Normal squamous cells
Normal squamous cells
Dysplastic cells
Dysplastic cells

Dysplasia is any of various types of abnormal growth or development of cells (microscopic scale) or organs (macroscopic scale), and the abnormal histology or anatomical structure resulting from such growth.[1] Dysplasias on a mainly microscopic scale include epithelial dysplasia and fibrous dysplasia of bone. Dysplasias on a mainly macroscopic scale include hip dysplasia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and multicystic dysplastic kidney.

In one of the modern histopathologic senses of the term, dysplasia is sometimes differentiated from other categories of tissue change including hyperplasia, metaplasia, and neoplasia, and dysplasias are thus generally not cancerous. An exception is that the myelodysplasias include a range of benign, precancerous, and cancerous forms. Various other dysplasias tend to be precancerous. The word's meanings thus cover a spectrum of histopathologic variations.

Microscopic scale

Epithelial dysplasia

Main article: Epithelial dysplasia

Epithelial dysplasia consists of an expansion of immature cells (such as cells of the ectoderm), with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. The term dysplasia is typically used when the cellular abnormality is restricted to the originating tissue, as in the case of an early, in-situ neoplasm.

Dysplasia, in which cell maturation and differentiation are delayed, can be contrasted with metaplasia, in which cells of one mature, differentiated type are replaced by cells of another mature, differentiated type.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Main article: Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.[2] Problems with blood cell formation result in some combination of low red blood cells, low platelets, and low white blood cells.[2] Some types have an increase in immature blood cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow or blood.[2]

Fibrous dysplasia of bone

Main article: Fibrous dysplasia of bone

Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a disorder where normal bone and marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue, resulting in formation of bone that is weak and prone to expansion. As a result, most complications result from fracture, deformity, functional impairment and pain.[3]

Macroscopic scale

Hip dysplasia

Main article: Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation.[4] Hip dysplasia may occur at birth or develop in early life.[4] Regardless, it does not typically produce symptoms in babies less than a year old.[5] Occasionally one leg may be shorter than the other.[4] The left hip is more often affected than the right.[5] Complications without treatment can include arthritis, limping, and low back pain.[5]

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Main article: Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that results from the malformation of the kidney during fetal development. The kidney consists of irregular cysts of varying sizes. Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common type of renal cystic disease, and it is a cause of an abdominal mass in infants.[6]

Etymology

From Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation". The equivalent surface analysis, in parallel with classical compounds, is dys- + -plasia.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Definition of dysplasia". Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  2. ^ a b c "Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version". NCI. 12 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  3. ^ Boyce AM, Florenzano P, de Castro LF, Collins MT (February 2015). "Fibrous Dysplasia/McCune-Albright Syndrome". In Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJ, Mirzaa G, Amemiya A (eds.). Gene Reviews. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 25719192.
  4. ^ a b c "Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH)". American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. October 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Shaw BA, Segal LS (December 2016). "Evaluation and Referral for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants". Pediatrics. 138 (6): e20163107. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3107. PMID 27940740.
  6. ^ Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney Imaging at eMedicine

Further reading