Comparison of Windows 7 Start Menu with English selected in the left image, and Japanese selected in the right.

Multilingual User Interface (MUI) enables the localization of the user interface of an application.

MUI is provided by Microsoft as an integrated feature of its operating system Windows 11 down to Windows 2000 with some limitations in older versions.

MUI is used for localizing flagship Microsoft products Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office and as an open technology can be used in any application that runs in a version of Windows that supports MUI.

The core feature of MUI is the user-defined, system settings for preferred language that can be used/shared by all applications on a computer. The next most core feature is system functions (i.e. LoadString) that use this preference to load user interface assets at runtime from resources in the user's preferred language. To be MUI-enabled, an application need only store user interface assets as language-specific resources and use LoadStrIng to load them at runtime.

MUI also supports storing user interface assets as separate, single-language files which provides for development and deployment flexibility. This feature is optional. The resources can be stored in the application binary.

MUI also provides system functions that allow for custom and extended localization behavior.

Overview

The MUI technology[1] is integrated into the Windows OS and can be leveraged in an application by storing localizable assets as resources in a prescribed way and using MUI-enabled win32 functions to read the resources.

A relatively simple implementation of MUI in an application stores the strings of each language in a string-table resource of the binary file and uses the win32 function LoadString to load strings at runtime. No other MUI related configuration or code is required. The following optional capabilities of MUI can be implemented if desired:

The design of MUI attempts to provide a common way to store application localization information that alleviates limitations of more traditional and monolithic designs for localization such as including all languages in the application logic files (i.e. resources). With MUI, the following deployment scenarios are possible:

Terminology

The following MUI related terms are either used in or derived from the Microsoft documentation.

Language-neutral (LN): Describes something that conveys a meaning regardless of the languages of the viewer, such as an image without text or other localizable aspects

LN resource: a resource that is shared by and installed for all language versions of the application

LN file: Windows binary containing the application logic and language-neutral resources

Language-specific (LS): Describes something that has significantly different meaning based on the languages of the viewer. The most common LS items are interface strings but can be other items such as an image with text in it

LS resource file: A set of resources localized for one language; a.k.a. MUI file

When localizing your content, multilingual seo services consider the cultural nuances and preferences of each target market. Tailor your messaging, tone, and imagery to align with the local culture. Incorporating local keywords naturally within the content helps improve its visibility in local search results.read more. https://webkeydigital.com/multilingual-seo-services/

Language Preferences

A language selection is stored by the system for the system (shared by all users and maybe used as default for a new user) and for each user. These selections can be modified by the user via the system Control Panel but cannot be modified by an application.

These preferences control the language that the OS uses for UI elements. Applications can also use these preferences, and via MUI-enabled system functions (such as LoadString) the use is automatic and transparent (requires no MUI-specific code to use). But use of these preferences is optional and customizable. An application can be designed to ignore the language preferences. Or it may use them in ways other than that provided by MUI-enabled system functions.

An application can use MUI functions[2] to read language preferences -- that default to the user selection [assumed] and are a list of languages in preference order. These preferences are provided at the system, user, process and thread levels [assumed that changing at a higher level modifies the preferences for lower levels].

An application can modify these language preference lists (via SetThreadPreferredUILanguages and other functions) in order to influence the behavior of MUI. For example:

std::string languageIdSpec = "en-US";
languageIdSpec.push_back('\0'); // must be double-null terminated
ULONG langCount = 1;
if (!::SetThreadPreferredUILanguages(MUI_LANGUAGE_NAME, languageIdSpec.c_str(), &langCount))
    throw std::runtime_error("Unable to set thread preferred UI language.");

Resource Storage

MUI provides support for localized resources stored in Windows binary (a.k.a. Win32 PE) files (DLL, EXE, SYS) -- usually DLL files.

The resources for a language can either be stored in the application binary or in a MUI (a.k.a. LS) file -- one per language. For MUI to find resources, a MUI file must be in the same directory as its associated LN file and be named the same as the LN file plus ".LCID.mui". For example, for LN file my-lib.dll, the MUI file for en-US would be named my-lib.dll.0409.mui.

String resources are coded as string table like so:

LANGUAGE LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_NEUTRAL
STRINGTABLE
BEGIN
1 L"message text"
END

Resource Retrieval

Several win32 functions that read application resources are MUI-enabled, including LoadString, FormatMessage, and LoadImage.[3]

Each function attempts to read a resource for a language as selected by global language preferences, from application resources or associated MUI files (co-located with LN file and following naming convention). Each uses the global language preferences to choose a language that is available. If loading the resource for the first preferred language fails either because the MUI file does not exist or the resource does not exist in the MUI file, the function will try the next preferred language and so on until all preferences have been tried. If load fails for all preferred languages, then tries the LN file.

The most commonly used function is LoadString which loads strings from a string-table resource. Example using LoadString:

wchar_t* resourceCharArray;
int resourceLength = ::LoadStringW(_moduleHandle, resourceId, (LPWSTR)&resourceCharArray, 0);
if (!resourceLength)
    throw std::runtime_error("Unable to find resource.");
std::wstring text;
text.append(resourceCharArray, resourceLength);

This retrieves the address of the resource text character buffer which is not guaranteed to be null terminated. Then, this copies the characters to a std::string and its c_str() method is guaranteed to be null terminated. Therefore, there is no need to append a null. Another option is to have LoadString copy the string to a passed buffer, but that requires using a fixed-length buffer which has downsides like usually allocating more than needed or truncation if too short.

Oddly, MS documentation for LoadString does not mention its interaction with MUI -- use of language preference.

FormatMessage is also MUI-enabled. Its function reference page describes its interaction with the user's language preference when parameter dwLanguageId is passed as 0. But FormatMessage reads from a message table, not a string table and as Raymond Chen says, "nobody actually uses message tables".[4]

Non-Resource Storage and Retrieval

MS documentation recommends storing UI assets as resources since MUI fully supports retrieving from this storage, but it notes that MUI supports any other file format, such as XML, JSON or flat text file.[5] This implies that using the resource retrieval aspect of MUI is not required for an application to be MUI-enabled. An application can use its own, custom UI asset retrieval logic.

To be MUI-enabled, the application must use the system language preferences. The custom UI asset retrieval logic might optionally use the MUI function GetFileMUIPath to leverage the MUI file location and naming conventions.

Other Aspects

The MS MUI documentation describes the following concepts, but it is unclear how they relate to MUI and what value they offer:

Implementing

Basic tasks to support/implement MUI:

Upon completing the basic tasks, an application is MUI-enabled. But there are other features of MUI that an application can optionally take advantage of.

The basic tasks imply storing all languages in the resources of the application binary -- which means it is not language neutral. This structure provides all runtime localization benefits of MUI and simple, single-file deployment but does not allow for deployment flexibility that MUI provides. In order to take advantage of the deployment flexibility:

To store localized assets in formats other than resource, the application must implement a mechanism for reading assets at runtime based on the language preference system settings (see GetThreadUILanguage). In other words, the application loads UI assets based on the system language preference settings without using LoadString. The application might leverage the MUI file-per-language location and naming convention by using GetFileMUIPath.

Advantages over Localized Version

The MUI technology was developed in response and as an improvement to localized versions -- an older technology for globalizing and deploying software packages. This section describes the differences and advantages of MUI over localized versions.

Windows localized via a MUI pack achieves the same goal as a localized version, but there are key differences. While both display menus and dialogs in the targeted language, only a localized version uses translated file and folder names. [what does this mean? some special folders are localizable (Documents, Downloads, ...) but a user created file/folder is not localizable (by the OS). Doesn't a language pack localize the special folder names? What else could it do?]

A localized version of Windows translates the base operating system, as well as all included programs [what programs?], including file and folder names [so it does localize file/folder names. this contradicts above], objects names [what's an object?], strings in registry [really? what strings?], and any other internal strings used by Windows into a particular language. Localized versions of Windows support upgrading from a previous localized version and user interface resources are completely localized, which is not the case for MUI versions of a product. [what is not the case for MUI?]

A MUI version does not contain translated administrative functions such as registry entries [registry entries are functions?] and items in Microsoft Management Console.

One advantage of a MUI version is that each user of a computer can use a different language.[8] For a localized version of the OS, this is not possible. It may be possible for localized applications but requires installing multiple versions; one for each language, and this may lead to application storage space and side-by-side installation issues. With MUI, the single version supports multiple languages, and the OS and applications use the user's preferred language. Further, the same OS can host an application that uses any of the application's supported languages which may be different than the OS selected language and even a language that's not supported by the OS.

History

MUI was introduced with Windows 2000 and is supported in each subsequent Windows release.

Windows 2000 and Windows XP

MUI products for these versions were available only through volume agreements from Microsoft. They were not available through retail channels. However, some OEMs distributed the product.[citation needed]

Languages in Windows XP

Up to Windows XP, MUI packs for a product are applied on top of an English version to provide a localized user experience. There are a total of 5 sets of MUI packs.

Set 1
Set 2
Set 3
Set 4
Set 5

Windows Vista

Windows Vista enhanced MUI technology to separate the English resources from the application logic binary files. The application logic files are now language-neutral a.k.a. language-independent. In other words, the application logic files are no longer English-centric. This separation allows for changing languages completely without changing the core binaries of Windows, and to have multiple languages installed using the same application logic binaries. Languages are applied as language packs containing the resources required to localize part of or the entire user interface in Windows Vista.

MUI packs are available to Windows Vista Enterprise users and as an Ultimate Extras to Windows Vista Ultimate users.

Beginning with Windows Vista, the set of associated MUI APIs are also made available to developers for application development. [This allows anyone to use the MUI technology?]

At launch, the following 16 language packs were released:

On October 23, 2007, the remaining 19 language packs were released:

Windows 7

MUI is available to Windows 7 Enterprise and Ultimate edition users, as well as Windows Phone 7.

Beginning with Windows 7, Microsoft started referring to a "MUI pack" as a "Language Pack"; not to be confused with a Language Interface Pack (LIP).[9]


List of languages in Windows 7 (PC)

At launch, the following 15 language packs were released[10] (Chinese (Hong Kong) is not available on mobile):

On October 31, 2009, the remaining 22 language packs were released (Estonian, Croatian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Arabic, and Thai are not available on mobile):

List of languages in Windows Phone 7

At launch, only six languages were supported.

With the launch of Windows Phone 7.5 on September 27, 2011, twenty more languages are added (Turkish and Ukrainian are not supported as display languages until Windows Phone 8).[11] The first LIPs for Windows Phone 7 were Indonesian and Malay with the Tango update.[12]

Windows 8/8.1/RT

Beginning with Windows 8/RT, most editions of Windows are able to download and install all Language Packs,[13] with a few exceptions:

Windows 10

Beginning with Windows 10 version 1803, Microsoft started using the term "Local Experience Pack" (LXP) in some places [store?] instead of the older term "Language Pack", but they work the same way.[18] In addition to installing via Windows Settings, these 110 LXPs are also available through the Microsoft Store (app and web); the latter enabling remote installation for consumer editions of Windows.[19] As with all applications from the Microsoft Store, only the LXPs that are compatible with that Windows device are shown in the Microsoft Store app.

An LXP is updated through the Microsoft Store; outside of the normal Windows update cycle.[20]

Supported languages

Supported languages by OS version is as follows:

PC

MUI Language Packs by Windows version
Language English name 2000 XP Vista 7.0 7.1 8.0 8.1 10 11
العربية Arabic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Български Bulgarian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Català Catalan (Spain) No LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP Yes
Čeština Czech Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dansk Danish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Deutsch German Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ελληνικά Greek Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
English (United Kingdom) English (United Kingdom) No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
English (United States) English (United States) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Español (España) Spanish (Spain) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Español (México) Spanish (Mexico) No No No No No No No Yes Yes
Eesti Estonian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Euskara Basque No LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP Yes
Suomi Finnish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Français (Canada) French (Canada) No No No No No No No Yes Yes
Français (France) French (France) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Galego Galician No LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP Yes
עברית Hebrew Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hrvatski Croatian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Magyar Hungarian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Indonesia Indonesian No LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP Yes
Italiano Italian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
日本語 Japanese Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
한국어 Korean Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lietuvių Lithuanian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Latviešu Latvian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Norsk bokmål Norwegian Bokmål Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nederlands Dutch Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Polski Polish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Português (Brasil) Portuguese (Brazil) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Português (Portugal) Portuguese (Portugal) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Română Romanian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Русский Russian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovenčina Slovak No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovenščina Slovenian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Srpski Serbian (Latin) No LIP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Svenska Swedish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ไทย Thai No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Türkçe Turkish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Українська Ukrainian No LIP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tiếng Việt Vietnamese No LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP LIP Yes
中文 (简体) Chinese (Simplified) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
中文 (香港特別行政區) Chinese (Hong Kong) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
中文 (繁體) Chinese (Traditional) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Language Interface Packs by Windows version
Language English name Base language required XP Vista 7.0 7.1 8.0 8.1 10 11
Afrikaans Afrikaans English Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
አማርኛ Amharic English Yes Yes
অসমীয়া Assamese English Yes Yes
Azərbaycan Azerbaijani English Yes Yes Yes
Беларуская Belarusian Russian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
বাংলা (বাংলাদেশ) Bangla (Bangladesh) English Yes Yes
বাংলা (ভারত) Bangla (India) English Yes Yes Yes
Босански Bosnian (Cyrillic) Russian Yes Yes
Bosanski Bosnian (Latin) English Yes Yes Yes
Català Catalan (Spain) English Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes MUI
Valencià Catalan (Spain, Valencian) Spanish
ᏣᎳᎩ Cherokee English
Cymraeg Welsh English Yes Yes Yes
Euskara Basque Spanish Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes MUI
فارسى Persian (Iran) English Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Filipino Filipino English Yes Yes
Gaeilge Irish English Yes Yes
Gàidhlig Scottish Gaelic English
Galego Galician Spanish Yes Yes MUI
ગુજરાતી Gujarati English Yes Yes
Hausa Hausa English Yes
हिन्दी Hindi English Yes Yes Yes
Հայերեն Armenian English Yes Yes
Indonesia Indonesian English Yes Yes MUI
Igbo Igbo English Yes
Íslenska Icelandic English Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ Inuktitut English Yes Yes
ქართული Georgian English Yes Yes
Қазақ тілі Kazakh English Yes Yes
ខ្មែរ Khmer English Yes
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannada English Yes Yes
कोंकणी Konkani English Yes Yes
کوردیی ناوەڕاست Central Kurdish English
Кыргызча Kyrgyz Russian Yes
Lëtzebuergesch Luxembourgish French Yes Yes
ລາວ Lao ???
Te reo Māori Maori English Yes Yes
Македонски Macedonian English Yes Yes
മലയാളം Malayalam English Yes Yes
Монгол Mongolian English
मराठी Marathi English Yes Yes
Melayu (Brunei) Malay (Brunei) English Yes
Melayu (Malaysia) Malay (Malaysia) English Yes Yes
Malti Maltese English Yes Yes
नेपाली Nepali English Yes Yes
Norsk nynorsk Norwegian Nynorsk Norwegian Bokmål Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sesotho sa Leboa Southern Sotho English Yes
ଓଡ଼ିଆ Odia English Yes
پنجابی Punjabi (Arabic, Pakistan) English
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Punjabi (Gurmukhi, India) English Yes Yes
درى Persian (Afghanistan) English Yes Yes
K'iche' K'iche' Spanish
Runasimi Quechua Spanish Yes Yes
Kinyarwanda Kinyarwanda English
سنڌي Sindhi English
සිංහල Sinhala English
Shqip Albanian English Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Српски (Босна и Херцеговина) Serbian (Bosnia & Herzegovina) English
Српски (Србија) Serbian (Serbia) Serbian (Latin) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kiswahili Swahili English Yes Yes
தமிழ் Tamil English Yes Yes
తెలుగు Telugu English Yes Yes
Тоҷикӣ Tajik Russian
ትግር Tigrinya English
Türkmen dili Turkmen Russian
Setswana Tswana English Yes
Татар Tatar Russian Yes Yes
ئۇيغۇرچە Uyghur Chinese (Simplified)
اُردو Urdu English Yes Yes
O‘zbek Uzbek English
Tiếng Việt Vietnamese English Yes Yes MUI
Wolof Wolof French
IsiXhosa Xhosa English Yes
Èdè Yorùbá Yoruba English
IsiZulu Zulu English Yes

Mobile

The multilingual user interface for Windows Phones did not appear until version 7.0.

Language packs for the new Windows Phone platform
Language English name 7.0 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.0 8.0.2 8.1 8.1.2 10
Afrikaans Afrikaans No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
አማርኛ Amharic No No No No No No No No Yes
العربية Arabic No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Azərbaycan Azerbaijani No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Беларуская Belarusian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Български Bulgarian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
বাংলা Bangla No No No No No No No Yes Yes
Català Catalan No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Čeština Czech No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dansk Danish No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Deutsch German Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ελληνικά Greek No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
English (United Kingdom) English (United Kingdom) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
English (United States) English (United States) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Español (España) Spanish (Spain) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Español (México) Spanish (Mexico) No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Eesti Estonian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Euskara Basque No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
فارسى Persian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Suomi Finnish No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Filipino Filipino No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Français (Canada) French (Canada) No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Français (France) French (France) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Galego Galician Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Hausa Hausa No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
עברית Hebrew No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
हिन्दी Hindi No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hrvatski Croatian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Magyar Hungarian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Indonesia Indonesian No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Íslenska Icelandic No No No No No No No No Yes
Italiano Italian Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
日本語 Japanese No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Қазақ тілі Kazakh No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ខ្មែរ Khmer No No No No No No No Yes Yes
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannada No No No No No No No No Yes
한국어 Korean No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ລາວ Lao No No No No No No No Yes Yes
Lietuvių Lithuanian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Latviešu Latvian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Македонски Macedonian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
മലയാളം Malayalam No No No No No No No No Yes
Melayu Malay No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Norsk bokmål Norwegian Bokmål No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nederlands Dutch No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Polski Polish No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Português (Brasil) Portuguese (Brazil) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Português (Portugal) Portuguese (Portugal) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Română Romanian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Русский Russian No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovenčina Slovak No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovenščina Slovenian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Shqip Albanian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Srpski Serbian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Svenska Swedish No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kiswahili Swahili No No No No No No No Yes Yes
தமிழ் Tamil No No No No No No No No Yes
తెలుగు Telugu No No No No No No No No Yes
ไทย Thai No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Türkçe Turkish No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Українська Ukrainian No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
O‘zbek Uzbek No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tiếng Việt Vietnamese No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
中文 (简体) Chinese (Simplified) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
中文 (香港特別行政區) Chinese (Hong Kong) No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
中文 (繁體) Chinese (Traditional) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Patent

The MUI technology is covered by an international patent titled "Multilingual User Interface for an Operating System".[21] The inventors are Bjorn C. Rettig, Edward S. Miller, Gregory Wilson, and Shan Xu.

See also

References

  1. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Multilingual User Interface - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  2. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Multilingual User Interface Functions - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  3. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Loading Language Resources - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  4. ^ Chen, Raymond (2008-02-29). "Why can't I get FormatMessage to load my resource string?". The Old New Thing. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  5. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Supporting System Language Settings - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-09.
  6. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Preparing a Resource Configuration File - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  7. ^ Karl-Bridge-Microsoft. "Using Registry String Redirection - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  8. ^ "About Multilingual User Interface". Microsoft. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  9. ^ "How To Install Language Packs In Windows 7". The Windows Club. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  10. ^ Team, My Digital Life Editorial (2009-07-12). "Windows 7 RTM GA Launch and MSDN/TechNet Release Schedule Roadmap « My Digital Life". My Digital Life. Retrieved 2023-07-26.
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  12. ^ Blog, Windows Experience; Myerson, Terry (2012-02-27). "Windows Phone at Mobile World Congress 2012". Windows Experience Blog. Retrieved 2023-11-22.
  13. ^ "Language packs are available for Windows 8 and Windows RT". Microsoft. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  14. ^ "Check whether your version of Windows supports multiple languages". support.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  15. ^ Blog, Windows Experience (2011-07-06). "Windows Phone around the world: Language support in Mango". Windows Experience Blog. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  16. ^ "Get Samsung Notes". Microsoft Store. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  17. ^ "Language packs for Windows". support.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
  18. ^ "Local Experience Packs: What are they and when should you use them?". TECHCOMMUNITY.MICROSOFT.COM. 2018-11-14. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  19. ^ "Local Experience Packs". Microsoft Store. Retrieved 2022-01-10.
  20. ^ "Local Experience Packs". support.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
  21. ^ US patent 6252589, "Multilingual user interface for an operating system", published 2003-05-14