**Numeral** or **number prefixes** are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers. In English and many other languages, they are used to coin numerous series of words. For example:

- simplex, duplex (communication in only 1 direction at a time, in 2 directions simultaneously)
- unicycle, bicycle, tricycle (vehicle with 1 wheel, 2 wheels, 3 wheels)
- dyad, triad, tetrad (2 parts, 3 parts, 4 parts)
- biped, quadruped, hexapod (animal with 2 feet, 4 feet, 6 feet)
- September, October, November, December (7th month, 8th month, 9th month, 10th month)
^{[A]} - binary, ternary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal (numbers expressed in base 2, base 3, base 8, base 10, base 16)
- septuagenarian, octogenarian (a person 70–79 years old, 80–89 years old)
- centipede, millipede (subgroups of arthropods with around 100 feet, or around 1000 feet)

In many European languages there are two principal systems, taken from Latin and Greek, each with several subsystems; in addition, Sanskrit occupies a marginal position.^{[B]} There is also an international set of metric prefixes, which are used in the world's standard measurement system.

In the following prefixes, a final vowel is normally dropped before a root that begins with a vowel, with the exceptions of *bi-,* which is extended to *bis-* before a vowel; among the other monosyllables, *du-*, *di-*, *dvi-*, and *tri-*, never vary.

Words in the *cardinal* catgegory are cardinal numbers, such as the English *one*, *two*, *three*, which name the count of items in a sequence. The *multiple* category are adverbial numbers, like the English *once*, *twice*, *thrice*, that specify the number of events or instances of otherwise identical or similar items. Enumeration with the *distributive* catgegory originally was meant to specify *one each*, *two each* or *one by one*, *two by two*, etc., giving how many items of each type are desired or had been found, although distinct word forms for that meaning are now mostly lost. The *ordinal* catgegory are based on ordinal numbers such as the English *first*, *second*, *third*, which specify position of items in a sequence. In Latin and Greek, the ordinal forms are also used for fractions for amounts higher than 2; only the fraction 1 / 2 has special forms.

The same suffix may be used with more than one category of number, take for example the following:

Ordinal

numbersprim __ary__second __ary__terti __ary__quart __ary__^{[citation needed]}quint __ary__sext __ary__septim __ary__octav __ary__non __ary__decim __ary__Distributive

numberssingul __ary__^{[citation needed]}bi __nary__ter __nary__,

tri__nary__quater __nary__qui __nary__se __nary__septe __nary__octo __nary__nove __nary__de __nary__

For the hundreds, there are competing forms: Those in *-gent-*, from the original Latin, and those in *-cent-*, derived from *centi-*, etc. plus the prefixes for 1 through 9 .

Many of the items in the following tables are not in general use, but may rather be regarded as coinages by individuals. In scientific contexts, either scientific notation or SI prefixes are used to express very large or very small numbers, and not unwieldy prefixes.

Number prefixes in English Number Latin

derivedGreek ^{[C]}

derivedSanskrit ^{[B]}

Cardinal Multiple Distributive Ordinal Cardinal Multiple,

proportional, or

quantitativeOrdinal 0 nulli- nullesim- miden-, ouden- —medeproto-, oudeproto- shūnya- 1/ 12 unci- ^{[1]}—*Greek uses ordinals to name fractions;*(*i.e.*dodecato-)—1 / 8 octant- ———*As above;*ogdoö–—1 / 6 sextant- ———*As above;*hecto—1 / 5 quintant- ———*As above;*pempto–—1 / 4 quadrant- ———*As above;*tetarto–—1 / 3 trient- ———*As above;*trito–—1 / 2 semi- —demi- ^{[D]}—hemi- (" *half*")^{[a]}———3 / 4 dodrant- —————1 uni- ^{[b]}

sol-^{[E]}^{[c]}sim- ^{[F]}singul- prim- mono- (" *one", "alone*")^{[d]}

holo- ("*entire", "full*")^{[e]}

hen-^{[G]}*rare*mono- (" *one, alone*")

hapax- ("*once*")

haplo-^{[G]}("*single*")

monad- ("*one of a kind", "unique", "unit*")prot- ^{[2]}^{[f]}

protaio- ("*[every] first day*")eka- ^{[3]}1 + 1 / 4 —quasqui- ^{[g]}——————1 + 1 / 2 —sesqui- ^{[h]}——————2 du- bi-, bis- ^{[i]}bin- second- di-, dy-, ^{[4]}duo-, dyo-dis- ^{[5]}("*twice*")*common*

dyakis- ("*twice*")*rare*

diplo- ("*double*")

dyad- ("*two of a*")

kinddeuter- ^{[6]}^{[j]}

deuteraio- ("*[every] second day*")dvi- ^{[7]}2 + 1 / 2 —semiquin- ^{[k]}——————3 tri- ^{[l]}ter- tern-, trin- terti- tri- ^{[m]}tris- ^{[8]}("*thrice*")*common*

triakis- ("*thrice*")*rare*

triplo- ("*triple*")

triad- ("*three of a kind*")trit- ^{[9]}("*third*")^{[n]}

tritaio- ("*[every] third day*")tri- ^{[10]}4 quadri-, quadru- ^{[H]}quater- ^{[12]}quatern- ^{[13]}quart- ^{[14]}tetra-, tessara- tetrakis- (" *four times*")

tetraplo- ("*quadruple*")

tetrad- ("*four of a kind*")^{[o]}tetarto- (" *fourth*")

tetartaio-

("*[every] fourth day*")catur- ^{[15]}5 quinque- ^{[16]}—quin- ^{[17]}quint- ^{[18]}penta- pentakis-

pentaplo-

pentad-^{[p]}pempt- ^{[19]}

pemptaio-pañca- ^{[20]}6 sexa- ^{[I]}—sen- ^{[21]}sext- ^{[22]}hexa- ^{[23]}hexakis-

hexaplo-

hexad-^{[q]}hect- ^{[24]}

hectaio-ṣaṭ- ^{[25]}7 septem-, septi- ^{[r]}septen- ^{[26]}septim- hepta- ^{[27]}^{[s]}heptakis-

heptaplo-

heptad-hebdomo- (" *seventh*")

hebdomaio- ("*seventh day*")^{[t]}sapta- ^{[28]}8 octo- ^{[u]}—octon- ^{[29]}octav- ^{[30]}octo- ^{[v]}octakis-

octaplo-

octad-^{[w]}ogdoö-

ogdoaio-aṣṭa- 9 novem- ^{[x]}noven- nona- ennea- ^{[31]}enneakis-

enneaplo-

ennead-enat- ^{[32]}

enataio-nava- 10 decem-, dec- ^{[y]}den- ^{[33]}decim- ^{[34]}deca- ^{[35]}^{[z]}decakis-

decaplo-

decad-decat- ^{[36]}

decataio-dasha- 11 undec- unden- ^{[37]}undecim- ^{[38]}hendeca- ^{[39]}hendeca/kis/plo/d- hendecat- ^{[40]}/o/aio-ekadasha- 12 duodec- duoden- ^{[aa]}duodecim- dodeca- ^{[41]}^{[ab]}dodeca/kis/plo/d- dodecat- ^{[42]}/o/aio-dvadasha- 13 tredec- treden- tredecim- tria(kai)deca-, decatria- ^{[ac]}tris(kai)decakis-,

decatria/kis/plo/d-decatotrito-

etc.trayodasha- 14 quattuordec- quattuorden- quattuordecim-

quartadecim-tessara(kai)deca-, decatettara-, decatessara- tetra(kai)decakis-,

decatetra/kis/plo/d-^{[ad]}decatotetarto- chaturdasha- 15 quinquadec-, quindec- ^{[43]}quinden- ^{[44]}quindecim- ^{[45]}

quintadecim-pente(kai)deca-, decapente- penta(kai)decakis-,

decapentakis- etc.decatopempto- panchadasha- 16 sedec-, ^{[46]}sexdec-(

*but**hybrid**hexadecimal*)seden- sedecim-

sextadecim-hexa(kai)deca-,

hekkaideca-,

decahex-hexa(kai)decakis-,

decahexakis- etc.decatohecto- shodasha- 17 septendec- septenden- septendecim-

septimadecim-hepta(kai)deca-,

decahepta-hepta(kai)decakis-,

decaheptakis-*etc*.decatohebdomo- saptadasha- 18 octodec- octoden- octodecim-

duodevicesim-octo(kai)deca-,

decaocto-octa(kai)decakis-,

decaoctakis-*etc*.decatoogdoö- ashtadasha- 19 novemdec-, novendec-

undeviginti-novemden-

novenden-novemdecim-

novendecim-

undevisim-ennea(kai)deca-, decaennea- ennea(kai)decakis-,

decaenneakis- etc.decatoenato- navadasha- 20 ^{[J]}viginti- vicen-, vigen- vigesim- (e)icosi- eicosa/kis/plo/d- ^{[ae]}eicosto- vimshati- 22 duovigint- (e)icosidyo-, dyo(e)icosi- *rare*^{[af]}(e)icosidyakis-

(e)icosidiplo-

(e)icosidyad-eicostodeutero- —24 quattuorvigint- (e)icositettara-, (e)icosikaitettara- *rare*(e)icositetrakis-

(e)icositetraplo-

(e)icositetrad-^{[ag]}eicostotetarto- chaturvimshati- 25 quinvigint- (e)icosipente- ^{[ah]}(e)icosipentakis-

(e)icosipentaplo-

(e)icosipentad-eicostopempto- —30 triginti- tricen- trigesim- triaconta- triacontakis- etc. ^{[ai]}triacosto- trimshat- 31 untriginti- triacontahen- triacontahenakis-

triacontahenaplo-

triacontahenad-triacostoproto-

triacostoprotaio-—40 quadraginti- quadragen- quadragesim- tettaraconta-,

tessaraconta-tettaracontakis-,

tessaracontakis- etc.tessaracosto- chatvarimshat- 50 quinquaginti- ^{[47]}quinquagen- ^{[48]}quinquagesim- ^{[49]}penteconta- ^{[aj]}pentecontakis- *etc*.pentecosto- ^{[ak]}panchashat- 60 sexaginti- sexagen- sexagesim- hexeconta- hexecontakis- *etc*.hexecosto- shasti- 70 septuaginti- ^{[al]}septuagen- septuagesim- ^{[50]}hebdomeconta- hebdomecontakis- *etc*.hebdomecosto- saptati- 80 octogint- octogen- octogesim- ogdoëconta- ogdoëcontakis- *etc*.ogdoëcosto- ashiti- 90 nonagint- nonagen- nonagesim- eneneconta- enenecontakis- *etc*.enenecosto- navati- 100 centi- centen- centesim- hecato(n)- hecatontakis- *hundred times*

hecatontaplo-*hundred-multiple*

hecatontad-*hundred of a kind**also abbreviated in*

hec[aton]tad-hecatosto- *hundredth*

hecatostaio-*the hundredth day*shata– 120 viginticenti- ——hecaton(e)icosi- hecaton(e)icosakis- *etc*.hecatostoeicosto- —150 —sesquicenten- ^{[am]}—————200 ducenti- ducen-, bicenten- ducentesim- diacosia- diacosakis- *etc*.diacosiosto- —250 —semiquincenten- ^{[an]}—————300 trecenti- trecen-, tercenten-, tricenten- trecentesim- triacosia- *etc*.triacosakis-

triacosaplo-

triacosad-triacosiosto- —400 quadringenti- quadringen-, quatercenten-, quadricenten- quadringentesim- tetracosia- tetracosakis- etc. tetracosiosto- —500 quingent-, ^{[51]}quincent-^{[52]}quingen-, ^{[53]}quingenten-, quincenten-quingentesim- ^{[54]}pentacosia- pentacosakis- *etc*.pentacosiosto- —600 sescenti-, sexcenti- sescen-, sexcenten- sescentesim- hexacosia- hexacosakis- *etc*.hexacosiosto- —700 septingenti- septingen-, septingenten-, septcenten- septingentesim- heptacosia- heptacosakis- *etc*.heptacosiosto- —800 octingenti- octingen-, octingenten-, octocenten- octingentesim- octacosia- octacosakis- etc. octacosiosto- —900 nongenti- nongen- nongentesim- ennacosi- ^{[55]}*derived from*

en(n)iacosia-,*a pejoration of*

enneacosia-enneacosakis- etc. enacosiost-, ^{[56]}*alt. spelling*

en(n)iacosiost(o)-

*a pejoration of*

enneacosiosto-—1000 milli- millen- millesim- khili-, ^{[57]}kilo-khiliakis-

khiliaplo-

chiliad-chiliost- ^{[58]}sahasra– 2000 duomilli ——diskhili- ^{[59]}diskhiliakis- *etc*.diskhiliosto- —3000 tremilli- triskhili- ^{[60]}—triskhiliost- ^{[61]}—5000 quinmilli– pentaciskhili- ^{[62]}———10000 decamilli– myria-, ^{[63]}^{[ao]}decakiskhilia-myriakis-

myriaplo-

myriad-

decakiskhiliakis-*etc*.myriast-, ^{[64]}

decakiskhiliosto-ayuta– 80000 octogintmilli– octacismyri- ^{[65]}———100000

or

10^{5}centimilli– decakismyria-, hecatontakiskhilia- decakismyriakis-,

hecatontakiskhiliakis-*etc*.laksha– 1000000

or

10^{6}—hecatommyria-

(see also mega-)hecatommyriakis-

("a million times")

hecatommyriaplo-*(million-multiple)*

hecatommyriad-*(a million of a kind)*hecatommyriosto- *(ranked millionth;*

also one piece of

a million [fraction] see above in

fractions)

hecatommyriostaio-

("the millionth day")—∞ infini- ———apeiro- —*Few*pauci- ^{[ap]}—oligo- ^{[aq]}———*Many*

(more than 1)multi-, pluri- ^{[ar]}—poly- ^{[as]}pollakis- *(many times)*

pollaplo-*(multiple)*

plethos-*(many of a kind)*^{[at]}pollosto-

*(rank/order of many [manieth])*bahut–

- Examples

**^***e.g. hemisphere***^***e.g. universe, unilateral***^***e.g. solo, soliloquy***^***e.g. monogamy***^***e.g. holocaust, holography***^***e.g. proton, protozoa***^***e.g. quasquicentennial***^***e.g. sesquicentennial, sesquipedalian***^***e.g. bireme, bilingual, bipolar, bipartisan***^**e.g.*Deuteron/ium*,*Deuteronomy***^***e.g. semiquincentennial***^***e.g. trireme***^***e.g. triathlon, Tripolis***^***e.g. Triton/ium***^***e.g. tetrahedron***^***e.g. pentahedron***^***e.g. hexahedron***^***e.g. September***^***e.g. heptathlon***^***e.g. hebdomas***^***e.g. October***^***e.g. octopus***^***e.g. octahedron***^***e.g. November***^***e.g. December***^***e.g. decathlon, decahedron, decagon***^***e.g. duodenum***^***e.g. dodecahedron***^***e.g. triskaidekaphobia***^***e.g. tetradecahedron/*

decatetrahedron**^***e.g. (e)icosahedron***^***e.g. docosa-hexaenoic acid (a pejoration of dyoicosa-hexanoic)***^***e.g. (e)icositetragon***^***e.g. eicosapenta-enoic acid***^***e.g. triacontahedron***^***e.g. penteconter***^***e.g. pentecost***^***e.g. Septuagint***^***e.g. sesquicentennial***^***e.g. semiquincentennial***^***e.g. myriapoda***^***e.g. pauciparous***^***e.g. oligopoly, oligarchy, oligomer, oligonucleotide, oligopeptide, oligosaccharide***^***e.g. multilingual, multiple, pluripotent, pluricentric***^***e.g. polyhedra, polygamy, polypod, polyglot, polymath, polymer***^***e.g. plethora*

- Numerical prefixes occur in 19th-, 20th-, and 21st-century coinages, mainly the terms that are used in relation to or that are the names of technological innovations, such as hexadecimal and bicycle. Also used in medals that commemorate an anniversary, such as sesquicentennial (150 years), centennial (100 years), or bicentennial (200 years).
- They occur in constructed words such as systematic names. Systematic names use numerical prefixes derived from Greek, with one principal exception, nona-.
- They occur as prefixes to units of measure in the SI system. See SI prefix.
- They occur as prefixes to units of computer data. See binary prefixes.
- They occur in words in the same languages as the original number word, and their respective derivatives. (Strictly speaking, some of the common citations of these occurrences are
*not*in fact occurrences of the prefixes. For example: millennium is not formed from milli-, but is in fact derived from the same shared Latin root – mille.)

Because of the common inheritance of Greek and Latin roots across the Romance languages, the import of much of that derived vocabulary into non-Romance languages (such as into English via Norman French), and the borrowing of 19th and 20th century coinages into many languages, the same numerical prefixes occur in many languages.

Numerical prefixes are not restricted to denoting integers. Some of the SI prefixes denote negative powers of 10, i.e. division by a multiple of 10 rather than multiplication by it. Several common-use numerical prefixes denote vulgar fractions.

Words containing non-technical numerical prefixes are usually not hyphenated. This is not an absolute rule, however, and there are exceptions (for example: quarter-deck occurs in addition to quarterdeck). There are no exceptions for words comprising technical numerical prefixes, though. Systematic names and words comprising SI prefixes and binary prefixes are not hyphenated, by definition.

Nonetheless, for clarity, dictionaries list numerical prefixes in hyphenated form, to distinguish the prefixes from words with the same spellings (such as duo- and duo).

Several technical numerical prefixes are not derived from words for numbers. (mega- is not derived from a number word, for example.) Similarly, some are only derived from words for numbers inasmuch as they are word play. (Peta- is word play on penta-, for example. See its etymology for details.)

The root language of a numerical prefix need not be related to the root language of the word that it prefixes. Some words comprising numerical prefixes are hybrid words.

In certain classes of systematic names, there are a few other exceptions to the rule of using Greek-derived numerical prefixes. The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, for example, uses the numerical prefixes derived from Greek, except for the prefix for 9 (as mentioned) and the prefixes from 1 to 4 (meth-, eth-, prop-, and but-), which are not derived from words for numbers. These prefixes were invented by the IUPAC, deriving them from the pre-existing names for several compounds that it was intended to preserve in the new system: methane (via methyl, which is in turn from the Greek word for wine), ethane (from ethyl coined by Justus von Liebig in 1834), propane (from propionic, which is in turn from pro- and the Greek word for fat), and butane (from butyl, which is in turn from butyric, which is in turn from the Latin word for butter).

- unicycle, bicycle, tricycle, quadricycle
- uniped, biped, triped, quadruped,
^{[H]}centipede, millipede

- unary, binary, trinary, quaternary, quinary, senary, ... vicenary ... centenary ...
- denarian, vicenarian, tricenarian, quadragenarian, quinquagenarian, sexagenarian, septuagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian, ... millenarian

- monad, dyad, triad, tetrad, pentad, hexad, heptad, ogdoad, ennead, decad, ... triacontad, ... hecatontad, chiliad, myriad
- digon, trigon, tetragon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, enneagon, decagon, hendecagon, dodecagon, ... enneadecagon, icosagon, triacontagon, ... chiliagon, myriagon
- trilogy, tetralogy, pentalogy, hexalogy, heptalogy
- monopod, dipod, tripod, tetrapod, hexapod, octopod, decapod

- pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane,
^{[K]}decane, undecane, ... icosane - binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary, senary, septenary, octal, nonary, decimal, duodecimal, hexadecimal, vigesimal, quadrovigesimal, duotrigesimal, sexagesimal, octogesimal