According to the Organic Law of Regional Governments, the regions (Spanish: regiones) are, with the departments, the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru. Since its 1821 independence, Peru had been divided into departments (departamentos) but faced the problem of increasing centralization of political and economic power in its capital, Lima.

After several unsuccessful regionalization attempts, the national government decided to temporarily provide the departments (including the Constitutional Province of Callao) with regional governments until the conformation of regions according to the Organic Law of Regional Governments which says that two or more departments should merge to conform a region. This situation turned the departments into de facto regional government circumscriptions. The first regional governments were elected on November 20, 2002.

Under the new arrangement, the 24 departments plus the Callao Province are regional government circumscriptions each with a Regional Government. Lima Province, which has been excluded from this process and is not part of a regional government circumscription, has its government institution: the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima.

Unlike the previous system, the regional circumscriptions have an elected government and have a wide array of responsibilities within their jurisdiction. Under the 2002 Organic Law of Regional Governments (Spanish: Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales), there is an ongoing process of transfer of functions from the central government to the regions. A 2005 referendum for the merger of several departments failed to get the necessary electoral support.

Departments are subdivided into provinces and districts.


After declaring its independence in 1821, Peru was divided into departments (Spanish: departamentos), which grew in number from four in 1821 to eleven in 1822 and to twenty-four in 1980:

As political and economic power increasingly concentrated in Lima, the capital city, several administrations attempted to decentralize the country with little success.[1] The 1979 Peruvian Constitution contained provisions for the decentralization of power through the creation of autonomous regions, but they were not implemented.[2] During the later years of the 1985–1990 presidency of Alan García, the government faced the prospect of losing the 1990 presidential elections because of a widespread economic crisis and faltering public support. As a way of creating an alternative source of power, the regime established twelve autonomous regions on January 20, 1989, in the hope of winning some elections at this level.[3] However, due to the haste of their creation, these regional governments were not provided with fiscal resources of their own, so they depended on the goodwill of the central government for funding.[4]

The 1990 presidential elections were marked by the discredit of political parties as evidenced in the election of Alberto Fujimori, an independent candidate. Fujimori withheld financial transfers to regional governments and then, on December 29, 1992, replaced them with government-designated Transitory Councils of Regional Administration (Spanish: Consejos Transitorios de Administración Regional). Having dissolved Congress in the 1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis, Fujimori called an election for a Constitutional Assembly which drafted the 1993 Constitution. This new text included provisions for the creation of regions with autonomous, elected governments, but they were not carried out. A framework law on decentralization (Spanish: Ley Marco de Descentralización) issued on January 30, 1998, confirmed the permanence of transitory councils, now under the supervision of the Ministry of the Presidency.[5]

Fujimori was forced to resign in November 2000 under accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations.[6] After an interim government led by Valentín Paniagua, Alejandro Toledo was elected president for the 2001-2006 period on a platform that included creating regional governments.[7] The new administration laid out the legal framework for the new administrative subdivisions in the Decentralization Bases Law (Spanish: Ley de Bases de la Descentralización), issued on July 17, 2002, and the Organic Law of Regional Governments (Spanish: Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales) issued on November 19, 2002. New regional governments were elected on November 20, 2002, one in each of the former departments and the former Constitutional Province (Spanish: Provincia Constitucional) of Callao. The province of Lima, containing the capital, was excluded from the process; thus, it is not part of any region.

In the 2002 elections, most regional governments went to parties in opposition, with twelve going to the APRA of Alan García and only one each to Possible Peru, the party of president Alejandro Toledo and ally Independent Moralizing Front of Fernando Olivera.[8] The combination of a strong opposition and a weak government led to concerns about an impending political crisis. However, this did not turn out to be the case as the new regional governments were absorbed by local problems and showed little initiative in national politics.[9] As the territorial circumscriptions that regional governments inherited from the former departments are considered too small, the Decentralization Bases Law provides for mergers between departments after a majority of the populations involved express their approval up to become a formal region.[10] The first referendum of this kind was carried out on October 30, 2005, with the following proposals being put to the ballot:

These proposals were rejected by the electorate of all departments involved except for Arequipa. Thus, no merger was carried out.[11]

New elections for regional governments were held on November 19, 2006; most regions went to local political movements rather than to national parties. The APRA, which had won the presidential elections held on June 4, 2006, only won in two regions, all other national parties achieved even less.[12]


Main article: Regional Governments of Peru

According to the Organic Law of Regional Governments, the responsibilities of regional governments include planning regional development, executing public investment projects, promoting economic activities, and managing public property.[13] Regional governments are composed of a president and a council, elected for a four-year term; additionally, there is a coordination council integrated by provincial mayors and representatives of the civil society.[14] The Regional President is the head of government; his functions include proposing and enforcing the budget, appointing government officials, issuing decrees and resolutions, executing regional plans and programs, and administering regional properties and rents.[15] The Regional Council debates and votes upon bills proposed by the regional president, it also oversees all regional officials and can remove the president, its vice president, and any council member from office.[16] The Regional Coordination Council has a consultancy role in planning and budget issues, and it has no executive or legislative powers.[17]

The Organic Law of Regional Governments stipulates the gradual transfer of functions from the central government to the regions, provided they are certified as capable of undertaking these tasks.[18] To oversee this process, the Decentralization Bases Law created a National Council of Decentralization (Spanish: Consejo Nacional de Descentralización).[19] However, this institution was criticized for being bureaucratic and ineffective by the government of Alan García, former president of Peru. Thus, on January 24, 2007, the council was abolished and replaced by the Decentralization Secretariat (Spanish: Secretaría de Descentralización), a dependency of the Prime Minister office.[20] Two months later, the regional presidents gathered in the city of Huánuco established a National Assembly of Regional Governments (Spanish: Asamblea Nacional de Gobiernos Regionales) as an alternative coordinating institution, independent from the Central Government.[21]


Area and population information on the following list has been retrieved from official data by the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, INEI).[22] Areas are rounded to the nearest whole unit. Demographic data is based on the 2023 Census carried out from 2022 to 2023. Population density is given to one decimal place in persons per square kilometer. UBIGEO numbers are codes used by INEI to identify national administrative subdivisions.

Region ISO
Capital Area
Population (2023) Population
density (/km2)
Amazonas PE-AMA 01 Chachapoyas 39,249 403,000 9.9
Ancash PE-ANC 02 Huaraz 35,914 1,052,000 28.9
Apurímac PE-APU 03 Abancay 20,896 427,000 20.0
Arequipa PE-ARE 04 Arequipa 63,345 1,150,000 18.0
Ayacucho PE-AYA 05 Ayacucho 43,815 634,000 14.1
Cajamarca PE-CAJ 06 Cajamarca 33,318 1,370,000 40.8
Callao PE-CAL 07 Callao 147 823,000 5,514.8
Cusco PE-CUS 08 Cusco 71,986 1,187,000 16.3
Huancavelica PE-HUV 09 Huancavelica 22,131 462,000 20.2
Huánuco PE-HUC 10 Huánuco 36,849 746,000 19.8
Ica PE-ICA 11 Ica 21,328 682,000 31.2
Junín PE-JUN 12 Huancayo 37,667 1,105,000 29.0
La Libertad PE-LAL 13 Trujillo 25,500 1,555,000 60.4
Lambayeque PE-LAM 14 Chiclayo 14,231 1,099,000 76.7
Lima PE-LIM 15 Huacho 34,802 879,000 24.9
Loreto PE-LOR 16 Iquitos 368,852 901,000 2.4
Madre de Dios PE-MDD 17 Puerto Maldonado 85,301 104,000 1.1
Moquegua PE-MOQ 18 Moquegua 15,734 178,000 10.1
Pasco PE-PAS 19 Cerro de Pasco 25,320 276,000 10.5
Piura PE-PIU 20 Piura 35,892 1,657,000 45.4
Puno PE-PUN 21 Puno 66,997 1,263,000 18.6
San Martín PE-SAM 22 Moyobamba 51,253 678,000 13.1
Tacna PE-TAC 23 Tacna 16,076 285,000 17.1
Tumbes PE-TUM 24 Tumbes 4,046 204,000 47.4
Ucayali PE-UCA 25 Pucallpa 101,831 415,000 4.0

Former departments

Department Capital city Established Disestablished Fate
Costa Huaura 1821 1823 Incorporated into Lima
Huánuco Tarma 1823 1825 Reorganised into Junín
Huaylas Tarma 1821 1823 Incorporated into Huánuco
Litoral Tacna 1837 1857 Reorganised into Moquegua
Quijos & Maynas Moyobamba 1822 1825 Incorporated into Trujillo
Tarapacá Iquique 1878 1883 Incorporated into Chile
Tarma Tarma 1821 1823 Incorporated into Huánuco
Trujillo Trujillo 1821 1825 Reorganised as La Libertad

See also


  1. ^ Schönwälder, Linking civil society, p. 94.
  2. ^ O'Neill, Decentralizing the State, p. 197.
  3. ^ O'Neill, Decentralizing the State, p. 199.
  4. ^ O'Neill, Decentralizing the State, p. 199.
  5. ^ Schönwälder, Linking civil society, pp. 195–196.
  6. ^ BBC News, "Fujimori: Decline and fall". Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  7. ^ The New York Times, "Opposition Party Makes Strong Showing in Peru Election". Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  8. ^ Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales, Resultados regionales Archived 2007-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on February 28, 2008.
  9. ^ Monge, "Los gobiernos regionales", p. 34.
  10. ^ Ley Nº 27783, Ley de Bases de la Descentralización, Articles Nº 29.
  11. ^ Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales, Referendum para la Integracion y Conformacion de Regiones 2005 Archived 2008-03-26 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 2, 2008.
  12. ^ Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales, Elecciones Regionales y Municipales 2006 Archived 2009-03-24 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on March 2, 2008.
  13. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article Nº 10.
  14. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article Nº 11.
  15. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article Nº 21.
  16. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article Nº 15.
  17. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article Nº 11B.
  18. ^ Ley Nº 27867, Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, Articles Nº 81, 84.
  19. ^ Ley Nº 27783, Ley de Bases de la Descentralización, Articles Nº 23, 24.
  20. ^ Decreto Supremo Nº 007-2007-PCM, Articles Nº 1, 3.
  21. ^ Declaración de Huánuco, Articles Nº 1, 2.
  22. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Banco de Información Distrital Archived 2008-04-23 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on November 30, 2007.