Slowcore,[a] also known as sadcore, is a subgenre of indie rock and alternative rock characterised by slow tempos, minimalist and atmospheric instrumentation, and subdued and emotional lyrical performances.

While the genre's history is rooted in bands from the 1980s that formed to rebel against aggressive mainstream genres like grunge, it was not until the 1990s that it became a known phrase. By the mid '90s, slowcore had been established as one of the era's microgenres, supported primarily by the Duluth-based band Low. Low was not the first band to produce slowcore; Codeine, Red House Painters, and Bedhead all released music earlier in the decade, and American Music Club preceded them by a decade. Regardless, the soft and slow sound of their debut, I Could Live in Hope (1994), and their albums that followed over the next several years, came to define slowcore. Spain, Arab Strap, and Ida, among others, all followed Low and furthered the reach of the genre, and by the 2000s, slowcore had a clear sound, even if it lacked obvious categorisation. Bands like Carissa's Wierd, Songs: Ohia, and Duster incorporated its archetypical sound in their music throughout the introductory years of the 21st century, while others, including Hope Sandoval & the Warm Inventions, Grouper, and Sun Kil Moon experimented and deviated while staying within the genre's confines. Since then, several other musicians and bands have been described as slowcore by critics.

The term "slowcore" derives from "slow", referring to the tempo and energy of the music, and "-core", which refers to a scene, style, or musical subgenre. Sadcore is similar. The term itself has an unclear origin, though sources suggest "slowcore"'s use started in the early 1990s. Scholars and bands alike have shown ambivalence towards the name, with some calling it pejorative.

Characteristics

Slowcore is considered a subgenre of indie rock, alternative rock, and pop. There is no definitive characterisation of the genre,[4] however it is typically defined by slow tempos with a sombre and atmospheric approach to songwriting and composition.[5] Slowcore artists often take influence from related genres, including dream pop, post-rock, folk, and americana.[6][1] Drone and ambient music are also cited as being similar.[7] Less frequently, slowcore songs borrow elements from other genres, including shoegaze and midwest emo.[8]

Backing instrumentation is sparse, which contrasted with the genres it was derived from. Slowcore uses simple melodies over a prolonged period to invoke saddened emotions; Andrea Swensson of Pitchfork wrote that the genre "gently pulls [the listener] out of linear time".[9] While the songs can implement choruses, they often lack intense changes in instrumentation. Chris Brokaw of Codeine facetiously stated that he could "play a snare hit, go get a drink and be back at the drumkit before the next beat".[10] Stuart Braithwaite, a founding member of the renowned post-rock band Mogwai, said "You weren't going to play [slowcore] at parties, but it was beautiful: the lyrics bare and honest, the musicality sparing".[10]

Lyrics within slowcore are often melancholic, with the vocal performances subdued.[5] For example, Swedish singer Stina Nordenstam has been described as slowcore because of "her sadly beautiful little-girl whisper" style of singing.[11] Emotion is a core component of slowcore, and the sparse instrumentation is used to emphasise the singer's voice.[10] In 1998, SF Weekly wrote that "The best thing about slowcore [...] is that they demand the listener pay attention. The worst thing about them is that sometimes you fall asleep by the third song".[12]

Sadcore

A woman wearing a white dress laying on a red velvet couch in front of a grandiose red wall with gold accents
Lana Del Rey, pictured in 2013, has self-described her music as "Hollywood sadcore".

Slowcore is occasionally referred to as "sadcore", and many journalists and scholars consider them to be synonymous labels for the same genre.[13][11][8][14] Regardless, when they are distinguished, the differences are attributed to a heightened melancholy in the lyrics of sadcore songs.[15][16][17]

The sadcore categorisation saw considerable use in the early 2000s. Mentions include The Washington Post calling Mark Eitzel, the lead singer of American Music Club, the "reluctant king of sadcore" in 2002[18] and LA Weekly calling Charlyn Marshall (stage name Cat Power) the "Queen of Sadcore" in 2003.[19] Reviewers also used it in passing for albums such as Red House Painters' Rollercoaster (1993),[20] Shearwater's Everybody Makes Mistakes (2002),[21] and Low's box set A Lifetime of Temporary Relief (2004).[22] Since then, Lana Del Rey self-described her music as "Hollywood sadcore" in an interview with Vogue in 2011.[23][24] Phoebe Bridgers's music has also been called sadcore, a descriptor she dislikes: speaking to The New Zealand Herald in 2023, she said "I hate the 'sad girl' label".[25]

Etymology

Within music, the suffix "-core" infers a scene or style, originating with "hardcore".[26][27][28] The American Dialect Society describes it more generally as a "productive suffix for aesthetic trends".[29] "Slow" refers to the pace of the music.[30] For "sadcore", the same applies, except "sad" refers to the emotion of the lyrics.[15]

There is no definitive origin of the label "slowcore" outside of the agreement between scholars that its use began in the 1990s.[31][4][2] The first instance of "slowcore" cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1991: Chuck Eddy's book Stairway to Hell: The 500 Best Heavy Metal Albums in the Universe.[32] Another claim to the origin of the term is from Alan Sparhawk of the band Low. In an interview with The Paper Crane podcast, Sparhawk said his friend had coined the term "slowcore" as a joke and that he had humorously mentioned it in one of his band's earliest shows (c. 1993).[33] He said that after he used it in an interview, the popularity of the phrase increased, as did Low's media attention.[34]

Reception

The "slowcore" label has been criticised by scholars and bands, who have called it pejorative.[30][35] Matt Kadane of Bedhead called it an "insult" and Jim Putnam of Radar Bros. resisted the term and continuously told music critics that his band was "not slowcore".[10] Similarly, members of Low, a band often considered monumental in the growth of the genre, disliked the label:[2] in 1998, Sparhawk called it "cheesy".[35] Regardless, the term grew in popularity and in an interview with Vice in 2018, Sparhawk recognised his band as being influential in slowcore's growth and success.[36]

History

Late 1980s: Stylistic origins

Three people performing on stage at Bush Hall, in the United Kingdom. They are illuminated by red and blue lights.
American Music Club performing at Bush Hall in 2008. They are considered to be one of the earliest slowcore bands.

The sound that would become known as "slowcore" began emerging in the United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a counterpoint to the rapid growth of louder rock genres like grunge.[37][38] Unlike these genres, the early years of slowcore did not have a defined scene or any geographic hotspots.[4] American Music Club are considered an early slowcore band.[34][39] Releasing their debut The Restless Stranger in 1985,[40] the band's music was slow and with characteristics akin to genres like folk and singer-songwriter.[41] This style was echoed by other bands at the time, such as the Canadian Cowboy Junkies, who were creating minimalist country and blues,[42][43] and would come to define aspects of slowcore.[1] The 1984 album Songs from Suicide Bridge, recorded by folk singer-songwriters Eric Caboor and David Kauffman, has also been cited as an early example of slowcore.[44]

Within the same period of time, Galaxie 500 formed and began releasing dream pop albums. Their sophomore album, On Fire (1989), strongly influenced the genre,[6] as did the rest of their discography,[31] although their dream pop style was not entirely indicative of how slowcore would develop. Regardless, On Fire would become the "blueprint for the minimalist construction of slowcore itself".[6] Because of this, the band is frequently cited as one of slowcore's leading antecedents. Andrew Earles, in his 2014 book Gimme Indie Rock: 500 Essential American Underground Rock Albums 1981-1996, described them as slowcore's "progenitor".[31] Robert Rubsam, writing for Bandcamp Daily, called Galaxie 500 the "fountainhead for all that would come".[4]

There were other early bands that formed in the 1980s that would help define slowcore, however many would not release anything until the 1990s. These include Codeine,[45][46] Red House Painters,[6][4] and Mazzy Star.[30]

1990s: Peak growth and evolution

While many of the bands that would influence the concept of slowcore existed before the 1990s, this decade is often cited as being when the genre began,[6][11][47] as well as being its heyday.[48][49][50] Throughout this period, the amount of bands and albums associated with the genre grew greatly, establishing its core sound and style.[6][4]

Three people performing on a stage with white lights in the background. The photo is positioned from the perspective of the crowd.
Codeine are considered to be one of the first slowcore bands. They are pictured here performing at Alexandra Palace during their 2012 reunion tour.

In these early years, the genre was defined by bands that had a style of minimalist and prolonged instrumentation with melancholic vocal performances. Codeine, having formed in 1989, released Frigid Stars LP in 1990, which incorporated "tortured lyrics and tired vocal melodies".[51] Codeine's music received attention over the following years, and after the release of the Barely Real extended play in 1992, the Toronto Star described it as being a "unique 'slowcore' sound".[52] By The White Birch, their 1994 sophomore and ultimate album, Codeine had cemented themselves as a prominent band within the scene.[4] Two years after Codeine's debut, Red House Painters, having formed in 1988,[4] released their debut: Down Colorful Hill (1992). Similar to other bands on the 4AD label, this album consisted of a select handful of demos that had been polished before their official release.[53] The album is bleak in both lyrics and composition;[54] Down Colorful Hill, alongside their following albums Rollercoaster (1993) and Bridge (1993),[55] have been described as instilling feelings of "desperation, regret, and general darkness".[56] Earles contended that Red House Painters was the saddest band within slowcore in the early 1990s.[57]

Another early band was Bedhead, which formed in 1991 and released their debut WhatFunLifeWas in 1994. This album consisted of soft vocals and dynamic instrumentation,[4] and the band would release two further studio albums, Beheaded (1996) and Transaction de Novo (1998), which maintained the same slow sound as their debut but deviated in technique. After this, the band disbanded and fell out of public discourse.[58] A year after Bedhead's formation, Idaho, another prominent band in these preliminary years,[59] formed, and began releasing music in 1993 after signing with Caroline Records. Like Bedhead, they continued to release slowcore albums throughout the decade—their debut being Year After Year (1993); however, Idaho persisted into the next century.[60]

1994-1999: Refinement of an archetypical sound

Three people performing on a dark stage illuminated by red ceiling lights. In the background, a video is projected onto a wall.
Low, pictured in 2013, are heralded as pioneers of slowcore with their early releases.

The mid '90s were an experimental period in music throughout North America and Europe, with new microgenres rapidly appearing.[61] Other bands, such as Acetone, Slint, and Swans were producing slow songs that, on the outset, appeared to relate to slowcore but were better categorised under these other emerging genres. These elements resulted in slowcore being an unclearly defined and confusing genre.[10][62][63]

Low, hailing from Duluth, Minnesota, would ultimately create the genre's archetypical sound.[2] Formed in 1993 by Alan Sparhawk and Mimi Parker, the band started by experimenting with slow and quiet rock music and in December of 1994, released their debut album I Could Live in Hope.[11][64] This album was different from its predecessors: while it maintained stylistic similarities with other bands' sparse instrumentation,[6] it was more difficult to categorise into the other associated genres, like post-rock or dream pop. Due to this unique sound, Low are heralded as pioneers of the genre.[1][4] Low would continue to release slowcore albums throughout the rest of the decade and the early 2000s, after which they deviated towards other genres.[65]

Following Low, several bands emerged.[10] Among them was Ida, composed of Elizabeth Mitchell and Daniel Littleton, who released their debut, Tales of Brave Ida in 1994.[66] This was followed by I Know About You in 1996, which is considered a slowcore "classic".[4] Ida continued to release music throughout the '90s and into the late 2000s, with Heart Like a River from 2005 also often highlighted as an exemplary slowcore album.[4][67] Bluetile Lounge, an Australian band, released their debut (Lowercase) a year after Ida's debut, in 1995.[68][2] Also in 1995, Spain and Cat Power released their debut albums: The Blue Moods of Spain and Dear Sir, respectively.[69][70] The For Carnation released their debut EP, Fight Songs the same year.[71] Two years later, Radar Bros.'s self-titled debut album was released.[72] These latter five bands were mentioned by Stevie Chick as examples of the way slowcore evolved after Low in an article for The Guardian. She writes, in respect of the first three: "the genre grew to encompass the blue lullabies of Spain; the hypnotic intimacy of the For Carnation [...]; [and] the whispered confessions of early Cat Power".[10] She also cites Rex, which included Codeine's Doug Scharin, as another influential band.[10] By the years surrounding 1996, "slowcore" was no longer solely an esoteric phrase; an article in The Sydney Morning Herald in May 1996 jested that Spain, among others, were playing a sort of music that "new-trend-every-week folk are calling slowcore".[73]

Arab Strap is another band of note from 1996.[74]

Towards the end of the decade, Duster released Stratosphere (1998).[75] By this point, they had already released a few EPs but had failed to garner a notable reputation. The album was reviewed by Pitchfork and other zines, and the band would release one final album, Contemporary Movement (2000), before disbanding until 2018. Despite this, the band would ultimately become one of the most influential within the genre.[76]

2000s–present: Continued expansion

Whereas subcultures like emo and NYHC became ever-more constricting over time, [slowcore] began with a specific set of goals and expanded outward. Perhaps because slowcore was always more about a feeling and less a particular set of sonic parameters, it was always more open to interpretation than some of its fellow spawn of the underground.

Robert Rubsam, Bandcamp Daily[4]

Three people clearly pictured on stage, with a fourth obscured in the background. On the wall in the background there is a blurred poster of the band Carissa's Wierd
Carissa's Wierd at a reunion show in 2010. Critics have used this band as an example of how slowcore continued into the 2000s.

Through the success of several bands in the mid-to-late 1990s, the slowcore sound had been conceptually established by the commencement of the 2000s. However, the genre continued to grow with releases from both existing and new artists. This era also saw bands experiment by amalgamating the slowcore sound with other genres.[4]

In 2000, Carissa's Wierd released Ugly But Honest: 1996-1999, which was followed a year later by You Should Be at Home Here. These albums were then succeeded in 2002 by Songs About Leaving, the bands final album.[77] This lattermost release was their most notable with respect to slowcore.[4][77] Despite this, Carissa's Wierd remained obscure throughout its existence—forming in 1995 and disbanding in 2003.[77]

An example of bands combining genres is Hope Sandoval & the Warm Inventions, which formed in 2001 and comprised Hope Sandoval of Mazzy Star and Colm Ó Cíosóig of My Bloody Valentine. In their formation year, they released Bavarian Fruit Bread, which helped repopularise a more dream pop-inspired style of slowcore reminiscent of Galaxie 500.[6] This dream pop sound was revisited in 2012 by Cigarettes After Sex's single "Nothing's Gonna Hurt You Baby".[78] The song, a dream pop and slowcore ballad, would go relatively unnoticed until it went viral in 2016.[79] Following this, the band released their self-titled debut album in 2017, described by Pitchfork as a "slowcore collection [that] borders on ambient".[80] Similar to Hope Sandoval & the Warm Inventions, several Red House Painters members formed Sun Kil Moon in 2002. Early on, pundits noted that this band departed from the slowcore sound present in Red House Painters releases to instead opt for folk-inspired song construction.[81][82] Despite this, others continued to find similarities between Sun Kil Moon's music and slowcore: a 2009 article in The Sunday Times listed April (2008) as an essential slowcore record.[83]

Dan Barrett, a member of the post-punk band Have a Nice Life, released a self-titled album under the name Giles Corey in 2011. Giles Corey was emotive both lyrically and musically, with the production purposefully being low fidelity. Rosean noted that this was predictive of how slowcore would progress in the 21st century: departing somewhat from the essential simplicity in musical composition to instead place additional emphasis on emotional vulnerability. Rosean cited I'm Not As Good at It As You (2010) by S, formerly of Carissa's Wierd, as another example of this. He writes: S "[emphasises] harmony and melodic release over repetition while still maintaining [slowcore's] minimalistic style".[6]

Slowcore began to increase in popularity towards the end of the 2010s and into the early 2020s,[8] partly through social media trends. Songs like Duster's "Constellations" (from Stratosphere) have been used as the backing track in viral videos to heighten the emotion.[84] Though this growth, the genre persisted into the 2020s with albums from both existing and new bands receiving attention.[8] In 2022, the London-based band Deathcrash released their debut album Return, followed a year later by Less.[85][86] Additionally, songs by singer-songwriters have been labeled as slowcore by reviewers, including those of Nicole Dollanganger,[87] Ethel Cain,[88] Daughter,[10] and Snail Mail.[89] Robert Rubsam listed Planning for Burial, Grouper, Kowloon Walled City, and Worm Ouroboros as examples of "post-slow" bands in his timeline of slowcore.[4]

Notes and citations

Notes

  1. ^ Occasionally hyphenated as slow-core[37] or spaced as slow core.[90] Rarely, the genre will be spelled slocore.[91]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Chick, Stevie (11 January 2003). "Pop albums". The Times. No. 67657. London. col e, p. 110. [...] elemental folky music spearheaded by Low, the acclaimed pioneers of 'Slocore' [sic].
  2. ^ a b c d e Grønstad 2020, p. 176: "I Could Live in Hope is of course seen as one of the albums that were key in ushering in the so-called 'slowcore' genre of alternative rock, which comprise artists such as Codeine, Red House Painters, Bedhead, and Blue Tile Lounge. The members of Low appear to disapprove of this moniker".
  3. ^ Swensson, Andrea (7 November 2022). "Remembering Low's Mimi Parker With 6 Essential Tracks". Pitchfork. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Rubsam, Robert (27 April 2017). "Slowcore: A Brief Timeline". Bandcamp. Archived from the original on 24 May 2023. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  5. ^ a b Crystal 2014, p. 235: ""[...] characterised by 'slow temps, a sombre, atmospheric, sometimes densely textured sound, and quiet, forlorn vocals'." Citing "slowcore". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OED/7503491735. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rosean, Samuel (31 January 2019). "The Beginner's Guide To: Slowcore". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  7. ^ Fox 2009, p. 2-3: "Codeine's sound was not the heavy, space-filling drone of other slow-core bands".
  8. ^ a b c d Kahn, Jamie (13 June 2022). "Slowcore isn't making a comeback, it's always been here". Far Out. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  9. ^ Swensson, Andrea (7 November 2022). "Remembering Low's Mimi Parker With 6 Essential Tracks". Pitchfork. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Chick, Stevie (2 August 2023). "'Our music didn't build. We were anti-catharsis': the glacial pleasures of slowcore". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  11. ^ a b c d Edwards, Mark (1 February 2009). "Slowcore: Encyclopedia of Modern Music". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  12. ^ SF Weekly, 6 May 1998.
  13. ^ Metzer 2017, p. 14: "It is no coincidence that slow core rock is also known as sad core."
  14. ^ Purdom, Clayton; McLevy, Alex; Adams, Erik; Rife, Katie; Gerardi, Matt; Adamczyk, Laura; Ihnat, Gwen; Dowd, A.A.; Anthony, David (20 August 2018). "1998 somehow brought us boy bands, nü-metal, and Neutral Milk Hotel". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  15. ^ a b Crystal 2014, p. 235: "The gloomy lyrical content rather than the acoustic effects led to the synonymous sadcore."
  16. ^ Collington, Christian (10 December 2022). "The music subgenre sadcore finds a new life with a new generation". CityNews. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  17. ^ "sadcore". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OED/2515705092. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  18. ^ Harrington, Richard (24 May 2002). "The Melancholy Man Lightens Up". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  19. ^ Payne, John (13 February 2003). "The Queen of Sadcore". LA Weekly. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  20. ^ Hawthorne, Marc (25 September 2007). "Red House Painters: Red House Painters". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  21. ^ James, Brian (9 February 2003). "Shearwater: Everybody Makes Mistakes Album Review". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  22. ^ Modell, Josh (2 August 2004). "Low: A Lifetime Of Temporary Relief: 10 Years Of B-Sides & Rarities". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  23. ^ "Meet Lana Del Rey". Vogue. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  24. ^ Trimboli, Isabella (3 April 2018). "Lana Del Rey review – 'Hollywood sadcore' shines in Australia". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  25. ^ Reitsma, Bethany (28 January 2023). "Phoebe Bridgers on Lorde, Laneway, and the 'sad girl' label: 'I hate it'". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  26. ^ "-core". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OED/8451760115. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  27. ^ Judkis, Maura (13 September 2021). "Cottagecore, cluttercore, goblincore — deep down, it's about who we think we are". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  28. ^ Sisario, Ben (31 December 2009). "When Indie-Rock Genres Outnumber the Bands". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  29. ^ "Nominations for Words of the Year 2021". American Dialect Society. 7 January 2022. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  30. ^ a b c Earles 2014, p. 124: "[...] what the music press came to call 'slowcore,' an unfortunate term often attached to bands such as Codeine, Low, Seam, Mazzy Star, Bedhead, and Rex [...] known for really slow tempos and a general prettiness or melancholy tendencies."
  31. ^ a b c Earles 2014, p. 124: "Like many bands featured in this book, Galaxie 500 was a big influence on a successive subgenre of band within indie rock. In the case of this seminal Boston trio, they are seen as progenitors of what the music press came to call 'slowcore'".
  32. ^ "slowcore". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/OED/7503491735. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.). Citing Eddy 1991, p. 144/2: "The slowcore dirge-disco that produced said tune often devolves into this chic bored hush-hush."
  33. ^ Alan Sparhawk from Low tells the story of the origin of 'Slowcore'. The Paper Crane Podcast. 20 September 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  34. ^ a b Williams, Alex (11 November 2022). "Mimi Parker, Moody Alt-Rock Vocalist, Is Dead at 55". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  35. ^ a b "Low interview from QRD #14". QRD. Silber Media. October 1998. Retrieved 20 May 2023. Alan – what's the cheesiest? slow-core. I hate that word. the most appropriate is anything that uses the word minimal in it, but I don't think anybody's made one up for that.
  36. ^ Lindsay, Cam (5 October 2018). "Low's Alan Sparhawk Ranks the Band's 11 Albums". Vice. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  37. ^ a b Rogers 2008, p. 640: "Opposition and fluidity reside at the core of the genre’s aesthetic. For example, as US rock band Nirvana succeeded commercially, indie fans grew more interested in post-rock and slow-core, both minimalist genres antithetical to Nirvana despite that band’s origins within indie."
  38. ^ Heim, Joe (2 February 2005). "Low, Turning Its Slowcore Fidelity to High". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  39. ^ Dye, David (27 February 2008). "American Music Club: 'Slowcore' and More". NPR (Podcast). Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  40. ^ Schoemer 1989, p. 67.
  41. ^ Cairns 2001: "Red House Painters emerged from San Francisco's Bay Area in 1992, and proceeded to release a string of exceptional -and determinedly uncommercial -albums on the British label 4AD. Long, rambling reflections on death, love and drugs, invariably to a spartan backing of folk guitar and brushed drums, Kozelek's work has been described as slow fi, slowcore, lo-fi and even snorecore".
  42. ^ Dafoe 1988: "[...] country- blues minimalists Cowboy Junkies".
  43. ^ Griffin 1988: "What The Trinity Session is is a country music album for people who hate country, a blues album for people who are bored to tears by blues and an album of traditional folk music for hardcore kids. Above all, it is a Cowboy Junkies album".
  44. ^ Jarosinski, Matt (4 April 2022). "MJC Picks: 4/4". WSUM.org. WSUM. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022.
  45. ^ Heller, Jason (25 May 2012). "Reconsidering Codeine, a '90s band frozen in time". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  46. ^ Deusner, Stephen (21 March 2013). "Low: The Invisible Way Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  47. ^ Tudor, Alexander (16 February 2009). "Slowcore Week: An Introduction". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  48. ^ Earles 2014, p. 4: "It was in this loose framework that indie rock and all its various subgenres experienced its heyday from roughly 1986 to 1996, give or take a year on either end."
  49. ^ Lewis, Catherine (28 May 2008). "Ida at Iota: Showing Indie Rock's Softer Side". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  50. ^ Rytlewski, Evan (10 January 2017). "Haunter Keep the Spirit of Slowcore Alive on 'Worm'". Shepherd Express. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  51. ^ "Sub Pop 20". Pitchfork. 11 July 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  52. ^ Punter 1993.
  53. ^ Stosuy, Brandon (6 May 2015). "Red House Painters: Box Set Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  54. ^ Goldberg, Michael (16 September 1993). "New Faces". Rolling Stone. No. 665. That music is quiet, stripped-down, intensely atmospheric folk rock with occasional psychedelic touches, played at a hypnotic dirge tempo.
  55. ^ Earles 2014, pp. 253–4.
  56. ^ Earles 2014, p. 253: "Down Colorful Hill and two eponymous titled full-lengths recorded in 1993 together form a linear block of music from which emotes, with unequivocal intensity, authentic sadness, disenchantment, desperation, regret, and general sadness."
  57. ^ Earles 2014, p. 177: "Of the bands grouped into 'sadcore' and 'slowcore' classifications by critics in the early '90s, none were lower—or perhaps sadder (though Red House Painters might win that contest)—than Low."
  58. ^ Richardson, Mark (14 November 2014). "Bedhead: Bedhead: 1992-1998 Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  59. ^ Dowling, Jordan (21 February 2009). "Slowcore Week: Other highlights of slowcore - a brief round-up". Drowned in Sound. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  60. ^ Howe, Brian (8 August 2011). "Idaho: You Were a Dick Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  61. ^ Arsel & Thompson 2011, p. 796: "By the mid-1990s, the independent music scenes in North America and Europe were thriving and cycling through microgenres, such as shoegaze, slowcore, and psychobilly, at an exceedingly rapid rate".
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  63. ^ Baker, Aidan (26 February 2013). "The Value of Sad Music". Noisey. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  64. ^ Corcoran, Nina (8 November 2022). "Mimi Parker Was Indie Rock's Guardian Angel". Pitchfork. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  65. ^ For an exploration of Low's work until 2018, see: For a brief analysis of Low's work post-2000 in a review for Hey What, see:
  66. ^ Ruxin, Marc. "Ida - Tales of Brave Ida". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  67. ^ LaBrack, Jill (16 February 2005). "Ida: Heart Like a River". PopMatters. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  68. ^ Hazel, Andy (17 February 2015). "Lost Albums: Bluetile Lounge - lowercase". Double J. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  69. ^ Stewart 2004, p. 764.
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  72. ^ Thomas Erlewine, Stephen. "Radar Bros.: Radar Bros". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  73. ^ Casimir 1996.
  74. ^ "The Top 200 Tracks of the 1990s: 200-151". Pitchfork. 30 August 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 25 November 2023.
  75. ^ Richard-San, Mark. "Duster: Stratosphere". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 16 February 2001. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
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