Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption), improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis), and improvements in treatment.
Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ-specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient. It is very important for oncologists to keep up-to-date with the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in the management of cancer are quite common.
Because a cancer diagnosis can cause distress and anxiety, clinicians may use a number of strategies such as SPIKES for offering emotional support.
The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "barb", and the Greek word λόγος (logos), meaning "study". The neoclassical term oncology was used from 1618, initially in neo-Greek, in cognizance of Galen's work on abnormal tumors, De tumoribus præter naturam (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ φύσιν ὄγκων).
Cancer is caused by changes to certain genes that alter the way our cells function. Some of them are the result of environmental exposures that damage DNA. These exposures may include substances, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, or radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and other carcinogens.
The body's immune response plays a role in defending the body against cancer, a concept known mainly because certain cancers occur at a greatly increased prevalence among people with immunosuppression.
Bleeding manifestations including bleeding gums, bleeding from nose, blood in vomitus, blood in sputum, blood stained urine, black coloured stools, fever, lump in neck, axilla, or groin, lump in upper abdomen.
Diagnosis and staging
Diagnostic and staging investigations depend on the size and type of malignancy.
Cardiooncology is a branch of cardiology that addresses the cardiovascular impact of cancer and its treaments
Computational oncology. An example is PRIMAGE. This four-year EU-funded Horizon 2020 project was launched in December 2018. The project proposes a cloud-based platform to support decision making in the clinical management of malignant solid tumours, offering predictive tools to assist diagnosis, prognosis, therapies choice and treatment follow up, based on the use of novel imaging biomarkers, in-silico tumour growth simulation, advanced visualisation of predictions with weighted confidence scores and machine-learning based translation of this knowledge into predictors for the most relevant, disease-specific, Clinical End Points.
Leukemia, Lymphoma, Germ cell tumors and early stage solid tumors which were once incurable have become curable malignancies now. Immunotherapies have already proven efficient in leukemia, bladder cancer and various skin cancer. For the future, research is promising in the field of physical oncology.
Survival of cancer has significantly improved over the past years[quantify] due to improved screening, diagnostic methods and treatment options with targeted therapy.
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