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A page from the Marmalade Boy manga, volume 1 (Japanese version)

Japanese manga has developed its own visual language or iconography for expressing emotion and other internal character states. This drawing style has also migrated into anime, as many manga stories are adapted into television shows and films. While this article addresses styles from both types of output, the emphasis here is on the manga origins for these styles.

The popular and recognizable style of manga is very distinctive. Emphasis is often placed on line over form, and the storytelling and panel placement differ from those in Western comics. Impressionistic backgrounds are very common, as are sequences in which the panel shows details of the setting rather than the characters. Panels and pages are typically read from right to left, consistent with traditional Japanese writing.

Iconographic conventions in manga are sometimes called manpu (漫符, manga symbols)[D 1] (or mampu[D 2]).

Because manga is a diverse art form, however, not all manga artists adhere to the conventions most popularized in the West through series such as Akira, Sailor Moon, Dragon Ball, and Ranma ½.

Panel characteristics

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There are several expressive techniques typical (and some of them unique) to the manga art form:

Facial features

Range of facial expressions typically depicted in manga

While the art can be incredibly realistic or cartoonish, characters often have large eyes (female characters usually have larger eyes than male characters), small noses, tiny mouths, and flat faces. Psychological and social research on facial attractiveness has pointed out that the presence of childlike, neotenous facial features increases attractiveness.[1] Manga artists often play on this to increase the appeal of protagonists. Large eyes have become a permanent fixture in manga and anime since the 1960s when Osamu Tezuka was inspired by Disney cartoons from the United States and started drawing them in this way.

Furthermore, inside the big eyes, the transparent feeling of pupils and the glares, or small reflections in the corners of the eyes are often exaggerated, regardless of surrounding lighting, although they are only present in living characters: the eyes of characters who have died are the color of the iris, but darker. Sometimes this death effect is also used to indicate characters who are emotionless due to trauma or loss of conscious control because of possession (ghost, demon, zombie, magic, etc.). In characters with hair partially covering the face, the eyes that would otherwise be covered are often outlined to make them visible, even when the hair is particularly dense and dark.

Certain visual symbols have been developed over the years to become common methods of denoting emotions, physical conditions and mood:


Eye shape and size can be exaggerated or changed altogether. Love-hearts and doe-eyes indicate an infatuation, while stars indicate that the character is star-struck. Spirals indicate dizziness [D 3]: 14  or overwhelming confusion, while flames or wide empty semicircles indicate that the character is angry or vengeful. When dead, unconscious or stunned, "X X" sometimes used as an indication of the state, comically or euphemistically.[D 3]: 51  A single large "X" to represent both eyes means crying rigorously, or death, comically.[D 3]: 50  Eyes may be replaced with "> <" to represent a variety of emotions, such as nervousness, embarrassment, or excitement. Eyes without pupils and with reflective glints indicate a state of delirium.

Enlargement of the eyes, where they become huge and perfectly round with tiny pupils and no iris and going beyond the reach of the face (often shown with the mouth becoming like a stretched semicircle, the point of which extends past the chin) symbolises extreme excitement. Similarly, turning eyes into two thick half-circles, conveys a cute, delighted look (see Character design section below).

The character's eye shapes and sizes are sometimes symbolically used to represent the character. For instance, bigger eyes will usually symbolize beauty, innocence, or purity, while smaller, more narrow eyes typically represent coldness and/or evil. Completely blackened eyes (shadowed) indicates a vengeful personality or underlying deep anger. It could also indicate that someone's being a wise-guy type, particularly when accompanied by grinning. A character's eyes are shadowed regardless of the lighting in the room when they become angry, upset, something is wrong with them, or they are emotionally hurt. Bubbles forming in the corner of a child's or female character's eyes often indicate that the character is about to cry.


Mouths are often depicted as small, usually rendered with one line on the face. A fang peeking from the corner of the mouth indicates mischief or feistiness (unless, of course, the character has fangs normally). A cat mouth (like a number "3" rotated 90° clockwise) replacing the character's normal mouth, and usually accompanied by larger eyes may also represent mischief or feistiness (a notable exception being Konata Izumi from Lucky Star, whose usual mouth shape is this).


Again, noses are often depicted as small, with only a brief L-shaped mark to locate them. With female characters, the nose can sometimes be removed completely when the character is facing forward. In profile, female noses are often button shaped, consisting of little more than a small triangle.

A nosebleed indicates sexual excitation following exposure to stimulating imagery or situation. It is based on a Japanese old wives' tale.[2] A balloon dangling from one nostril (a "snot bubble") indicates sleep.

Head and face

Cruciform popping veins above eye on the left and large sweat drop above eye on the right with eyes closed and eyebrows curved indicating the person is both confused and annoyed by something another person has said

Sweat drops are a common visual convention. Characters are drawn with one or more prominent beads of sweat on their brow or forehead (or floating above the hair on characters whose back is turned). This represents a broad spectrum of emotions, including embarrassment, exasperation, confusion, dismay and shock, not all of which are necessarily considered to be sweat-inducing under normal conditions.[D 3]: 9  Actual physical perspiration in manga is signified by even distribution of sweat drops over the body, occasionally on top of clothing or hair.

A red cheek or hatchings on the cheek represents blushing, usually used when embarrassed by romantic feelings,[D 3]: 25  while oval "blush dots" on the cheeks represent rosy cheeks. This can sometimes be confused with a scribble on the cheek, indicating injury. Sometimes when the character is expressing strong emotions, such as sadness, a long blush through the nose would appear.

Facial shape changes depend on the character's mood, and can look from round apple-shaped to a more subtle carrot shape.

Parallel vertical lines with dark shading over the head or under the eye may represent mortification, fatigue, or horror.[D 3]: 24  If the lines are wavy, they may represent disgust. A far cuter way to represent frustration/mortification is (mainly for female/young female characters) that they tend to puff out their cheeks while their line is delivered in a gruff voice, an elongated "3" showing puffed lips, to emphasize that puffed look.

Anger symbol

Throbbing "cross popping" veins, usually depicted as a hollow cruciform in the upper head region, indicate anger or irritation.[3][D 3]: 39  These shapes can sometimes be exaggerated, and placed on top of hair when the character is facing away from the viewer. Further throbs indicate additional anger.

The cross popping veins symbol was added to Unicode 6.0 as an emoji (💢) in 2010 with the name "anger symbol" and the code U+1F4A2. It is typically rendered with a bright red color.[4]

Some manga such as Doraemon use smoke puffs to represent anger rather than the vein insignia.

Hair color

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Hair color of anime characters is not randomly selected. In some cases its color can express significant elements of that character's personality, based on color symbolism in Japan.[5]

Character design

To better elicit a more emotional response with the audience for a certain character, a manga artist or animator will sometimes use certain traits in the character's design. The most common features include youthfulness as a physical trait (younger age or pigtails) or as an emotional trait such as a naive or innocent outlook, a childlike personality, or some obvious sympathetic weakness the character works hard to correct (extreme clumsiness or a life-threatening disease) but never really succeeds to get rid of.

See also: Moe (slang)

Other artistic conventions

Other artistic conventions used in mainstream manga include:

See also



  1. ^ Rousmaniere, Nicole (2019-01-28). "An introduction to Manga". The British Museum blog. How do you read manga?. Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2021-02-12. (quoted from Kono (2018))
    • spinning symbol (p14 in the book)
  2. ^ "GIGA TOWN in TERA TOWN". Kyoto International Manga Museum. Kyoto. Archived from the original on 2020-10-27. Retrieved 2021-02-12. (quoted from Kono (2018). Web page is in English but explanations are in Japanese})
    • (p10 in the book) upward droplets : (1)panicking (2)crying (bawling)
    • (p33 in the book) ZZZ : wikt:zzz from English cartoons
    • (_p7 in the book) dust : roaming around
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Kono, Fumiyo (2018-01-19). Gigataun manpuzufu ギガタウン 漫符図譜 [Giga town : album of manga symbols] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun Publications. ISBN 9784022515124.

Other references

  1. ^ "Babyfaceness". and Universität Regensburg. 2002-07-15. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  2. ^ Van Huffel, Peter. "Tanioka Yasuji". Retrieved 2008-09-17.
  3. ^ "Cross-Popping Veins". TV Tropes. Retrieved 2015-06-19.
  4. ^ "💢 Anger Symbol".
  5. ^ Gan, Nina (2020-08-24). "What does hair colour mean in anime? |". Campus Magazine. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  6. ^ a b Norimi, Morisaki (October 2005). "How To Draw Manga: Lesson Three". Shojo Beat. 1 (4): 258.