.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (October 2023) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 9,052 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|de|Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Portrait of the Prince, wearing the Austrian military uniform with the ribbon and star of the Order of Maria Theresa of Austria by Ferdinand Jagemann
Native name
Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born(1737-12-26)26 December 1737
Ehrenburg Palace, Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
(now Bavaria)
Died26 February 1815(1815-02-26) (aged 77)
Coburg
Allegiance Archduchy of Austria
 Holy Roman Empire
Service/branch Imperial Army
Years of service1759–1795
RankGeneralfeldmarschall
Battles/wars
Tree-like list
AwardsMilitary Order of Maria Theresa
Spouse(s)Therese Stroffeck
RelationsHouse of Wettin (family)
Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (father)
Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (mother)
Freiherr Frederick von Rohmann (son)
Signature

Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (German: Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld) (26 December 1737 – 26 February 1815) was an Austrian nobleman and military general.

Biography

Born at Schloß Ehrenburg in Coburg, he was the youngest son of Duke Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. He was the great-uncle of King Leopold I of Belgium (1790–1865); and the great-great-uncle of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (1819–1901).

Military career

Josias joined the Habsburg military as Colonel in 1759, participated in the Seven Years' War, and rose to the rank of lieutenant field marshal by 1773. In the Russo-Turkish-Austrian war of 1788, he commanded an army corps under Freiherr von Laudon, occupying Moldavia, capturing Khotyn in Bessarabia and sharing in Aleksandr Suvorov's victory in the Battle of Focșani (1 August 1789). Having completely beaten the main Ottoman army under Grand Vizier Koca Yusuf Pasha in the Battle of Rymnik, he captured the greater part of Wallachia, including Bucharest, being welcomed by the population after the flight of Prince Nicholas Mavrogenes (see History of Bucharest), and soon after becoming a field marshal.[citation needed]

During the occupation of Moldavia, Josias met Therese Stroffeck, a commoner. On 24 September 1789, in the town of Roman, they had a son named Frederick. Josias married Therese after their return to Coburg, on 24 December and recognized his son. Frederick was ennobled by the Austrian Emperor on 25 August 1808 and on 17 February 1853 the Duke Ernst II of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha created him Freiherr von Rohmann, named after the place of his birth. Frederick however, as the child of a morganatic marriage, and his descendants were barred of the succession of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

In 1793 and 1794 he commanded the army in the Austrian Netherlands during the Flanders Campaign. Due to his victory in the French Revolutionary Wars at Neerwinden in March 1793, he returned the region to Austrian control. Entering France, he took Condé, Valenciennes, Quesnoy and Landrecies. However, due to unfortunate positioning, partly due to disunity amongst the Allied powers and their forces, he suffered a string of minor setbacks in front of the Revolutionary Army on the Sambre, followed by a decisive defeat at Fleurus (26 June 1794).

He thereupon abandoned the Netherlands, which Habsburg diplomats had already decided to give up. Angered by this, and openly criticizing the policies of the Baron Thugut, Josias resigned as Field Marshal (the Count of Clerfayt assumed command in his place) and retired to Coburg, where he later died.

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 107.