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Saint Lucian Creole
kwéyòl, patwa
Native toSaint Lucia
Native speakers
700,000 (2016)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
acf – Saint Lucian Creole French
scf – San Miguel Creole French
ELPSan Miguel Creole French

Saint Lucian Creole (Kwéyòl [kwejɔl]) is a French-based creole language that is widely spoken in Saint Lucia.[2][3] It is the vernacular language of the country and is spoken alongside the official language of English.

Kwéyòl is a variety of Antillean Creole, and like other varieties spoken in the Caribbean, it combines the syntax of African language origins and a Latin-based vocabulary as shared by the French. Many of the words found in Kwéyòl are comparative to similar sounding words found in other Romance languages such as 'parlere' in Italian. Like its similar Dominican counterpart, some words are derived from the English, French and African languages. There has also been a recorded syntactical influence of the Carib language.[4]

It remains in widespread use in Saint Lucia across the island. Though it is not an official language, the government and media houses present information in Kwéyòl alongside English.


Saint Lucia was first settled by Amerindian groups, more recently the Caribs, and subsequently colonised by the French and the British, who changed hands of control over the island a total of fourteen times. The British first attempted to colonise the island in 1605, but were killed or driven out by the Caribs inhabitants. French groups gradually began colonising the island, and by 1745 they succeeded in regaining control over the island as well as establishing functional administrative settlements.[5]

Like other forms of Antillean Creole, Saint Lucian Creole emerged as a form of communication between the African slaves on Caribbean plantations. It combines Latin based vocabulary has shared by the French with syntax from the various African languages of the slaves.[6] From French groups immigrating from Martinique, a form of Creole was imported and adopted by the black population living in small, remote mountain settlements as a vernacular.[7]

Ownership of St. Lucia alternated between the French and the British between 1778 and 1802 until the British gained complete control over the island in 1803, which was formalised by the Treaty of Paris in 1814. St. Lucia became independent in 1979 with Sir John Compton serving as the first prime minister. English became the official language of the country, though Kwéyòl remained in widespread use throughout the island and was the sole language of the majority of the population. Kwéyòl monolingualism increasingly became less common over time due to the precedence of English within the education system, which became more accessible to the general population through the mid-1960s.[8]


It is a subvariety of Antillean Creole, which is spoken in other islands of the Lesser Antilles, and is very closely related to the varieties spoken in Martinique, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago. The intelligibility rate with speakers of other varieties of Antillean Creole is almost 100%.[9] Its syntactic, grammatical and lexical features are virtually identical to that of Martinican Creole, but, just like its Dominican counterpart, it includes more English loanwords than the Martinican variety.

Like the other Caribbean Creoles, Saint Lucian French Creole combines syntax of African and Carib origin with vocabulary derived primarily from French.[10] In addition, many expressions reflect the presence of English influence. As younger bilingual speakers of Kwéyòl and English grew up, the Kwéyòl language changed to reflect this bilingualism.[11] It is not considered to be mutually intelligible with Standard French, but it is intelligible with the other French creoles of the Lesser Antilles. Kwéyòl is related to Haitian Creole and is mutually intelligible with it despite its distinctive futures.

Kwéyòl is still widely spoken in Saint Lucia and movements from the 1980s onward have increased its use in media, education, and government. Although it has not yet been recognized as an official language alongside English, a large number of St. Lucians has come to view the language more positively and support its official implementation.[12] In the mid-19th century, Kwéyòl was exported to Panama, where it is known as San Miguel Creole French and is now moribund.[13]


The Kwéyol writing system contains 24 letters representing 32 phonemes. This writing system used in St. Lucia and Dominica differs slightly from that used in Guadeloupe and Martinique. The letters <q> and <x> are not used, and the letter <r> only appears in English loan words. The letters <c> and <u> never appear by themselves and are always part of the digraphs <ch> and <ou>.

These are the combinations of letters (digraphs) that represent one sound:

Letter Phoneme Letter Phoneme
A a /a/ M m /m/
An an /ã/ N n /n/
B b /b/ Ng ng /ŋ/
Ch ch /ʃ/ O o /o/
D d /d/ Ò ò /ɔ/
Dj dj /d͡ʒ/ On on /õ/
É é /e/ Ou ou /u/
È è /ɛ/ P p /p/
En en // R r /ɹ/
F f /f/ S s /s/
G g /ɡ/ T t /t/
H h /h/ Tj tj /t͡ʃ/
I i /i/ V v /v/
J j /ʒ/ W w /w/
K k /k/ Y y /j/
L l /l/ Z z /z/



Labial Alveolar Post-


Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ


voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced v z ʒ3 ɣ2
Approximant l ɹ1 j w

Phonetic notes:

  1. This sound only occurs in a select few loan words from English ex. radyo /ɹadjo/ radio.
  2. In many varieties of Creole most notably rural dialects the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ merges with the velar approximant /w/. In this article we will use the written standard for Saint Lucian creole which does not indicate the distinction between the two phonemes.
  3. The voiced post-alveolar fricative /ʒ/ often alternates with the unvoiced glottal fricative /h/: /manʒe/ > /manhe/ "to eat", /ʒape/ > /hape/ "to bark", /ʒadẽ/ > /hadẽ/ "garden"


Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
Front Back
Close-mid õ
Open ã


Personal Pronouns

Kwéyol Weak Form English
mwen, an - I, me
ou w you
i, li y he, she, it
nou - we, us
zòt, zò, hòt, hò - you (plural)
yo - they, them

Kwéyòl makes no distinction of grammatical case in pronouns: 'mwen' can mean I, me, or my.

The first person singular form 'an' is uncommon, but its use is quite widespread in spoken Creole in Guadeloupe.

The pronouns above can fulfill several syntactical roles:

The weak forms occur after vowels:

Palé ba'y! Mwen wè'w.

The pronoun mwen has several contracted forms:

M’a - mwen pa Ng’a - mwen ka

N’a - mwen ka Ng’ay - mwen kay

N’ay - mwen kay M’òkò - mwen pa ankò

Possessive Adjectives

Creole English Example Example
mwen my fiyèl mwen do mwen
ou, w your fiyèl ou do'w
li, y his, her, its fiyèl li do'y
nou our fiyèl nou do nou
zòt your (pl.) fiyèl zòt do zòt
yo their fiyèl yo do yo

In Creole, possessive adjectives are placed after the noun. Ou 'your' and li 'his, her, its' become w and y after a vowel.

Unlike in English or French, possessive adjectives can be used in addition to the indefinite and definite articles: "jan mwen" is 'my friend', "an jan mwen" is 'a friend of mine', and "jan mwen-an" is 'my friend'.

The use of the definite article changes the connotation; whereas "jan mwen" would refer to my friend as opposed to someone else's, "jan mwen-an" would refer to a specific friend who had already been mentioned at a prior point in the conversation.

Possessive Pronouns

Singular Plural
mine san mwen(-an) sé san mwen-an
yours sa (w)ou(-a) sé sa (w)ou-a
his, hers, its sa li(-a) sé sa li-a
ours san nou(-a) sé san nou-a
yours sa zòt(-la) sé sa zòt-la
theirs sa yo(-a) sé sa yo-a
whose sa ki moun


how kouman, ki jan, ki mannyè
what ki sa, sa
when ki lè
where ki koté, ki bò, koté
which, what ki
which one kilès
who ki moun
whose ki moun
why poutji

Ki is used as an interrogative adjective placed before a noun meaning 'what' or 'which'. — "Ki chimiz ou simyé?"; Which shirt do you prefer?

Kilès is an interrogative pronoun. — "Kilès ou simyé?"; Which do you prefer?

Kilès used as the subject directly before the verb is followed by the relative pronoun ki. — "Kilès ki pli gwo?"; Which is bigger?

When ki moun is used as the subject and comes directly before the verb it is followed by the relative pronoun ki. — "Ki moun ki di'w sa?"; Who told you that?

Note, however: Ki moun ou yé?; Who are you?

Ki moun used to mean 'whose' (belonging to whom) and as such directly follows the noun in question. — "Had ki moun ou ka lavé?"; Whose clothes are you washing?


Nouns in Kwéyòl are invariable, they do not inflect for case or number. There is no grammatical gender, unlike French.

Indefinite Definite
Singular an wòch wòch-la
Plural wòch sé wòch-la


The indefinite article is an, on, yan or yon

An mabwiya A house lizard On bétjin A barracuda Yan An egg Yon fèy A leaf

The definite article may take the form -a, -la, -an, or -lan depending on the sounds of the final syllable of the noun it qualifies. It comes after the noun.

latè a the earth

tab la the table

mouton an the sheep

nonm lan the man

Definite Articles
Oral vowel Nasal vowel
Vowel ending -a -an
Consonant ending -la -lan


Verb Tenses
Particle Negative Tense Creole English Creole English
ø pa
Preterite/ Present Perfect I vini He came

He has come

I pa vini He didn't come He hasn't come
ka pa ka


Present Progressive Mwen ka palé

Ng'a palé

I am speaking Mwen pa ka palé

M'a ka palé

I wasn't speaking
kay pa kay Immediate Future Mwen kay alé

Ng'ay alé

I'm going to go Mwen pa kay alé

M'a kay alé

I am not going
pa té Past/ Past Perfect Nou té di We said

We had said

Nou pa té di We didn't say

We hadn't said

té ka pa té ka Progressive Past Zòt té ka manjé Y'all were eating Zòt pa té ka manjé Y'all were not eating
té kay pa té kay Conditional Mwen té kay pran I would take Mwen pa té kay alé I would not go
soti 'have just' Mwen sòti rivé I've just arrived Mwen pa sòti rive I have not just gone out
té soti 'had just' Albè té sòti sòti Albert had just gone out Albè té sòti sòti Albert had not just gone gone out
ja p'òkò


(pa ankò)

'already' Sé timanmay-la ja fè The children already did Sé timanmay-la p'òkò fè

Sé timanmay-la pò'ò fè

The children have not already done

The children had not yet done

Verbs in Creole are invariable and are not conjugated. Instead tense and mood are expressed using various particles placed before the verb.

It also indicates the present perfect, this difference inferred through context: pwèt-la bwè kafé the priest has drunk coffee

There is a group of verbs, mostly modals and verbs of emotion which do not follow this rule and instead express the present tense when used on their own. These verbs are:

ni 'to have' sa 'to be able to' 'to be able to' vlé 'to want' konnèt 'to know' sav 'to know' enmen 'to love' kontan 'to like' hayi 'to hate' simyé 'to prefer' kwè 'to believe' dwé 'to owe' wigwété 'to regret'

Mak ni an pil lahan 'Mark has a lot of money' Kilès kay ou simyé? Which house do you prefer? Ou vlé witounen denmen 'You want to return tomorrow'

Tibway-la ka wè kabwit-la The by sees the goat

Fanm-lan ka déjnen The woman is having breakfast

Lapli ka tonbé an chay an livènaj It rains a lot during the rainy season

Serial Verbs

A feature which Saint Lucian French Creole shares with other West Atlantic Creole languages is the ability to string verbs together.

A main verb may be combined with a select group of verbs of motion (namely alé 'to go' vini 'to come' kouwi 'to run' pòté 'to carry' mennen 'to lead' voyé 'to send')

I kouwi alé lékòl He went to school running.

Irregular verbs

There are only three irregular verbs in Creole alé (to go), gadé (to look, watch) and the copula .

Alé also forms a contraction with the verb particle ka; ka alé kalé ka ay kay.

In the present sé is not used to link a noun and a predicative adjective. It is used before a noun.

Nonm-lan ho. The man is tall. (Lit. The man tall)

but: I sé an nonm ho. He is a tall man.

The past tense also has two forms either the past tense particle or the form sété with these forms being interchangeable.

Tense Form
Present ø, sé, yé
Past té, sété
Future kay (ké)
Conditional té kay (té ké)

The future and conditional forms and are not used in Saint Lucia but can be heard on other islands where Creole is spoken.


òbò (Guadeloupe)

Yo mouté abò minibous-la. They got into the bus.

1) I mété kwéyon-an adan pòch li. He put the pencil in his pocket. 2) I sòti mouchwè adan pòch li. He took the kerchief out of his pocket.

Yo pa ka viv akòdans pawòl Bondyé. They are not living according to God's word.

Kon kannòt-la wivé alapòté tjé-a, péchè-a mawé kòd-la vitman. When the boat arrived alongside the dock the fisherman tied the rope quickly.

Yo té asiz alimans yonn a lòt. They sat side by side.

Sé timanmay-la ka jwé an savann-an. The children are playing in the field.

Tifi-a séwé pòpòt li anba kouch-la. The girl hid her doll under the bed.

1) Jibyé-a andidan kalòj-la. The bird is inside the cage. 2)Kwab-la sòti andidan twou-a. The crab exited the hole.

Andji ou édé mwen ou ka wi mwen! Instead of helping me you are laughing at me!

Lanp-lan ka pann anho tab-la. The lamp is hanging above the table.

1) Liv-la anlè tab-la. The book is on top of the table. 2) Yo tiyé'y anlè tab-la. They took it off the table.

Nou wè'y anmitan lawi-a. We saw him in the middle of the street.

I té ka séwé anpami sé moun-nan. He was hiding among those people.

Motoka-a ant légliz-la èk lékòl-la. The car is between the church and the school.

Ou pé pwan tout sé liv-la antiwan sé sala. You can take all the books except those ones.

Yo antwé yonn apwé lòt. They entered one after the other.

1) Bonm-lan asou mach-la. The bucket is on the step.2) Gwanmanman mwen tiwé chòdyè-a asou difé-a. My grandmother took the cooking pot off the fire.

3) Polis-la maché asou nonm-lan. The police officer walked towards the man. 4) Mwen pa lontan palé asou politik. I don't like talking about politics.

asi (Guadeloupe) sou (Haiti)

Fè sa ba li. Do that for him. Fanm-lan achté an bonbon ban mwen. The woman bought me a cake. Nou kay fè'y bay zòt. We'll do it for you.

Wétjen-an vini bò tjé-a. The shark came near to the dock.

Sé chouval-la té ka pozé bòdaj chimen-an. The horses were resting next to the road.

Dapwé'w mwen té ka pasé an ti chimen. You thought I was walking on the small path.

1) Dépi ansyen dat nonm ka jwé gwenndé. People have played dice since ancient times. 2) I té ni gwo dlo dépi Bèson pou wivé Kastwi. There was flooding from Bexon to Castries.

Chyen-an dèwò kay-la. The dog is outside the house.

1) Machann-nan dèyè yan pyébwa. The vendor is behind the tree. 2) Sé chyen-an ka kouwi dèyè chat-la. The dogs are running after the cat.

I alé Langlitè a laj di ventan. He went to England at the age of twenty. Sé gwanmoun-nan ka palé di politik. The elders are talking about politics.

Ou pé mouté montany-lan ki doubout douvan'w-la. You can climb the mountain that stands before you.

Sé polis-la awèsté toutmoun ki té adan kay wonm-lan èksèpté nonm sala. The police arrested everyone who was in the rum shop except that man.

Mak té alé an vil épi manman´y. Mark went to town with his mother. Nou kontan twavay èvèw. We like to work with you.

1) Fanm-lan ka wété dis kilomèt hòd twavay li-a. The woman lives ten kilometres from work. 2) Tounen hòd péché zòt! Turn away from your sins!

Jis ki koté ou ka wivé Up to which point are you going (Where are you going)

Mwen té kay vlé palé ba'w konsèné ich ou. I would like to speak to you about your child.

1) Nou kont lwa nèf-la. We are against the new law. 2) Mwen faché kont bonm-lan ki tonbé-a. I am angry about the bucket that fell.

Yo achté tout ba'ay lanmen'y. They bought everything from him.

Chatou ka viv ofon lanmè-a. Octopuses live at the bottom of the sea.

Chwézi wòb sala olyè sala. Choose this dress instead of that one.

Nou maché tout owon vilaj-la ka chaché timanmay sala. We walked all around the village looking for that child.

alantou (Guadeloupe) otou (Haiti)

1) Bondyé sové nou pa lagwas li. God saved us through his grace. 2) Yo ka vann zowanj dé dòla pa liv. They sell oranges for two dollars a pound.

1)Tantant mwen wété la pou dé nanné. My aunt lived there for two years. 2) Machann-nan vann dé bwapen ba li pou sis dòla. The vendor sold him two breadfruits for six dollars.

3) Nou wimèsyé'y pou vizité nou. We thanked him for visiting us. 4) I vini pou étidyé. He came to study. 5) Sé pou nou alé an hòtè chaché manjé. We have to go to the country to look for food.

6) Ou ni pou éséyé. You have to try.

Légliz-la pwé lapòs-la. The church is near the post office.

I kouwi jik bòdlanmè-a san soulyé. He ran all the way to the sea side without shoes.

Silon jij-la nonm-lan té koupab. According to the judge the man was guilty.

I ka maché vizavi wout-la. He is walking in line with the road.


The Vocabulary of SLC is mostly derived from French with important contributions from English and West African languages.

English Derived Vocabulary

Word Meaning English Word Meaning English
akennsin type of freshwater fish Atkinson/Tilapia mitin meeting
amèn amen motoka car motor car
bak to reverse back nòlaj knowledge
baka supporter backer nòs nurse
banndjo banjo panyt pint
bék flat bread cooked on hot plate bake pennsil penis pencil
bèlibann cinch, girth bellyband pitj to pave with asphalt pitch
bésin basin plasta bandage plaster
bol ball, cricket bowl plég plague
bway boy plén aeroplane
chéd shed, shelter shade pwotèkté,


to protect
chlen 25 cents shilling radyo radio
diskasyon discussion rèkòd record
djal attractive girl or woman girl roro uproar, tumult row
djip jeep sayd side
djòb job sentdjòn Saint John flower Saint John
djòs just slak loose slack
dòla dollar stéchann police station station
drayv to drive swing swing
èkstré X-ray switi sweetie, candy sweetie
fak gardening fork fork taks tax
faktri factory tanmadòz tomato
fama farmer taya tire
fas to fast tép tape
fin thin tim team
flas thermos flask tin can tin
fridj fridge titj to teach
gòg liquor grog titja teacher
hèlsenta health centre tiyéta theatre
ilèkté to elect tjiki nosy cheeky
ka care tjok clogged choked
kanmèl camel tjòkanblòk haphazardly chockablock
kanp camp, camping camp tou too
kapa small change copper trakta tractor
kawozin kerosene tròk truck
kés court case case vann van
kòlvèt culvert waflé to raffle
konpyouta computer waya wire
kòrèk good, OK, well correct widjèkté to reject
layt light (that shines) light wivòlva revolver, pistol revolver
mannwa warship man of war wòf wharf
misték mistake yis yeast

Creole is a language historically and primarily spoken in rural areas. As such it has a large assortment of words related to nature, agriculture and fishing

Zannimo - Animals

Jibyé - Birds

gwigwi poul chicken hawk mwennson type of small bird
gwiv Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) pèdwi wild dove
jako St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) pélékan pelican
jibyé lapli rain bird pijon pigeon
kanna duck pipirit Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis)
kawouj St. Lucia Oriole (Icterus laudabilis) poul hen
kayal egret, cowbird sikwiyé Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola)
kilibwi, koulibwi hummingbird sisi Bondyé type of humming bird
kòbo vulture sisi zèb Black-faced Grassquit (Melanospiza bicolor)
kodenn turkey sizo Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)
kòk cockerel toutwèl Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita)
koukou mannyòk Mangrove Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor) twanblè trembler
kwabyé Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) wanmyé wood pigeon
lèg eagle wondèl a type of bird
malfini chicken hawk zatolan Common Ground Dove (Columbina passerina)
mèl black bird pitjwit Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)

Pwéson - Fish

akennsin type of fresh water fish kwab crab
babawen goatfish kwab hont red sea crab
bak river crab kwab mal zòwèy fiddler crab
balawou a type of small fish with a long snout labé drum fish (Equetus Ardenherodia)
banndjo skipjack tuna makwéyo mackerel
bawé king fish, wahoo pantoufouyé hammerhead shark
bétjin barracuda pwéson amé pufferfish
bous Queen trigger fish (Balistes vetula) pwéson gwo zyé redsnapper
chadon nwè black sea urchin (Diadema antillarum) pwéson nas potfish
chadon, chadwon white sea urchin (Strongltocentrus spp.) siwik blue crab
chatou octopus sòlda hermit crab
chès squid souwi goatfish
djouk kind of pot fish taza king mackerel
dowad dolphin tilapiya tilapia
hawansò herring ton tuna
kaka bawi type of salt water fish touloulou beach side crab
kaka poul type of salt water fish volan flying fish
kamo type of fresh water fish wétjen shark
kawanng amberjack fish wétjen blan white shark
kiliyou, kiliwou type of fish wétjen sab sand shark
kòdonnyé jackfish zagaya a type of crab
kòf boxfish zandji, jandji fresh water eel
konng moray eel zòfi needle fish, garfish

Mamifè - Mammals

balenn whale léfan elephant
bèf cow lyon lion
bouk billy goat machwen porpoise
bouwik donkey mangous mongoose
chanmo camel mannikou opossum
chat cat milé mule
chouval horse mouton sheep
chyen dog sòlsouwi bat
dowad dolphin souwit mouse
kabwit goat tig, chat tig tiger
kanmèl camel wadenn guinea pig
kochon pig wat rat
lapen rabbit

Bèt - Bugs

bèt kochon type of insect matoutou tarantula
bèt patat sweet potato bug mawisosé dragonfly
bèt san zo slug maygwen mosquito
bètafé firefly mòpyon pubic louse
bètannipyé centipede mouch fly
chini caterpillar mouklé click beetle
chouval BonDyé praying mantis papiyon moth
djèp wasp papiyòt butterfly
eskoupyon scorpion pinèz bedbug
fonmi ant pis flea
kalmason snail pou head louse
kangowi millipede worm
katin black widow spider ven kat nèditan black widow
klaklak, krakrak locust vonvon, vonvon myèl, myèl bee
kwitjèt grasshopper wavèt cockroach
kwitjèt bwa type of very large grasshopper yenyen fruit fly
kwitjèt senkèy coffin shaped grasshopper zagwiyen spider
kwitjèt vè cicada zwi cricket

Wèptil épi anfibyen - Reptiles and amphibians

sèpan snake agalo leatherback turtle
kouwès Kouwes snake kawèt sea turtle
zanndoli tree lizard kwapo toad
zanndoli tè ground lizard tolin, ti tolin type of small frog
léza iguana gwat kwi type of small frog
kayman alligator gounouy frog
tòti sea turtle tèt chyen boa constrictor
mòlòkòy tortoise dwagon dragon

Place names

Sent Lisi - Saint Lucia

Babonno Babonneau Labowi Laborie
Bèson Bexon Lanslawé Anse la Raye
Chwazèy, Swazèy Choiseul Mikou Micoud
Dennwi Dennery Ojé Augier
Déwiso Dérisseaux Pwalen Praslin
Gwozilé Gros Ilet Sent Lisi Saint Lucia
Kannawi Canaries Soufwiyè, Soufouyè Soufrière
Kastwi Castries Vyé Fò Vieux Fort


  1. ^ Saint Lucian Creole French at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
    San Miguel Creole French at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ Ethnologue code for Saint Lucian Creole French (spoken in Dominica and Saint Lucia) with the ISO 639-3 code: acf. However, it notes that their rate of comprehension is 90%, which would qualify them as dialects of a single language.
  3. ^ "Acf | ISO 639-3".
  4. ^ Mitchell, Edward S. (2010). St. Lucian Kwéyòl on Saint Croix: A Study of Language Choice and Attitudes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4438-2147-6.
  5. ^ Le Page, R. B. (Robert Brock), 1920-2006. (1985). Acts of identity : Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Tabouret-Keller, Andrée, 1929-. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-521-30260-9. OCLC 11532413.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Simmons-Mcdonald, Hazel (December 2006). "Cultural Preservation and Language Reclamation: The St. Lucian Paradox". Caribbean Quarterly. 52 (4): 57–73. doi:10.1080/00086495.2006.11672294. S2CID 160475749.
  7. ^ Le Page, R. B. (Robert Brock), 1920-2006. (1985). Acts of identity : Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Tabouret-Keller, Andrée, 1929-. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-521-30260-9. OCLC 11532413.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ St-Hilaire, Aonghas. (2011). Kwéyòl in postcolonial Saint Lucia : globalization, language planning, and national development. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN 978-90-272-8464-8. OCLC 758491490.
  9. ^ Carrington, Lawrence D. (1988), Creole Discourse and Social Development (PDF), International Development Research Centre, p. 12
  10. ^ Frank, David B., We Don't Speak a Real Language: Creoles as Misunderstood and Endangered Languages (PDF)
  11. ^ Simmons-Mcdonald, Hazel (December 2006). "Cultural Preservation and Language Reclamation: The St. Lucian Paradox". Caribbean Quarterly. 52 (4): 57–73. doi:10.1080/00086495.2006.11672294. S2CID 160475749.
  12. ^ Hilaire, Aonghas St. (January 2009). "Postcolonial identity politics, language and the schools in St. Lucia". International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 12 (1): 31–46. doi:10.1080/13670050802149507. S2CID 144929739.
  13. ^ "Endangered Languages Project- San Miguel Creole French". Endangered Languages Project. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.