Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of awareness of oneself. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. Historically, "self-consciousness" was synonymous with "self-awareness", referring to a state of awareness that one exists and that one has consciousness.[1] While "self-conscious" and "self-aware" are still sometimes used interchangeably, particularly in philosophy, "self-consciousness" has commonly come to refer to a preoccupation with oneself, especially with how others might perceive one's appearance or one's actions. An unpleasant feeling of self-consciousness may occur when one realizes that one is being watched or observed, the feeling that "everyone is looking" at oneself. Some people are habitually more self-conscious than others. Unpleasant feelings of self-consciousness sometimes become associated with shyness or paranoia.

Notable opponents of self-consciousness include Thomas Carlyle.[2][3]


When feeling self-conscious, one becomes aware of even the smallest of one's own actions. Such awareness can impair one's ability to perform complex actions. Adolescence is believed to be a time of heightened self-consciousness. A person with a chronic tendency toward self-consciousness may be shy or introverted.[4]


Svetlana reflects herself in the mirror (painting by Karl Briullov, 1836).

Unlike self-awareness, which in a philosophical context is being conscious of oneself as an individual, self-consciousness – being excessively conscious of one's appearance or manner – can be a problem at times.[5] Self-consciousness is often associated with shyness and embarrassment, in which case a lack of pride and low self-esteem can result. In a positive context, self-consciousness may affect the development of identity, for it is during periods of high self-consciousness that people come the closest to knowing themselves objectively. Self-consciousness affects people in varying degrees, as some people are constantly self-monitoring or self-involved, while others are completely oblivious about themselves.[6]

Psychologists frequently distinguish between two kinds of self-consciousness, private and public. Private self-consciousness is a tendency to introspect and examine one's inner self and feelings. Public self-consciousness is an awareness of the self as it is viewed by others. This kind of self-consciousness can result in self-monitoring and social anxiety. Both private and public self-consciousness are viewed as personality traits that are relatively stable over time, but they are not correlated. Just because an individual is high on one dimension does not mean that he or she is high on the other.[7]

Different levels of self-consciousness affect behavior, as it is common for people to act differently when they "lose themselves in a crowd". Being in a crowd, being in a dark room, or wearing a disguise creates anonymity and temporarily decreases self-consciousness (see deindividuation). This can lead to uninhibited, sometimes destructive behavior.[citation needed]


Main article: Self-conscious emotions

See also


  1. ^ Richard P. Lipka/Thomas M. Brinthaupt Self-perspectives Across the Life Span, p. 228, SUNY Press, 1992 ISBN 978-0-7914-1003-5
  2. ^ Cowlishaw, Brian (2004). "View-hunting". In Cumming, Mark (ed.). The Carlyle Encyclopedia. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 481. ISBN 9780838637920. Retrieved 21 October 2023. Thomas Carlyle disagreed with the maudlin self- consciousness of British Romanticism.
  3. ^ Timko, Michael (18 June 1988) [1988]. "Prophetic Utterances". Carlyle and Tennyson (reprint ed.). Basingstoke: Springer. p. 175. ISBN 9781349093076. Retrieved 21 October 2023. '[...] Carlyle's work-ethic and his concomitant insistence on self-forgetfulness were only the most extreme of Victorian reactions to an immobilizing self-consciousness. [...] Carlyle's principle of anti-self-consciousness was one of the discoveries which led him out of his mental crisis.'
  4. ^ W. Ray Crozier Shyness: Development, Consolidation, and Change, p. 71, Routledge, 2000 ISBN 978-0-415-22432-1
  5. ^ Campbell, J (1995). "The body image and self-consciousness. In J. L. Bermúdez, A.J. Marcel, & N. Eilan (Eds.)". The Body and the Self: 29–42 – via Cambridge, MA, U.S: The MIT Press.
  6. ^ Nathaniel Branden The Psychology of Self-Esteem, p. 42, Nash Publishing Corp., 1969 ISBN 0-8402-1109-0
  7. ^ Bernd Simon Identity in Modern Society, p. 30, Blackwell Publishing, 2004 ISBN 978-0-631-22747-2