Temporal range: Pleistocene to present
White-tailed deer.jpg
Odocoileus virginianus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Tribe: Odocoileini
Genus: Odocoileus
Rafinesque, 1832[1]
Type species
Odocoileus speleus[1]
Rafinesque, 1832

Odocoileus hemionus
Odocoileus pandora
Odocoileus virginianus
Odocoileus lucasi
Odocoileus salinae[2]

Odocoileus is a genus of medium-sized deer (family Cervidae) containing three species native to the Americas.[1][3][4] The name is sometimes spelled odocoeleus; it is from a contraction of the roots odonto- and coelus meaning "hollow-tooth".

Extant species

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Odocoileus hemionus .jpg
Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer western half of North America.
Odocoileus pandora Yucatan brown brocket Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize)
White-tailed deer.jpg
Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Odocoileus, [1] Mammal Species of the World, 3rd Edition
  2. ^ "Fossilworks: Odocoileus salinae". fossilworks.org.
  3. ^ Valerius Geist (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0496-0.
  4. ^ Gutiérrez, E. E., Helgen, K. M., McDonough, M. M., Bauer, F., Hawkins, M. T., Escobedo-Morales, L. A., ... & Maldonado, J. E. (2017). A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling. ZooKeys, (697), 87.
  5. ^ "IUCN Red List maps". Explore and discover Red List species ranges and observations.