Ninth grade (also 9th grade or grade 9) is the ninth or tenth year of formal or compulsory education in some countries. It is generally part of middle school or secondary school depending on country. Students in ninth grade are usually 14–15 years old, but in some countries are 15–16.


Main article: Education in Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, ninth grade is the third year of secondary school, which starts in seventh grade.[1] Under the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan, education up to ninth grade (about age 15) was compulsory.[2][3] In 2013, it was noted that students were generally gender-segregated by ninth grade, with female students taught by female teachers.[4]

In 2021, the Taliban abolished the 2004 constitution and banned female students from attending secondary school.[1][5] In March 2022, the Taliban announced that secondary schools would reopen for girls but closed them again very soon after.[6]


Main article: Education in Canada

In most of Canada, Grade 9 is either the last year of junior high school or the first year of high school depending on province and students are typically about age 15.[7] In Quebec, however, Grade 9 is the middle year of its five-year high school program.[8]


Main article: Education in Denmark

In Denmark, grade 9 (around age 16, also called form level 9) is the final year of compulsory education, and grade 10 is optional.[9][10] Public comprehensive schools up to grade 10 are called Folkeskole.[10] Grade 9 subjects include Danish, English, Christian studies, history, social studies, mathematics, geography, biology, physics/chemistry and German and French as electives.[11] Students must sit compulsory school-leaving exams at the end of grade 9, and must also complete a mandatory project assignment during the year.[11]

After grade 9, students have the option of attending general or vocational upper secondary education for two or three years until they are around 19.[9][10]


Main article: Education in Finland

In Finland, ninth grade is the last year of compulsory schooling.[12] Students are generally aged around 16 when they finish 9th grade.[13] They can then go on to attend vocational or academic high schools (generally for 3 years).[14][15]


Main article: Education in Germany

In Germany, grade 9 (about age 15) is generally the last year of lower secondary school and the end of compulsory full-time education. Qualifications gained in this year will determine the student's eligibility for academic or vocational upper secondary school.[16]


Main article: Education in India

Following the National Education Policy 2020, ninth grade in India is the first year of high school (generally ages 14 to 15).[17][18][19] The intention of the new policy for ninth and tenth grade is to encourage multidisciplinary study, with students having greater flexibility and choice of subjects.[17] Generally ninth grade is the preparatory year for secondary school certificate exams in tenth grade.[17][19] Schools are affiliated with various curriculum and education boards which set required subjects based on the national curriculum;[19] for example, students attending CBSE schools must take five compulsory subjects (English, Hindi, mathematics, social sciences and science) and may take up to four electives.[20]


Main article: Education in Kuwait

In Kuwait, ninth grade is the last year of intermediate school and students are usually around 14 years old.[21] At this level, the school district runs standardized tests at the end of the second and fourth quarters of the year, and students will be promoted to grade 10 (the first year of secondary school) if they achieve at least 50% in each subject.[22] Under the Constitution of Kuwait, all Kuwaitis are entitled to a free education until the end of secondary school, but a large percentage of the population is non-Kuwaiti and not covered by this requirement. There are also no legal rules preventing students from dropping out at age 15, after completing ninth grade.[23]


Main article: Education in Mexico

Mexican ninth graders, seen wearing a uniform

In Mexico, ninth grade is the last year of Educación Secundaria (lower secondary education). Schooling up to ninth grade became compulsory in 1992, although as of 2019 some areas (particularly rural and indigenous communities) still have low participation rates.[24] It is the last year of basic education in Mexico, and students are generally aged 14–15.[25]

Students will either take an academic program (secundaria general), a vocational and technical program (secundaria técnica) or a distance program (telesecundaria). All programs include courses on Spanish, English, mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, history, civics, geography, arts, other languages and sometimes specialised subjects specific to local areas (for example, indigenous languages).[24][25] As of 2019, just over half of students were enrolled in secundaria general, around 27% in secundaria técnica, and the remainder in telesecundaria.[24][25]

After completing ninth grade, students will be awarded a Certificado de Educación Secundaria. No examinations are required to graduate.[24]


Main article: Education in Norway

In Norway, ninth grade is the middle grade of lower secondary school, called ungdomsskole (ages 13 to 16).[26] Education up to tenth grade is mandatory for Norwegian students, and courses must align with the national curriculum.[27] Although students must take national standardised tests in numeracy and reading in ninth grade, the results do not affect progression to tenth grade or to admission to upper secondary school.[28]


Main article: Education in Pakistan

In Pakistan ninth grade is the first year of secondary education, which may be general (four years) or vocational (two years).[29] Students are generally 14–15 years old.[30] The country's constitution provides for free and compulsory education up to grade 10 (age 16), but in practice only around 30% of children attend high school.[31] In all school grades, boys outnumber girls; in 2017, only 13% of Pakistani girls were still in school at ninth grade level.[32]

At a general school, students choose their subjects at the beginning of ninth grade and then sit Secondary School Certificate examinations in these subjects at the end of tenth grade. Students usually select eight subjects, including four or five compulsory subjects (typically English, Urdu, mathematics, Islamic studies and Pakistan studies) and three electives. Generally the electives will be chosen from one of three different specialised streams: humanities (e.g. geography, economics), science (e.g. biology, chemistry) or technical subjects (e.g. engineering).[29][31] Passing the exams allows entry into eleventh grade and upper secondary education.[29]

At a technical school, students typically obtain a vocational diploma after sitting exams at the end of tenth grade, in subjects including English, a Pakistani language, Islamic studies, physics, mathematics, technical drawing and theory, and practical training for their chosen profession.[29]

Some students, particularly those in rural areas, may attend religious Islamic schools (known as madrasahs) which do not have standardised curricula. Some of these schools provide only religious education, while others may include subjects from the national curriculum and equivalent examinations.[31] In 2020 it was announced that madrasahs would be required to adopt the national curriculum within four to five years.[33]


Main article: Education in the Philippines

Ninth graders in Quezon City, the Philippines

In the Philippines, ninth grade was formerly known as third year (Filipino: Ikatlong Taon) until it changed to ninth grade or junior year (Filipino: Baitang Siyam) on June 2, 2014, upon the start of school year 2014-2015 due to the 9-year implementation process of the K-12 curriculum.[34][35] Students at this level are usually 14-15 years old.[36]

Before the 2016/17 school year, secondary school covered grades 7 to 10 (high school) and was not compulsory. Due to the implementation process of the K-12, secondary education was extended to cover grades up to 12. Grades 7 to 10 are now junior high school and attendance at this level is free and compulsory.[37]

The subjects covered at junior high school level are the same as those covered at elementary school including Filipino, English, Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Philippine history and culture, physical education and arts. Subjects are taught in English and Filipino, unlike earlier grades which may be taught in students' native or indigenous languages.[37][38]

Students can also start at the young age of 13.


Main article: Education in Portugal

In Portugal, the ninth grade (nono ano, 9º ano) is the last year of the three-year lower secondary school program (3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico).[39][40] Students are generally around 14 years old. It is followed by the tenth grade, the first year of three-year upper secondary education (Ensino Secundário).[39][40] School is free and compulsory in Portugal up to twelfth grade.[41] At the end of the ninth grade, students must take national final exams (Provas finais nacionais).[42]


Main article: Education in Sweden

In Sweden, ninth grade (sometimes also called year 9) is the last year of the upper stage of compulsory education (grundskola), sometimes known as högstadium.[43][44] The students are usually 15–16 years old.[45][46] At the end of ninth grade, students must sit national exams in Swedish, mathematics, English and sciences.[47]

After completing 9th grade, students can attend non-compulsory upper secondary school (gymnasium) or take another form of education such as a vocational program.[46] Entrance requirements differ depending on programme but generally students will need to have passed at least their Swedish, mathematics and English exams.[48] Although not compulsory, most Swedish students continue to upper secondary school.[46]

United States

Main article: Education in the United States

Two American ninth graders at the 2014 APG STEM Expo

In the United States, ninth grade is usually the first year in high school. In this system, ninth graders are also often referred to as freshmen. It can also be the last year of junior high school depending on state. The average age for the U.S. 9th grade students is 14 to 15 years.[49][50][51] The University of Chicago Consortium on School Research identified in 2017 that passing ninth grade courses is a predictor of high school graduation.[52][53]

In the math curriculum, ninth graders are usually taught algebra, or if they have already taken algebra at a lower level may take geometry or more advanced algebra. Advanced courses are usually available to ninth graders who are prepared for a more rigorous curriculum, depending on the school district.[54]

In the English curriculum, most schools offer basic courses, advanced courses, and honors courses. The basic course for a ninth grader will often teach the fundamentals of higher-level literature and how to analyze and respond to such literature.[citation needed] More advanced courses may be offered depending on the school district and may focus on one type of literature, such as American literature or British literature, and may be taken instead of or in addition to standard classes.[49]

In the social studies curriculum, there are a variety of different courses that may be offered depending on school district. For example students may take a geography class, a government class, or a world history class.[54]

In the science curriculum, ninth grade students are required, in most areas, to take biology. But they can take different courses before they take Biology such as Integrated Science.[citation needed]. Other forms of sciences such as basic physical science or earth sciences could also be part of the curriculum as well, depending on the school district.

Typically, ninth-graders will be required to earn a minimum number of credits, usually six or seven carnegie units or roughly five classes per year depending on state, in order to advance to tenth grade.[49]

See also


  1. ^ a b Graham-Harrison, Emma (17 September 2021). "Taliban ban girls from secondary education in Afghanistan". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  2. ^ Easar, Farhat; Azizi, Hadia; Rahmani, Khudaynazar; Moradi, Mujtaba; Taieb, Rajab; Faqiryar, Wasal Naser (2023). "Education in Afghanistan since 2001: Evolutions and Rollbacks" (PDF). Research Series of Rumi Organization for Research. 1. Rumi Organization for Research. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  3. ^ Moreno, Juan Manuel (2005). "Secondary Education in Afghanistan: A Portray of Post-Conflict Education Reconstruction". Revista Española de Educación Comparada (11): 381–406. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  4. ^ Carberry, Sean; Faizy, Sultan (24 October 2013). "Are Afghanistan's Schools Doing As Well As Touted?". NPR. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  5. ^ "Afghanistan school year starts without millions of teenage girls". Al Jazeera. 23 March 2023. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  6. ^ "Afghanistan girls' education: 'When I see the boys going to school, it hurts'". BBC News. 27 March 2023. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  7. ^ "Canada's provincial grade levels". Our Kids. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  8. ^ "High school in Canada". EduCanada. Government of Canada. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  9. ^ a b "Denmark: General upper secondary examination suite". UCAS Qualification Information Profiles. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  10. ^ a b c "Denmark | Overview". Eurydice. European Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  11. ^ a b "The Folkeskole | Examinations and Other Forms of Assessment". Ministry of Children and Education. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  12. ^ "The Finnish education system". Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  13. ^ Colagrossi, Mike (10 September 2018). "10 reasons why Finland's education system is the best in the world". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  14. ^ Hancock, LynNell (September 2011). "Why Are Finland's Schools Successful?". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  15. ^ "Overview | Finland". Eurydice. European Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  16. ^ "Germany | Overview". Eurydice. European Commission. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  17. ^ a b c Kulkarni, Sagar (2020-07-29). "New policy offers 5-3-3-4 model of school education". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  18. ^ Kumar, Shuchita (31 July 2020). "New education policy: The shift from 10+2 to 5+3+3+4 system". Times Now. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  19. ^ a b c "Indian Curriculum". Abu Dhabi Government. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  20. ^ "CBSE offers nine subjects for Class 9th and 10th students". The Times of India. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  21. ^ "Kuwait". TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia. 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  22. ^ "Kuwait: Monitoring Student Progress in Mathematics and Science". TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia. 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  23. ^ Omar, Said Ismail (2022). "Leave no child behind: boys' disengagement from education: Kuwait case study". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  24. ^ a b c d Monroy, Carlos; Trines, Stefan (23 May 2019). "Education in Mexico". World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  25. ^ a b c OECD (7 March 2019). "Chapter 1: An overview of the education system in Mexico". Implementing Education Policies, Strong Foundations for Quality and Equity in Mexican Schools. ISBN 9789264661950. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  26. ^ "Education system Norway described and compared with the Dutch system" (PDF). Nuffic: The Dutch organisation for internationalisation in education. January 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  27. ^ "Overview | Norway". Eurydice. European Commission. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  28. ^ Jørstad, Oscar Skovdahl (Spring 2020). The older the better? Relative age and grade effects on Norwegian national test performance (PDF) (MSc). University of Oslo. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  29. ^ a b c d "Pakistan: Primary and secondary education". Nuffic: The Dutch organisation for internationalisation in education. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  30. ^ "Pakistani Curriculum". Abu Dhabi Department of Education and Knowledge. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  31. ^ a b c Hunter, Robert (25 February 2020). "Education in Pakistan". World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  32. ^ "Shall I Feed My Daughter, or Educate Her?". Human Rights Watch. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  33. ^ "Madrassa students to appear in all federal board exams, says Shafqat". Pakistan Today. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  34. ^ "An Overview of the K to 12 Curriculum in the Philippines". K12 Philippines. 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  35. ^ "The K to 12 Basic Education Program". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  36. ^ "World Data On Education | Philippines" (PDF). UNESCO. May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  37. ^ a b Macha, Wilson; Mackie, Chris; Magaziner, Jessica (6 March 2018). "Education in the Philippines". World Education News and Reform. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  38. ^ Coram International (1 October 2018). "Situation Analysis of Children in the Philippines | UNICEF Philippines". UNICEF. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  39. ^ a b "Organização do ensino básico". Eurydice (in Portuguese). 24 March 2023. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  40. ^ a b "Single-structure primary and lower secondary education". Eurydice. 29 March 2023. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  41. ^ "The education system in Portugal". Expatica. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  42. ^ Aguilar, Mafalda (1 March 2023). "Exames nacionais e provas: datas para o ano letivo 2022-2023". Associação Mutualista Montepio (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  43. ^ "Skoltermer på engelska". Skolverket (in Swedish). 28 March 2023. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  44. ^ "högstadium". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  45. ^ "Grade placement". Stockholm International School. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  46. ^ a b c "Swedish school system". International Citizen Hub. 27 April 2023. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  47. ^ "National tests year 9: results". Statistiska Centralbyrån | Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  48. ^ "The Swedish school system". Swedish Institute. 8 December 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  49. ^ a b c Loo, Bryce (12 June 2018). "Education in the United States of America". World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  50. ^ "Digest of Education Statistics, 2016".
  51. ^ Willens, Michele (1 November 2013). "Ninth Grade: The Most Important Year in High School". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  52. ^ Mathews, Jay (19 January 2019). "To keep high school students on track, there's no time like the beginning". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  53. ^ "The Predictive Power of Ninth-Grade GPA". UChicago Consortium on School Research. September 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  54. ^ a b Lynch, Matthew (28 March 2018). "What Your Child Should Learn in 9th Grade". The Edvocate. Retrieved 15 May 2023.

Further reading

Preceded byEighth grade Ninth Grade age 14–15 Succeeded byTenth grade