Areas of neolithic cultures in Europe
Areas of neolithic cultures in Europe

The Sopot culture is a neolithic archaeological culture in eastern Slavonia in modern day Croatia. It was a continuation of the Starčevo culture and strongly influenced by the Vinča culture (Samatovci, Sopot, Otok, Privlaka, Vinkovci–Ervenica, Osijek, Bapska, Županja, Klokočevik). It spread into northern Bosnia from its original area to the west to northwestern Croatia and to the north to Hungarian Transdanubia, where it helped Lengyel culture start. The culture dates to around 5000 BC. Settlements were raised on the river banks (most noticeably on the banks of Bosut, around the area of the modern city of Vinkovci). Houses were square and made of wood using interlace technique, sometimes separated into multiple rooms. Artefacts include many weapons made of bone, flint, obsidian and ironed volcanic rocks and some ceramic pottery of various sizes ( biconical pots with two handles, conic bowls, pots and s-shaped pots) decorated by carvings or light stabbings and painting.[1] [2] [3]

Genetics

In a 2017 genetic study published in Nature, the remains of six individuals ascribed to the Sopot culture was analyzed. Of the four samples of Y-DNA extracted, two belonged to G or various subclades of it, one belonged to I, and one belonged to F. mtDNA extracted were various subclades of U, H, T, K and HV.[4][5]

A 2021 study by Freilich and colleagues[6] tested the genomes of 19 individuals from the Sopot culture. Out of the seven Y-DNA samples retrieved, three belonged to haplogroups G2a2, two to I2a2a-M223, one to J and one to C1a2b-Z38888. The mtDNA haplogroups fell under various subclades of H, J2b1, K1a, K2b, N1a1a1, T2b, T2c1, T2f, U5b2 and U8b1.

References

  1. ^ Bine, Kramberger (18 August 2015). "Evaluation of Dimitrijević's Definition of the Sopot Culture in the Light of Radiocarbon Dates". Opuscula Archaeologica: Papers of the Department of Archaeology. 37/38 (1): 359–370. doi:10.17234/OA.37.15. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  2. ^ Bogomil Obelic; Bosko Marijan; Ines Krajcar Bronic (2004). "Radiocarbon Dating of Sopot Culture Sites (Late Neolithic) in Eastern Croatia". Radiocarbon. 46 (1): 245–255. doi:10.1017/s0033822200039564.
  3. ^ Tripkovic, Boban; Dimitrijevic, Vesna (December 2016). "Marine shell hoard from the Late Neolithic site of Čepin-Ovčara (Slavonia, Croatia)". Documenta Praehistorica. XLIII. doi:10.4312/dp.43.17.
  4. ^ Lipson 2017.
  5. ^ Narasimhan 2019.
  6. ^ "Reconstructing genetic histories and social organisation in Neolithic and Bronze Age Croatia". Nature. Nature.

Sources