Pi (/ˈpaɪ/; Ancient Greek /piː/ or /peî/, uppercase Π, lowercase π, cursive ϖ; Greek: πι [pi]) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, meaning units united, and representing the voiceless bilabial plosive IPA: [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Pe (). Letters that arose from pi include Latin P, Cyrillic Pe (П, п), Coptic pi (Ⲡ, ⲡ), and Gothic pairthra (𐍀).[1]

Uppercase Pi

The uppercase letter Π is used as a symbol for:

In science and engineering:

Lowercase Pi

The lowercase letter π is used as a symbol for:

The earliest polyamory pride flag design, created by Jim Evans in 1995, in which the lowercase letter π stands for the first letter of polyamory.


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2024)

An early form of pi was , appearing almost like a gamma with a hook.[6][7]

Variant pi

Variant pi or "pomega" ( or ϖ) is a glyph variant of lowercase pi sometimes used in technical contexts. It resembles a lowercase omega with a macron, though historically it is simply a cursive form of pi, with its legs bent inward to meet. It was also used in the minuscule script. It is a symbol for:

Character encodings

The various forms of pi are present in Unicode as:

Character encodings tables

See also


  1. ^ "Pi Symbol in Greek Alphabet". greeksymbols.net. Retrieved 2023-02-07.
  2. ^ Thomas, Melody (April 22, 2019). "Pretty poly: Why non-monogamous relationships are all the rage". Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  3. ^ Schumer, Lizz (May 16, 2022). "21 LGBTQ Flags and What They Symbolize". Good Housekeeping.
  4. ^ Walsh, Matthias. "What does the polyamorous flag look like?". LGBTQ Nation.
  5. ^ "Jim Evans' Polyamory Pride Flag". Archived from the original on November 10, 2014.
  6. ^ Thompson, Edward Maunde (2013) [1912]. An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography. Cambridge Library Collection - Classics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9781139833790. ISBN 978-1-108-06181-0.
  7. ^ Faulmann, Karl (2000). Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker (in German) (Repr. nach d. Wiener Ausg. 1880, Neuausg ed.). München: Augustus. ISBN 978-3-8043-0374-4.
  8. ^ "Pomega". Eric Weisstein's World of Physics. wolfram.com.
  9. ^ Outline for Weeks 14&15, Astronomy 225 Spring 2008 Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shingo (2019). "Applications of generalized trigonometric functions with two parameters". Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis. 18 (3): 1509. arXiv:1903.07407. doi:10.3934/cpaa.2019072. S2CID 102487670.
  11. ^ "Unicode characters supported by the Calibri font". fileformat.info.
  12. ^ Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF)