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A lady seated by herself
This next to last scene of the Admonitions Scroll shows a palace lady sitting in quiet contemplation, presumably following the admonitions in the accompanying lines:[1] "Therefore I say: Be cautious and circumspect in all you do, and from this, good fortune will arise. Calmly and respectfully think about your actions, and honor and fame will await you."

Self-reflection is the ability to witness and evaluate our own cognitive, emotional, and behavioural processes. In psychology, other terms used for this self-observation include 'reflective awareness', and 'reflective consciousness', which originate from the work of William James.[2][3]

Self-reflection depends upon a range of functions, including introspection and metacognition, which develop from infancy through adolescence, affecting how individuals interact with others, and make decisions.[4]

Self-reflection is related to the philosophy of consciousness, the topic of awareness, and the philosophy of mind.[5]

The concept of self-reflection is ancient. More than 3,000 years ago, "Know thyself" was the first of three Delphic maxims inscribed in the forecourt of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.[6] It is also considered a form of thought that generates new meaning[7] and an opportunity to engage with what seemingly appears incongruous.[8]


Early writings

Notions about the status of humanity may be revealed by the etymology of ancient words for humans. Latin homo (PIE *dʰǵʰm̥mō) means "of the earth, earthling", probably in opposition to "celestial" beings. Greek ἂνθρωπος (mycenaean *Anthropos) means "low-eyed", again probably contrasting with a divine perspective.[9]

From the third-millennium Old Kingdom of Egypt, belief in an eternal afterlife of the human ka is documented along with the notion that the actions of a person would be assessed to determine the quality of that existence. A claim of dominance of humanity alongside radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life is asserted in the Hebrew Bible Genesis 1:28, where dominion of humans is promised, but contrarily, King Solomon who is the alleged author of Ecclesiastes according to rabbinic tradition, bewails the vanity of all human effort.[10]

Classical antiquity

Protagoras made the famous claim that humans are "the measure of all things; of what is, that it is; of what is not, that it is not". Socrates advocated the ancient adage for all humans to "Know thyself", and gave the (doubtlessly tongue-in-cheek) definition of humans as, "featherless bipeds" (Plato, Politicus). Aristotle described humans as the "communal animal" (ζῶον πολιτικόν), i.e., emphasizing society-building as a central trait of human nature, and being a "thought bearer animal" (ζῶον λόγον ἔχον, animal rationale),[citation needed] a term that also may have inspired the species taxonomy, Homo sapiens.[citation needed]

Middle Ages

The dominant world-view of medieval Europe, as directed by the Catholic Church, was that human existence is essentially good and created in "original grace", but because of concupiscence, is marred by sin, and that its aim should be to focus on a beatific vision after death. The thirteenth century pope Innocent III wrote about the essential misery of earthly existence in his "On the misery of the human condition"—a view that was disputed by, for example, Giannozzo Manetti in his treatise "On human dignity".[citation needed]


See also: Renaissance humanism

A famous quote of Shakespeare's Hamlet (II, ii, 115–117), expresses the contrast of human physical beauty, intellectual faculty, and ephemeral nature:

What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust?

Selbstbetrachtung (self-reflection)
pen and ink drawing by Alfred Kubin (c. 1901)

René Descartes famously and succinctly proposed: Cogito ergo sum[11] (French: "Je pense donc je suis"; English: "I think, therefore I am"), not an assessment of humanity, but certainly reflecting a capacity for reasoning as a characteristic of humans, that potentially, could include individual self-reflection.

Modern era

The Enlightenment was driven by a renewed conviction, that, in the words of Immanuel Kant, "Man is distinguished above all animals by his self-consciousness, by which he is a 'rational animal'." In conscious opposition to this tradition during the nineteenth century, Karl Marx defined humans as a "labouring animal" (animal laborans). In the early twentieth century, Sigmund Freud dealt a serious blow to positivism by postulating that, to a large part, human behaviour is controlled by the unconscious mind.[citation needed] Joseph Conrad uses the analogy of chemistry to describe how the tiniest idea can stimulate a person during reflection like a "little drop precipitating the process of crystallization in a test tube containing a colourless solution".[12]

Mandatory or advisory periods for reflection are built into some regulatory requirements, for example changes to divorce law in England and Wales adopted in 2022 prescribe a 20-week period of reflection before certain proceedings are concluded,[13] and the European Union's Mortgage Credit Directive allows for a seven-day period of reflection before a mortgage offer needs to be accepted.[14]


Self-reflection is a process of communicating internally with oneself. When one takes time to think about their character or behavior, they analyze the reasons that caused the behavior, where this comes from, what the outcome of the behavior means to them, is it effective for them and what they can do about it. Individuals process this information about themselves to help them find methods to deal with the information gained during the self-reflection process and applying this information to future behavior has been shown to elicit strength and joy.[15]

Self-reflection helps people in multiple ways:

First, self-reflection fortifies an individual's emotional stability. When setting aside some effort to self-reflect they are looking inwards. This assists with building two parts to their emotional intelligence:[16] self-awareness and self-concept. Self-awareness enables a person to comprehend their feelings, qualities, shortcomings, drives, and objectives, and recognize their effect on others. Self-concept includes the capacity to control or divert their troublesome feelings and motivations and adjust to changing circumstances. Building these skills will improve both their personal and professional life and language learning.[17]

Second, self-reflection enhances a person's self-esteem and gives transparency for decision-making. Self-esteem is significant for dealing with a filled, complex life that incorporates meetings, vocation, family, network, and self-necessities. It helps in decision-making, effective communication, and building influence. The more they think about their qualities and how they can grow them the more confident they will be later on. A person may become happy with their good qualities and identify the ones that require growth.

Third, the self-reflection process requires honesty of the individual in order to be effective. When a person is honest with themselves when self-reflecting, they are able to understand their experiences; this person can grow and makes changes based on what they have learned and lead them to better choices.

Fourth, self-reflection adapts a person's actions in future situations. Making time to step back and consider their behaviors, the consequences of those behaviors, and the expectations of those behaviors can give them a source of a clear insight and learning.[18] A person engaging in self-reflection may ask themselves: What appeared to have a more remarkable impact? How can we accomplish a greater amount of that and enhance it? This cycle of reflection and variation—before, during, after actions—is regularly a recognized part of the process.


See also: Sobriety

A study involving clients in a twelve-step program explored the role of self‑reflection through diary writing, not only as daily therapy, but in a retrospective context. The study concluded that clients who read and reflected on their past diary entries demonstrated increased participation in the treatment program.[19] The twelve-step program is based on self reflection and the accountability of actions past. The article by Mitchell Friedman indicates that success in one's recovery relies on self-reflection.[20]

See also


  1. ^ McCausland, Shane (2003), First Masterpiece of Chinese Painting: The Admonitions Scroll, British Museum Press, p. 78, ISBN 978-0-7141-2417-9.
  2. ^ James, W. (1981/1890). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Dover.
  3. ^ Farthing, G. W. (1992). The psychology of consciousness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  4. ^ "Self-Reflection | Encyclopedia of Adolescence - Credo Reference". Retrieved 2020-12-17.
  5. ^ Porter, Roy, ed. (2002-09-09). Rewriting the Self. doi:10.4324/9780203439159. ISBN 9780203439159.
  6. ^ "Pausanias, Description of Greece, Phocis and Ozolian Locri, chapter 24".
  7. ^ Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (15 October 2018). Phenomenology of perception. Creative Media Partners, LLC. ISBN 978-0-343-27541-9. OCLC 1105849980.
  8. ^ Heidegger, Martin (1966). Discourse on thinking : a translation of Gelassenheit. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-131459-9. OCLC 821883241.
  9. ^ Willi, Andreas (2008-09-01). "Genitive problems: Mycenaean vs. later Greek". Glotta. 84 (1–4): 239–272. doi:10.13109/glot.2008.84.14.239. ISSN 0017-1298.
  10. ^ "Book Review: Calvin's Doctrine of Man, by <scp>T. F. Torrance</scp>. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1957. 183 pp. $3.00; Calvin's Doctrine of the Word and Sacraments, by <scp>Ronald S. Wallace</scp>. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1958. 258 pp. $3.00". Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology. 12 (4): 501–502. 1958. doi:10.1177/002096435801200465. ISSN 0020-9643.
  11. ^ Descartes, René; Principia Philosophiae (1644), Part 1, article 7: "Ac proinde hæc cognitio, ego cogito, ergo sum, est omnium prima & certissima, quæ cuilibet ordine philosophanti occurrat."
  12. ^ Conrad, Joseph (1995), "The Secret Agent: A Simple Tale", Joseph Conrad: Three Novels, London: Macmillan Education UK, pp. 93–338, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-23831-6_2, ISBN 978-0-333-61096-1, retrieved 2022-06-01.
  13. ^ E-Negotiation Ltd, trading as Amicable, amicable’s checklist for the 20-week reflection period, published 30 May 2022, accessed 16 February 2023
  14. ^ Vaidya, N., How long does a mortgage offer last?, Uswitch Limited, trading as Bankrate, accessed 16 February 2023
  15. ^ SELF-REFLECTION: The Key to An Amazing Life. N.p., Sandra Christian, 2020
  16. ^ "Emotional intelligence", Wikipedia, 2020-12-14, retrieved 2020-12-17
  17. ^ Wind, Attila M. (2021-12-01). "Nonlinearity and inter- and intra-individual variability in the extent of engagement in self-reflection and its role in second language writing: A multiple-case study". System. 103: 102672. doi:10.1016/j.system.2021.102672. hdl:10831/83077. ISSN 0346-251X. S2CID 239485728.
  18. ^ Toros, Karmen; LaSala, Michael C. (2019-03-04). "Child protection workers' understanding of the meaning and value of self-reflection in Estonia". Reflective Practice. 20 (2): 266–278. doi:10.1080/14623943.2019.1588718. ISSN 1462-3943. S2CID 151241092.
  19. ^ Stephenson, Geoffrey M.; Zygouris, Nikolaos (February 2007). "Effects of self reflection on engagement in a 12-step addiction treatment programme: A linguistic analysis of diary entries". Addictive Behaviors. 32 (2): 416–424. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.05.011. ISSN 0306-4603. PMID 16822620.
  20. ^ Friedman, Mitchell (2016-12-01). "The 12 Steps of Addiction Recovery Programs as an influence on leadership development: a personal narrative". International Journal for Transformative Research. 3 (2): 15–23. doi:10.1515/ijtr-2016-0009. ISSN 2353-5415.