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NA-64/NA-64 P-2/Yale
Restored North American NA-64 Yale at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Hamilton, Ontario
Role Trainer
Manufacturer North American Aviation
First flight 12 February 1940[1]
Introduction 1940
Retired 1 October 1946 (RCAF)[1][2]
1949 (Armee de l'air)
Status Warbird
Primary users Royal Canadian Air Force
French Air Force
French Navy
Produced 1940
Number built 230
Developed from North American BT-14
Developed into North American Harvard

The North American NA-64 (NA-64 P-2 or NAA-64 P-2 in French service, Yale in Canadian service) is a low-wing single piston engine monoplane advanced trainer aircraft that was built for the French Air Force and French Navy, served with the Royal Canadian Air Force, and with the Luftwaffe as a captured aircraft during World War II.

Design and development

Ordered as a follow-on to the NA-57 as a two-seat advanced trainer, the NA-64 P-2/NAA-64 P-2 represented a major structural improvement, with a longer all-metal fuselage replacing the fabric covered fuselage of the NA-57. As well as metal skin replacing the fabric on the fuselage, the fin was changed from having a corrugated skin to being a smooth stressed skin structure and was moved slightly aft, lengthening the rear fuselage while the engine was moved forward to maintain the center of gravity. The rudder was also changed from the rounded shape used previously to one with a roughly triangular shape with the broadest part being at the bottom to improve handling at high angles of attack. In one respect however, it was a step backwards from its immediate predecessor, the BT-14, with which it is often confused, in that the earlier straight wings were used with the result that in RCAF service, when compared to the later and more powerful Harvard II it was flown alongside, it had different handling characteristics and lower performance.[3]

Operational history


French Air Force NAA-64 in service after World War 2, in French controlled Morocco with a replacement rudder.

The NA-64 P-2 was built for the French Armée de l'Air and Aéronavale in 1939–1940, which ordered 200 and 30 respectively. Of these, 111 had been delivered before France surrendered to the Germans after the Battle of France.[2] In France, the NA-64, like the NA-57 before it, was known as the North,[4] and was designated as NAA-64 P-2 (abbreviated from North American Aviation modèle 64 perfectionnement, 2 places (North American Aviation model 64 advanced trainer, 2 seats)[4]) but were sometimes attached to reconnaissance units. A small number escaped the Germans to be used by the Vichy French Air Force. Two examples in North Africa survived into the postwar years, having been operated alongside NA-57s, the last only being retired in 1949.


RCAF Yale shortly after being taken on strength as an intermediate trainer, at Camp Borden.

The remaining 119 undelivered aircraft were bought up by the British Purchasing Commission and transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan between August and September 1940,[2] and all were operational by November[5] The type was named the Yale Mk.I[note 1] following British naming practice of naming trainers after education institutions and US-supplied aircraft after American locations, in this case, Yale University, and were used initially as intermediate pilot trainers taking pilots from the de Havilland Tiger Moth and Fleet Finch to the much faster and more complex North American Harvard,[4] until this category was dispensed with as being unnecessary. They were then relegated for use as airborne wireless radio trainers, along with the contemporary Fleet Fort intermediate trainer in 1943.[6][7] Prior to service entry, the throttle and engine mixture controls were modified from the system used by the French whereby the throttle was pulled back to increase power, and the mixture control pulled back to lean out the mixture, to the system used on the Harvard.[5] The Yale appeared in the movie Captains of the Clouds. The RCAF sold all surviving examples off as scrap in 1946 but over 30 survive today as a result of a large number of them being bought surplus by a single farmer, with about 15 currently in airworthy condition.


The NAA-64s captured from the French were used by the German Luftwaffe for all types of flight training, from basic flying to advanced fighter tactics. Dive bomber schools and target tug units and even combat squadrons all used the NAA-64, as they were designated by the Luftwaffe, from the tail markings of the French examples. At least one was used by the Zirkus Rosarius to familiarize German aircrew with the handling of American aircraft before they evaluated captured aircraft.[5]


Yale 3416, which appeared in the movie, Captains of the Clouds
The first North American NAA-64 P-2 NX13397 before delivery. Due to the fall of France, this aircraft was instead delivered to Canada as a Yale Mk.I, and still exists.
 Vichy France
 Free France
North American NAA-64 in its shipping crate for delivery to France. Most of those that made it to France had not even been unpacked when the Germans overran northern France.
 Nazi Germany
 United Kingdom

Surviving aircraft

Ex-RCAF North American NA-64 Yale painted to represent a USAAC BT-14, in a diorama at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio

There are many surviving NA-64 Yales today because of Ernie Simmons, a farmer from near Tillsonburg, Ontario. Simmons bought 39 Yales in 1946,[25] along with seven Fairey Swordfish and a Westland Lysander[26] and kept them on his farm until he died in 1970.[27][28] Most were auctioned the same year, and many have been restored by museums and warbird enthusiasts. Most surviving Yales are from the Simmons collection, but there are at least six surviving Yales that came from Western Canada. Three Yales have been subsequently lost, a major hangar fire took the Musée de l'air et de l'espace's NA-64 3415/64-2224, and 3454/64-2165 & 3395/64-2159[29] were destroyed as the result of flying accidents. Several Yales have been painted or partially modified as BT-14s. Additionally, over a dozen are privately owned in Canada, the US, and Europe or are not accessible, and additional airframes may be held by some museums as a source of spares.[citation needed]

Museum or organization Location Status Notes
3464 64-2033 Privately owned Ft Worth, TX airworthy [30]
3349 64-2171 Imperial War Museum Duxford Duxford, England airworthy [31]
3350 64-2206 Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Hamilton, Ontario airworthy [32]
3361 64-2183 Milestones of Flight Museum Lancaster, California airworthy – R-985 fitted [33]
3367 64-2175 Privately owned Sherwood Park, Alberta airworthy [34]
3372 64-2186 Privately owned Tillsonburg, Ontario airworthy
3381 64-2194 Commemorative Air Force Midland, Texas stored
3383 64-3037 Far North Queensland Aviation Museum Newcastle, New South Wales stored
3390 64-3033 Privately Owned Woodstock, Ontario restoration [35]
3396 64-2161 Musée aéronautique de Presqu'île côte d'Amour La Baule-Escoublac, France restoration [36]
3397 64-2150 Pima Air & Space Museum Tucson, Arizona on display [37]
3399 64-2160 Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association Tillsonburg, Ontario airworthy [38]
3400 64-2149 Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Hamilton, Ontario airworthy [39]
3404 64-2157 Bomber Command Museum of Canada Nanton, Alberta restoration [40]
3406 64-2144 Eric Downing Maryland Heights, Missouri airworthy
3409 64-2158 Canadian Aviation Museum Windsor, Ontario stored, unrestored
3411 64-2167 National Air Force Museum of Canada Trenton, Ontario on display
3416 64-2169 No. 6 RCAF Dunville Museum Dunnville, Ontario on display [41]
3417 64-2168 National Museum of the United States Air Force Dayton, Ohio on display as 'BT-14' [42]
3430 64-2223 Royal Aviation Museum of Western Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba on display [43]
3445 Unknown Privately owned Norwood, Ontario restored
3450 64-2214 Musée aéronautique de Presqu'île côte d'Amour La Baule-Escoublac, France restoration [36]
3456 64-2221 Privately owned Whistler, British Columbia airworthy
3458 64-3024 Reynolds-Alberta Museum Wetaskiwin, Alberta stored [44][45]
3462 64-2190 Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum Brandon, Manitoba stored, unrestored
3463 64-2207 Privately Owned Casa Grande, Arizona airworthy – R-985 fitted [46]


3 view line drawing of North American NA-64 Yale trainer

Data from North American Aviation, Manuel de Pilotage de l'Avion NA-64 P-2 (Avion de Perfectionnement), 1940, pp.8–9

General characteristics



See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists



  1. ^ As there was no Yale Mk.II, the Mk.I part of the designation was rarely used.
  1. ^ a b Smith, 2000, p.29
  2. ^ a b c Hagedorn, 1997, p.48
  3. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.37
  4. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.36
  5. ^ a b c d e Fletcher, 1990, p.38
  6. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.42
  7. ^ a b c d e Fletcher, 1990, p.45
  8. ^ a b Fletcher, 1990, p.40
  9. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.172
  10. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.170
  11. ^ a b Fletcher, 1990, p.171
  12. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.43
  13. ^ "EOM 82 Niger", (in French), retrieved September 30, 2017
  14. ^ Peter D Evans, "LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database", The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project, archived from the original on 5 August 2014, retrieved March 31, 2014
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u ""stamm Dx+xx" The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project". Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  16. ^ a b ""stamm Nx+xx" The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d e "stamm Rx+xx". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i "stamm Vx+xx". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c "Cx+xx". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  20. ^ a b "stamm Kx+xx". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  21. ^ "stamm Hx+xx". Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  22. ^ "stamm Px+xx". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  23. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p. 41
  24. ^ "Restoration of North American NA-64 Yale 3383". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  25. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.48
  26. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.49
  27. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.51
  28. ^ "The Ernie Simmons Story." Spitfire Emporium. Retrieved: 24 December 2011.
  29. ^ [bare URL]
  30. ^ "N13397 (NORTH AMERICAN NA-64 owned by CYRIER MARK) Aircraft Registration ✈ FlightAware". FlightAware. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  31. ^ "Imperial War Museum Duxford - Museums". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  32. ^ "Aircraft Details". Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Milestones of Flight Air Museum - Lancaster - California - USA". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Harold A. Skaarup, author of Shelldrake". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  35. ^ "Aerial Visuals - Airframe Dossier - North American T-6/AT-6/SNJ Texan / Harvard, s/n 3390 RCAF, c/n 64-3033". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Musee Aeronautique Presqu'ile Cote d'Amour - la Baule-Escoublac - France". Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  37. ^ "YALE". Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  38. ^ "NA-64 Yale." Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association. Retrieved: 24 December 2011.
  39. ^ "Aircraft Details". Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Retrieved 24 March 2019. ((cite web)): Check |url= value (help)
  40. ^ Bomber Command Museum of Canada – North American NA-64 Yale Archived 2017-11-20 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 31 March 2014
  41. ^ Aircraft 3416 Photo access date: 2 April 2014
  42. ^ "Factsheets : North American BT-14 (NA-64)". 8 May 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  43. ^ Marcel. "Western Canada Aviation Museum – Winnipeg - Reportage". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  44. ^ "Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame - Wetaskiwin, Alberta - Aviation Museums on". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  45. ^ "Aviation". Reynolds Museum. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  46. ^ "Aircraft Data N64FL, North American NA-64 C/N 64-2207". Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  47. ^ a b c d e Canadian accessdate: March 2014
  48. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.29
  49. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.22
  50. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.28
  51. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, pp.17


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  • Fletcher, David (1995). "North American Yale". Random Thoughts. 17 (2). International Plastic Modellers Society of Canada: 31.
  • Griffin, John A. (1969). Canadian Military Aircraft Serials & Photographs 1920 – 1968. Publication No. 69-2. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
  • Hagedorn, Dan (1997). North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ (WarbirdTech Volume 11). North Branch, MN: Speciality Press. ISBN 0-933424-76-0.
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  • Smith, Peter Charles (2000). North American T-6: SNJ, Harvard and Wirraway. Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-382-1.