright
(1937–2022)
[93]
Democratic 99–0 January 23, 1997 January 20, 2001 3 years, 363 days District of
Columbia
65
Colin Powell official Secretary of State photo.jpg
Colin Powell
(1937–2021)
[94]
Republican Voice January 20, 2001 January 26, 2005 4 years, 6 days Virginia George W. Bush
66
Condoleezza Rice (cropped).jpg
Condoleezza Rice
(b. 1954)
[95]
Republican 85–13 January 26, 2005 January 20, 2009 3 years, 360 days California
Assignment- 59-CF-DS-22432-05) Official portrait of William Burns, U.S. Ambassador-designate to Russia (Photographer- Ann Thomas--State) (59-CF-DS-22432-05 Amb BillBurns0086 fromPSD - DPLA - 24e3adb7aadd75ad1930cff23ef02645.jpg
William J. Burns
(b. 1956)
[m]
Independent January 20, 2009 January 21, 2009 1 day District of
Columbia
Barack Obama
67
Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
Hillary Clinton
(b. 1947)
[96]
Democratic 94–2 January 21, 2009 February 1, 2013 4 years, 11 days New York
68
John Kerry official Secretary of State portrait.jpg
John Kerry
(b. 1943)
[97]
Democratic 94–3 February 1, 2013 January 20, 2017 3 years, 354 days Massachusetts
Thomas A. Shannon Jr official photo.jpg
Thomas A.
Shannon Jr.

(b. 1958 )
[m][98]
Republican January 20, 2017 February 1, 2017 12 days Minnesota Donald Trump
69
Rex Tillerson official portrait.jpg
Rex Tillerson
(b. 1952)
[99]
Republican 55–43 February 1, 2017 March 31, 2018 1 year, 58 days Texas
John J. Sullivan.jpg
John J. Sullivan
(b. 1959)
[o]
Republican April 1, 2018 April 26, 2018 25 days Massachusetts
70
Mike Pompeo official photo.jpg
Mike Pompeo
(b. 1963)
[100]
Republican 57–42 April 26, 2018 January 20, 2021 2 years, 269 days Kansas
Daniel Bennett Smith ambassador.jpg
Daniel Bennett Smith
(b. 1956)
[q][101]
Independent January 20, 2021 January 26, 2021 6 days Virginia Joe Biden
71
Secretary Blinken
Antony Blinken
(b. 1962)
[102]
Democratic 78–22 January 26, 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 236 days New York

List of secretaries of state by time in office

11 years, 271 daysCordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
11 years, 271 days
Cordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
7 years, 364 daysDean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
7 years, 364 days
Dean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
7 years, 364 daysWilliam H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
7 years, 364 days
William H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
43 daysLawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
43 days
Lawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
37 daysRobert Bacon in 1909
37 days
Robert Bacon in 1909
11 daysElihu B. Washburne in 1869
11 days
Elihu B. Washburne in 1869

This is a list of United States secretaries of state by time in office. This is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater. Cordell Hull is the only person to have served as Secretary of State for more than eight years. Daniel Webster and James G. Blaine are the only secretaries of state to have ever served non-consecutive terms. Warren Christopher served very briefly as Acting Secretary of State non-consecutively with his later tenure as full-fledged Secretary of State. Elihu B. Washburne served as Secretary of State for less than two weeks before becoming Ambassador to France.

No. in office Secretary Length of service
(days)
Rank
47 Cordell Hull 4289 1
54 Dean Rusk 2921 2
24 William H. Seward 2921
26 Hamilton Fish 2917 4
5 James Madison 2862 5
8 John Quincy Adams 2719 6
37 John Hay 2465 7
13 John Forsyth 2437 8
60 George P. Shultz 2380 9
52 John Foster Dulles 2282 10
7 James Monroe 2011 11
42 Robert Lansing 1695 12
55 William P. Rogers 1685 13
14/19 Daniel Webster 1617 14
3 Timothy Pickering 1614 15
45 Frank B. Kellogg 1484 16
28/31 James G. Blaine 1472 17
67 Hillary Clinton 1472
65 Colin Powell 1467 19
51 Dean Acheson 1460 20
21 William L. Marcy 1460
30 Thomas F. Bayard Sr. 1460
40 Philander C. Knox 1460
44 Charles Evans Hughes 1460
63 Warren Christopher 1458 25
64 Madeleine Albright 1458
17 James Buchanan 1458
9 Henry Clay 1457 28
27 William M. Evarts 1456 29
66 Condoleezza Rice 1455 30
68 John Kerry 1449 31
46 Henry L. Stimson 1437 32
1 Thomas Jefferson 1380 33
22 Lewis Cass 1379 34
61 James Baker 1306 35
38 Elihu Root 1288 36
56 Henry Kissinger 1216 37
57 Cyrus Vance 1191 38
29 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 1173 39
70 Mike Pompeo 1000 40
41 William Jennings Bryan 826 41
33 Walter Q. Gresham 812 42
10 Martin Van Buren 786 43
6 Robert Smith 756 44
11 Edward Livingston 736 45
50 George C. Marshall 730 46
53 Christian Herter 639 47
34 Richard Olney 634 48
71 Antony Blinken 601 49
2 Edmund Randolph 595 50
49 James F. Byrnes 567 51
59 Alexander Haig 529 52
18 John M. Clayton 501 53
69 Rex Tillerson 423 54
35 John Sherman 417 55
12 Louis McLane 397 56
43 Bainbridge Colby 346 57
16 John C. Calhoun 343 58
4 John Marshall 264 59
58 Edmund Muskie 257 60
32 John W. Foster 239 61
15 Abel P. Upshur 219 62
48 Edward Stettinius Jr. 208 63
36 William R. Day 141 64
20 Edward Everett 117 65
23 Jeremiah S. Black 78 66
62 Lawrence Eagleburger 43 67
39 Robert Bacon 37 68
25 Elihu B. Washburne 11 69

Living former secretaries of state

As of September 2022, there are seven living former secretaries of state, the oldest being Henry Kissinger (1973–1977). The most recent death of a former secretary of state was that of Madeleine Albright (1997–2001) on March 23, 2022. The living former secretaries of state, in order of service, are:

Notes

  1. ^ Where no vote is listed, confirmation was by voice vote or otherwise unrecorded.[2]
  2. ^ a b c As Secretary of War.
  3. ^ a b c d e As Attorney General.
  4. ^ As Chief Justice of the United States.
  5. ^ a b c d e f As Chief Clerk of the State Department.
  6. ^ This appears to have been a recess appointment that was never submitted to the Senate.[2]
  7. ^ As Secretary of the Navy.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k In addition to the president listed, this secretary of state served for a brief period of time (eight days or less) under that president's successor until a replacement could be named and confirmed.
  9. ^ a b c d As Assistant Secretary of State.
  10. ^ As Second Assistant Secretary of State.
  11. ^ As Counselor for the Department of State.
  12. ^ a b c As Under Secretary of State.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h As Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
  14. ^ As Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
  15. ^ a b c d e f As Deputy Secretary of State.
  16. ^ a b c As Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs.
  17. ^ As Director of the Foreign Service Institute.

References

  1. ^ "Secret Committee of Correspondence/Committee for Foreign Affairs, 1775–1777". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Cabinet Nominations, since 1789" (PDF). legacy-assets.eenews.net/. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edmund Jennings Randolph (1753–1813)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Timothy Pickering (1745–1829)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ "Charles Lee (1758–1815)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Marshall (1755–1835)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ "Levi Lincoln (1749–1820)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Madison (1751–1836)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Robert Smith (1757–1842)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Monroe (1758–1831)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ "John Graham (1774–1820)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ "Richard Rush (1780–1859)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Quincy Adams (1767–1848)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "Daniel Carroll Brent (1770–1841)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Henry Clay (1777–1852)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ "James Alexander Hamilton (1788–1878)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Martin Van Buren (1782–1862)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edward Livingston (1764–1836)". [[Office of the Historian]. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Louis McLane (1786–1857)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Forsyth (1780–1841)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ "Jacob L. Martin (?–1848)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ a b "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Daniel Webster (1782–1852)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ "Hugh Swinton Legare (1797–1843)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  25. ^ "William S. Derrick (?–1852)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Abel Parker Upshur (1791–1844)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ "John Nelson (1794–1860)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Caldwell Calhoun (1782–1850)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Buchanan (1791–1868)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Middleton Clayton (1796–1856)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  31. ^ "Charles Magill Conrad (1804–1878)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edward Everett (1794–1865)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ a b "William Hunter (1805–1886)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Learned Marcy (1786–1857)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lewis Cass (1782–1866)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Jeremiah Sullivan Black (1810–1883)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Henry Seward (1801–1872)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Elihu Benjamin Washburne (1816–1887)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  39. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Hamilton Fish (1808–1893)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  40. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Maxwell Evarts (1818–1901)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ a b "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Gillespie Blaine (1830–1893)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 9, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  42. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (1817–1885)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  43. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Thomas Francis Bayard (1828–1898)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  44. ^ a b "William Fisher Wharton (1847–1919)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  45. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Watson Foster (1836–1917)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  46. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Walter Quintin Gresham (1832–1895)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  47. ^ "Edwin Fuller Uhl (1841–1901)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Richard Olney (1835–1917)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  49. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Sherman (1823–1900)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  50. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Rufus Day (1849–1923)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  51. ^ "Alvey Augustus Adee (1842–1924)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  52. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Milton Hay (1838–1905)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  53. ^ "Francis Butler Loomis (1861–1948)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  54. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Elihu Root (1845–1937)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  55. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Robert Bacon (1860–1919)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  56. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Philander Chase Knox (1853–1921)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  57. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Jennings Bryan (1860–1925)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  58. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Robert Lansing (1864–1928)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  59. ^ "Frank Lyon Polk (1871–1943)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  60. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Bainbridge Colby (1869–1950)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  61. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Charles Evans Hughes (1862–1948)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  62. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Frank Billings Kellogg (1856–1937)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  63. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Henry Lewis Stimson (1867–1950)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  64. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Cordell Hull (1871–1955)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  65. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (1900–1949)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  66. ^ "Joseph Clark Grew (1880–1965)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  67. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Francis Byrnes (1882–1972)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  68. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: George Catlett Marshall (1880–1959)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  69. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Dean Gooderham Acheson (1893–1971)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  70. ^ "Harrison Freeman Matthews (1899–1986)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  71. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Foster Dulles (1888–1959)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  72. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Christian Archibald Herter (1895–1966)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  73. ^ "Livingston Tallmadge Merchant (1903–1976)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  74. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: David Dean Rusk (1909–1994)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  75. ^ "Charles Eustis Bohlen (1904–1974)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  76. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: William Pierce Rogers (1913–2001)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  77. ^ "Kenneth Rush (1910–1994)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  78. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Henry A. (Heinz Alfred) Kissinger (1923–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  79. ^ "Philip Charles Habib (1920–1992)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  80. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Cyrus Roberts Vance (1917–2002)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  81. ^ a b c "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Warren Minor Christopher (1925–2011)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  82. ^ a b c "David Dunlap Newsom (1918–2008)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  83. ^ "Richard Newell Cooper (1934–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  84. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  85. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924–2010)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  86. ^ "Walter John Stoessel Jr. (1920–1986)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  87. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: George Pratt Shultz (1920–2021)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  88. ^ "Michael Hayden Armacost (1937–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  89. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Addison Baker III (1930–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  90. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1930–2011)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  91. ^ "Clinton Rounds Out State Dept. Team".
  92. ^ "Frank G. Wisner II (1938–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  93. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Madeleine Korbel Albright (1937–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  94. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Colin Luther Powell (1937–2021)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  95. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  96. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  97. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Forbes Kerry (1943–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  98. ^ "Thomas Alfred Shannon Jr. (1958–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  99. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Rex W. Tillerson (1952–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  100. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Michael R. Pompeo (1963–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  101. ^ "Daniel Bennett Smith (1956–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  102. ^ "Antony Blinken (1962–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Further reading