Reconstruction ofOceanic languages
RegionBismarck Archipelago
Eraca. late 3rd millennium BCE
Lower-order reconstructions

Proto-Oceanic (abbr. POc) is a proto-language that historical linguists since Otto Dempwolff have reconstructed as the hypothetical common ancestor of the Oceanic subgroup of the Austronesian language family. Proto-Oceanic is a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language (PAN), the common ancestor of the Austronesian languages.

Proto-Oceanic was probably spoken around the late 3rd millennium BCE in the Bismarck Archipelago, east of Papua New Guinea.[1] Archaeologists and linguists currently agree that its community more or less coincides with the Lapita culture.

Linguistic characteristics

The methodology of comparative linguistics, together with the relative homogeneity of Oceanic languages, make it possible to reconstruct with reasonable certainty the principal linguistic properties of their common ancestor, Proto-Oceanic. Like all scientific hypotheses, these reconstructions must be understood as obviously reflecting the state of science at a particular moment in time; the detail of these reconstructions is still the object of much discussion among Oceanicist scholars.


The phonology of POc can be reconstructed with reasonable certainty.[2] Proto-Oceanic had five vowels: *i, *e, *a, *o, *u, with no length contrast.

Twenty-three consonants are reconstructed. When the conventional transcription of a protophoneme differs from its value in the IPA, the latter is indicated:

Labiovelar Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Stop Voiceless *pw /pʷ/ *p *t *c *k *q
Prenasalized *bw /ᵐbʷ/ *b /ᵐb/ *d /ⁿd/ *j /ᶮɟ/ *g /ᵑɡ/
Nasal *mw /mʷ/ *m *n /ɲ/
Fricative *s
Rhotic Flap[3] *R /ɾ/
Trill *r
Prenasalized *dr /ⁿr/
Lateral *l
Glide *w *y /j/

Based on evidence from the Southern Oceanic and Micronesian languages, Lynch (2003) proposes that the bilabial series may have been phonetically realized as palatalized: /pʲ/ /ᵐbʲ/ /mʲ/.[4]

Basic word order

Many Oceanic languages of New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Micronesia are SVO, or verb-medial, languages. SOV, or verb-final, word order is considered to be typologically unusual for Austronesian languages, and is only found in some Oceanic languages of New Guinea and to a more limited extent, the Solomon Islands. This is because SOV word order is very common in some non-Austronesian Papuan languages in contact with Oceanic languages. In turn, most Polynesian languages, and several languages of New Caledonia, have the VSO word order. Whether Proto-Oceanic had SVO or VSO is still debatable.


This article should specify the language of its non-English content, using ((lang)), ((transliteration)) for transliterated languages, and ((IPA)) for phonetic transcriptions, with an appropriate ISO 639 code. Wikipedia's multilingual support templates may also be used. See why. (June 2021)

From the mid-1990s to 2023, reconstructing the lexicon of Proto-Oceanic was the object of the Oceanic Lexicon Project, run by scholars Andrew Pawley, Malcolm Ross and Meredith Osmond.[5] This encyclopedic project produced 6 volumes altogether, all available in open access.

In addition, Robert Blust also includes Proto-Oceanic in his Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (abbr. ACD).[6]

Animal names

Main article: Wiktionary:Appendix:List of Proto-Oceanic animal names

Selected reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms of various animals from Blust's ACD:

Proto-Oceanic Common name Scientific name
*bubu₇ triggerfish Balistes sp.
*sumu triggerfish Balistidae
*sulik a fish, the fusilier Caesionidae sp.
*tipi-tipi butterflyfish Chaetodon spp.
*taŋapa wrasse Cheilinus spp.
*bolo bolo small dark surgeonfish possibly Ctenochaetus
*komi suckerfish / remora Echeneis naucrates; hold on by biting
*kamaRi a fish, the rainbow runner Elagatis bipinnulata
*piRu-piRu sailfish Istiophoridae
*kulabo a fish Lethrinidae spp.
*sabutu; *surup₂; *susul₁; *kasika a fish, the emperor Lethrinus spp.
*tasiwa sea perch Lutjanus sp.
*pu-pulan a white fish, the tarpon; herring Megalops cyprinoides
*tiqo goatfish family Mullidae
*mwanoRe unicornfish Naso unicornis
*taRa short snouted unicornfish Naso spp.
*lau a fish, the banded sweetlips Plectorhinchus spp.
*lio-lio brown triggerfish Pseudobalistes fuscus
*kitoŋ rabbitfish Siganus punctatus (family Siganidae)
*palaja rabbitfish Siganus sp.
*takua yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares
*piRa₂ sailfin tang Zebrasoma veliferum
Proto-Oceanic Common name Scientific name
*pusiRa starling Aplonis spp.
*kaRa male eclectus parrot Eclectus roratus
*kao heron probably Egretta sp.
*kiki₁ kingfisher Halcyon spp.
*kikau, *kipau Bismarck scrub fowl Megapodius eremita
*sau a bird, the Golden Whistler Pachycephala spp.
*takere a bird, the fantail Rhipidura sp.
*bune fruit dove probably Treron spp.
*pwirip parrot probably Trichoglossus sp.
Other animals
Proto-Oceanic Common name Scientific name
*poñu the green turtle Chelonia mydas
*kasi to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell Asaphis spp.
*buliq₁ cowrie shell Cypraea mauritiana
*sapulu bivalve mollusc possibly Pinna sp.

Plant names

See also: Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

Pawley and Ross (2006)

Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms for horticulture and food plants (other than coconuts):[7]

Tubers and their culture
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*mwapo(q) taro (possibly all Araceae)
*talo(s) taro, Colocasia esculenta
*piRaq giant taro, elephant ear taro, Alocasia macrorrhiza
*bulaka swamp taro, Cyrtosperma merkusii
*kamwa kind of wild taro (?)
*qupi greater yam, Dioscorea alata; yam (generic)
*pwatik potato yam, aerial yam, Dioscorea bulbifera
*(s,j)uli(q) banana or taro sucker, slip, cutting, shoot (i.e. propagation material)
*wasi(n) taro stem (used for planting)
*bwaŋo new leaves or shoots, or taro tops for planting
*up(e,a) taro seedling
*pasoq[-i] to plant (tubers)
*kotiŋ to cut off taro tops
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*pudi banana, Musa cultivars
*joRaga banana, Australimusa group
*sakup kind of cooking banana: long with white flesh (presumably Eumusa group)
Other food plants
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*topu sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum
*pijo a kind of edible wild cane or a reed, Saccharum spontaneum
*[ka]timun cucurbit (generic); cucumber, Cucumis sativus
*laqia ginger, Zingiber officinale
*yaŋo turmeric, Curcuma longa
*kuluR breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis
*baReqo breadfruit fruit (?)
*padran pandanus (generic); coastal pandanus, Pandanus tectorius
*kiRe coastal pandanus, Pandanus tectorius
*pakum Pandanus dubius
*ima kind of pandanus with useful leaves
*Rabia sago, Metroxylon spp., mainly Metroxylon sagu
*sag(u) sago starch
*qatop sago fronds, thatch
*talise Java almond, Indian almond, Terminalia catappa
*qipi Tahitian chestnut, Pacific chestnut, Inocarpus fagifer
*[ka]ŋaRi canarium almond, Canarium spp.
*molis citrus fruit or citrus-like fruit
*pau(q) mango, probably Mangifera indica
*wai, *waiwai mango (generic)
*kapika Malay apple and rose apple, Eugenia spp.
*ñonum Morinda citrifolia
*tawan Pometia pinnata
*wasa edible greens, Abelmoschus manihot
*m(w)asoku wild cinnamon, Cinnamomum spp.
*quRis Polynesian plum, hog plum, Tahitian apple, Spondias cytherea
*ñatu(q) kind of tree with avocado-like fruit and hard wood, Burckella obovata
*raqu(p) New Guinea walnut, Dracontomelon dao
*buaq areca palm, Areca catechu
Gardening practices
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*quma garden
*tanoq soil, earth
*poki to clear ground for planting
*sara to dig a hole
*tanum[-i] to plant

Ross (2008)

Reconstructed plant terms from Malcolm Ross (2008):[8]

Proto-Oceanic plant terms inherited from Proto-Austronesian or Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (65 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*[a]ñuliŋ Pisonia sp.
*aRu a shore tree, Casuarina equisetifolia
*bai-bai(t) a cycad, Cycas rumphii
*[baR]baR coral tree, Erythrina variegata
*bitu(ŋ) bamboo sp.
*botu(ŋ) large bamboo, presumably Bambusa sp.
*buaq betelnut, areca nut, palm, Areca catechu
*drokol small Dillenia sp.
*droRu(ŋ) Trema orientalis
*guRu(n) sword grass, Imperata cylindrica
*[ja]latoŋ Laportea and Dendrocnide spp.
*kanawa(n) Cordia subcordata
*[ka]tim(o,u)n Cucumis spp. (generic?); cucumber, Cucumis sativus
*kati(p)al a palm with black wood, Caryota sp.
*kayu tree or shrub: generic name for plants with woody stems and branches, probably not including palms or tree-ferns; wood, stick
*kiRe coastal Pandanus sp., probably Pandanus tectorius
*kulapu(R) Dillenia schlechteri
*kuluR breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis
*laqia ginger, Zingiber officinale (?)
*m(ʷ)aso(q)u wild cinnamon, Cinnamomum sp., probably Cinnamomum xanthoneuron; possibly also Cananga odorata
*malo paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera; barkcloth, loincloth
*naRa Pterocarpus indicus
*ñatuq Burckella obovata
*nini(q) shrub, Donax cannaeformis
*nipaq Nypa fruticans
*niuR coconut palm and/or fruit, Cocos nucifera
*nunuk fig trees, Ficus taxon
*ŋiRac Pemphis acidula
*p(ʷ)atoRu a cycad, Cycas rumphii
*padran coastal pandanus, Pandanus tectorius; pandanus (generic)
*pali[s,j]i generic term for grasses and other grass-like plants
*(p,b)anaRo Thespesia populnea
*para(k) Zingiberaceae spp. with edible rhizomes
*paRu Hibiscus tiliaceus
*pila(q)u Casuarina equisetifolia
*pinu(q)an Macaranga spp., perhaps Macaranga involucrata
*piRaq giant taro, elephant ear taro, Alocasia macrorrhizos
*piRu(q) fan palm, Licuala sp.
*pitaquR Calophyllum inophyllum
*pudi banana, Musa cultivars
*[pu-]pulu betel pepper, Piper betle
*puna vine used for fish poison, probably Derris elliptica
*putun Barringtonia asiatica
*qa(l,R)a Ficus sp.
*qaramʷaqi Pipturus argenteus
*qasam fern used for tying and binding, Lygodium circinnatum
*(qate-)qate Wedelia biflora
*qauR bamboo spp.
*qipil a taxon of hardwood trees including Intsia bijuga and Casuarina equisetifolia
*qu(w)e rattan, Calamus spp.
*qupi greater yam, Dioscorea alata: yam (generic)
*Rabia sago, Metroxylon spp., mainly Metroxylon sagu (syn. Metroxylon rumphii)
*raqu(p) New Guinea walnut, Dracontomelon dao
*rarap coral tree, Erythrina spp.
*talise Terminalia catappa
*talo(s) taro, Colocasia esculenta
*toŋoR mangrove, Bruguiera spp.; mangroves (generic)
*topu sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
*toRas a taxon of hardwood trees including Intsia bijuga (?)
*tui Dolichandrone spathacea
*tupa climbing shrubs, Derris spp.
*wai, *waiwai mango (generic)
*walasi tree sp. with poisonous sap, Semecarpus forstenii
*waR[e] Flagellaria indica
*waRoc generic term for vines and creepers, plants with creeping or climbing growth structure; string, rope
Proto-Oceanic plant terms inherited from Proto-Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (11 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*[bual]bual species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow, probably Caryota sp.
*dalo Calophyllum inophyllum
*dradrap Hoya sp.
*ima Pandanus sp. with useful leaves
*jasi Cordia subcordata
*kai(k) Albizia sp.
*[ka]ŋaRi canarium almond, Canarium indicum
*lowaŋa Litsea sp.
*pail Falcataria moluccana
*pau(q) mango, Mangifera sp. (not Mangifera indica)
*Reqi sword grass, Imperata cylindrica
Proto-Oceanic plant terms inherited from Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (4 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*na[su]-nasu Scaevola taccada
*qayawan Ficus, strangler fig taxon
*tawan[9] Pometia pinnata
*tuRi-tuRi candlenut tree, Aleurites moluccanus (?)
Reconstructed terms with no external cognates
Proto-Oceanic plant terms with no known non-Oceanic cognates (97 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*ba(k,g)a banyan tree, medium-sized Ficus spp., not stranglers
*babak Falcataria moluccana
*bala taxon including various Euodia spp. (?)
*baqun banana cultivar
*baReko breadfruit
*bau hardwood taxon
*bele Abelmoschus manihot
*beta breadfruit
*biRi-biRi Hernandia nymphaefolia
*bosi a forest tree with white wood, probably Euodia elleryana
*bou Fagraea spp.
*bulu Garcinia sp., perhaps Garcinia novo-guineensis
*b(ʷ)ala tree fern, Cycas or Cyathea sp.
*bʷau bamboo
*bʷele bamboo sp.
*bʷera Musa cultivar
*drala shrub sp., Vitex trifolia
*(dr,d)aRa(q,k)a wild nutmeg, Myristica sp.
*i(u)bu Corynocarpus cribbianus
*iguRa Ficus sp. with sandpapery leaves, either Ficus copiosa or Ficus wassa or both
*ipi Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagifer
*jajal croton, Codiaeum variegatum
*jamaR Commersonia bartramia
*jiRi taxon consisting of Cordyline fruticosa and Dracaena angustifolia
*joRaga banana, Fei (?) cultivars
*ka(mʷa)-kamʷa Ficus sp., perhaps Ficus nodosa
*ka[(r,l)a]qabusi Acalypha spp.
*kalaka Planchonella sp.
*kapika Malay apple, rose apple, Syzygium malaccense
*karagʷam seaweed, seagrass
*kaRi(q)a taxon of decorative plants
*kaRi(q)ana Pandanus lamekotensis
*kayu qone Heritiera littoralis
*koka Macaranga spp.
*koma(r,R)(o,u) Endospermum sp.
*kopu bamboo sp.
*koRa wild mango, Mangifera minor
*kurat the dye produced from Morinda citrifolia
*m(ʷ)ase wild mulberry, paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera
*ma(i)tagaR(a) Kleinhovia hospita
*mapuqan Flueggea flexuosa (?)
*maqota Dysoxylum spp.
*maRakita the putty nut, probably Parinari laurina and Parinari glaberrima
*maRako Trichospermum peekelii
*mari(a)sapa Syzygium sp.
*molis citrus fruit or citrus-like fruit, perhaps Clymenia polyandra
*mʷala(q)u Glochidion philippicum
*mʷalak (?) spider lily, Crinum asiaticum
*mʷaña Pandanus sp., perhaps Pandanus conoideus
*mʷapo(q) taro, Colocasia esculenta
*mʷaruqe Dioscorea sp. or perhaps a cultivar of Dioscorea alata
*nipus Cryptocarya sp.
*ñoñu Morinda citrifolia
*olaŋa Campnosperma brevipetiolatum
*pakum Pandanus dubius
*pala(ŋ) cut nut, bush nut, Barringtonia novae-hiberniae (green variety?)
*paliaRua a vine, Merremia peltata
*paqo Heliconia sp.
*paqu Kleinhovia hospita
*pasa(r,R) Vitex cofassus
*pesi a coastal forest tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata
*pi(y)uŋ Miscanthus floridulus
*pijo cane or reed taxon, including Saccharum spontaneum
*poipoi Pandanus sp., perhaps Pandanus tectorius
*poka(q) variety of Malay apple
*(p,b)oso kind of taro
*puRe taxon of beach creepers; perhaps prototypically Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae
*pʷa(k,g)e kind of green vegetable (?)
*pʷabosi free-standing small or medium-sized Ficus sp., probably Ficus wassa
*p(ʷ)asa(r,R) large Pandanus sp.
*pʷatika potato yam, aerial yam, Dioscorea bulbifera
*p(ʷ)awa(t) Cerbera spp., probably Cerbera floribunda and Cerbera manghas
*pʷete bird's nest fern, Asplenium nidus
*pʷi(r,R)a Cananga odorata
*qarop Premna spp.
*qat(V) Terminalia sp. with edible nut
*(q,k)atita the putty nut, probably Parinari laurina and Parinari glaberrima
*(q)alipa, *lalipa nut sp., possibly canarium almond, Canarium sp. (?)
*qope Gyrocarpus americanus
*quRis Spondias cytherea
*(quta)quta grass and weeds (generic)
*rabum grass
*Rigi rosewood, Pterocarpus indicus
*sabakap Alstonia scholaris
*sakup banana cultivar with long fruit (?)
*seRa Ficus sp., perhaps Ficus adenosperma
*sila Job's tears, Coix lacryma-jobi
*tamanu Calophyllum sp.
*taŋa Ficus tinctoria
*tapi(l) puzzlenut tree, Xylocarpus granatum (?)
*tapoRa a nut-bearing tree sp.
*tawasi Rhus taitensis
*toRu Cordia subcordata
*udu(r,R) Dioscorea alata cultivar (?)
*wasa Abelmoschus manihot; green vegetables in general
*wasi-wasi Abroma augusta
*yaŋo turmeric, Curcuma longa
Proto-Western Oceanic plant terms with no known external cognates (22 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*bara Macaranga spp.
*basi mango
*baul mangrove, Rhizophora sp. (?)
*bʷana Intsia bijuga
*bʷatiq banana cultivar
*gobu Dioscorea sp.
*ka(p)ul seed yam
*kamisa lesser yam, Dioscorea esculenta
*kam(ʷ)apaR Cryptocarya sp.
*kasuwai mango
*kobo taxon of Macaranga spp.
*kokoi mushroom sp.
*[ku,i]Rim(a,o) Octomeles sumatrana
*lapuka kind of tree with fruit similar to breadfruit, Parartocarpus venenosa (?)
*m(ʷ)ali Derris sp.
*mamisa lesser yam, Dioscorea esculenta
*moke Pandanus sp.
*mʷa(r,R)e taxon including Codiaeum variegatum and Cordyline fruticosa
*nagi Cordia sp.
*(s,j)a(q,k)umu Pandanus sp.
*tabun Garcinia sp.
*tabuqaR Saccharum edule
Proto-Eastern Oceanic plant terms with no known external cognates (15 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*bakuRa Calophyllum sp., probably Calophyllum kajewskii
*buka taxon of littoral trees, including Pisonia spp. and Gyrocarpus americanus
*bulipa Ficus sp.
*gama Finschia cloroxantha
*(k)a(r,l)adroŋa Acalypha sp.
*koka tree sp., Bischofia javanica
*mabʷe Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagifer
*melo Elaeocarpus angustifolius
*milo Thespesia populnea
*mʷa(q)ele a cycad, Cycas rumphii
*pakalo, *pʷakala (?) Hibiscus sp.
*paRage Pangium edule
*pinuaq a nut tree, perhaps Canarium sp. (?)
*rako Heliconia sp., usually Heliconia indica
*sinu taxon of shrubs whose sap causes irritation, including species of Phaleria
Proto-Remote Oceanic plant terms with no known external cognates (6 reconstructions)
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
*buavu Hernandia sp.
*maRi breadfruit
*sasaRu Abelmoschus manihot
*vaRo Neisosperma oppositifolium
*vuba kind of vine, probably Derris elliptica
*wasi-wasi Sterculia vitiensis

Blust and Trussel (2020)

Selected reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms of various plants from the Austronesian Comparative Dictionary:[6]

Proto-Oceanic Common name Scientific name
*kalaqabusi a shrub Acalypha sp.
*piRaq₂ wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro Alocasia spp.
*sabakap a tree Alstonia scholaris
*putun₁ a shore tree Barringtonia spp.
*que rattan Calamus sp.
*pitaquR a shore tree Calophyllum inophyllum
*kaŋaRi tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond Canarium commune
*(q)alipa a nut tree Canarium sp.
*aRu a shore tree Casuarina equisetifolia
*talos taro Colocasia esculenta
*toRu a tree Cordia subcordata
*aŋo turmeric Curcuma longa
*punat a plant used to stun fish Derris elliptica
*tupa₂ fish poison Derris spp.
*pwatika potato yam, aerial yam Dioscorea bulbifera
*rarap a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree Erythrina indica
*buRat a tree with sweet-smelling flowers Fagraea berteroana
*pail a plant Falcataria moluccana
*taŋa₃ a shrub with edible figs Ficus tinctoria
*baka₂ kind of banyan tree Ficus sp.
*pwano-pwano a plant Guettarda speciosa
*paqo a plant Heliconia spp.
*kuRun; *pitu₂ sword grass Imperata cylindrica
*ipi₂ the ‘Tahitian chestnut Inocarpus fagiferus or Inocarpus edulis
*puRe₂ beach creepers including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae
*pau a plant Kleinhovia hospita
*karat₂ a small stinging plant perhaps Laportea interrupta
*latoŋ, *la-latoŋ, *salatoŋ, *silatoŋ stinging nettle Laportea spp.
*piRu fan palm Licuala rumphii
*pinuan a tree Macaranga spp.
*koka a tree Macaranga spp., Euphorbiaceae
*koRa wild mango Mangifera minor
*paliaRua a vine Merremia peltata
*gurat a tree with roots that furnish a red dye Morinda citrifolia tree
*kurat the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia Morinda citrifolia dye
*ñoñu tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye Morinda citrifolia tree
*paoq (ʔ) a tree Ochrosia oppositifolia
*mwaña pandanus sp. probably Pandanus conoideus
*kiRe a pandanus Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant
*katita putty nut Parinari laurinum
*pu-pulu betel pepper Piper betle
*pesi coastal tree perhaps Pongamia pinnata
*tawasi a tree Rhus taitensis
*pijo kind of reed or cane including Saccharum spontaneum
*kapika, *kapiku the Malay apple Syzygium malaccense
*talise₁ a shore tree with edible nuts Terminalia catappa
*pasa(r,R) a woody plant or tree Vitex cofassus

Example sentences

From Lynch, Ross, and Crowley (2002):











*I=kaRat-i=a a tau na ᵐboRok.

3SG=bite-TR=3SG ART person ART pig

'The pig bit a/the person.'









*A na=ᵑgu a Rumaq.

ART CL=3SG ART house

'The house is mine.'

From Ross (2004):











*Au=papa-i=a natu-mu i=ua i laur.

1SG=carry-TR=3SG child-2SG 3SG=go PREP coast

'I brought your child (to you) to the beach.'









*Ra=sipo ra=paqus-i=a na waᵑga.

3PL=go.down 3PL=bind-TR=3SG ART canoe

'They went down to bind up the canoe.'

See also


  1. ^ Pawley, Andrew (2007), "Locating Proto Oceanic" (PDF), in Ross, Malcolm; Pawley, Andrew; Osmond, Meredith (eds.), The lexicon of Proto Oceanic: The physical environment, vol. 2, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp. 17–34, hdl:1885/106908, ISBN 9781921313196, retrieved 12 December 2023
  2. ^ See Ross, Pawley, Osmond (1998): 15).
  3. ^ The consonant *R has been recently reconstructed as an alveolar flap by François (2011), p.141.
  4. ^ Lynch, John (2003). "The Bilabials in Proto Loyalties". In Lynch, John (ed.). Issues in Austronesian Historical Phonology. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 153–173 (171). doi:10.15144/PL-550.153.
  5. ^ Homepage of the Oceanic Lexicon Project; downloadable set of volumes.
  6. ^ a b Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (June 21, 2020). "Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition". Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  7. ^ Pawley, Andrew and Malcolm Ross. 2006. The Prehistory of Oceanic Languages: A Current View. In The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. doi:10.22459/A.09.2006
  8. ^ Ross, Malcolm. Concluding notes, 427–436. In Ross, Pawley, Osmond, Meredith (2008).
  9. ^ Robert Blust has identified cognates in western Malayo-Polynesian languages, so *tawan can be reconstructed for PMP, cf. Blust, Robert (25 April 2020). "*tawan". Austronesian Comparative dictionary. Retrieved 30 April 2020.