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Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder in which normal speech is disrupted.[1] This can mean fluency disorders like stuttering, cluttering or lisps. Someone who is unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered mute.[2] Speech skills are vital to social relationships and learning, and delays or disorders that relate to developing these skills can impact individuals function.[3] For many children and adolescents, this can present as issues with academics.[4] Speech disorders affect roughly 11.5% of the US population, and 5% of the primary school population.[5] Speech is a complex process that requires precise timing, nerve and muscle control, and as a result is susceptible to impairments. A person who has a stroke, an accident or birth defect may have speech and language problems.[6]

Classification

Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By strict classification,[citation needed] only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others have one disorder or another.

There are three different levels of classification when determining the magnitude and type of a speech disorder and the proper treatment or therapy:[7]

  1. Sounds the patient can produce
    1. Phonemic – can be produced easily; used meaningfully and constructively
    2. Phonetic – produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully, or constructively; not used in connected speech
  2. Stimulate sounds
    1. Easily stimulated
    2. Stimulate after demonstration and probing (i.e. with a tongue depressor)
  3. Cannot produce the sound
    1. Cannot be produced voluntarily
    2. No production ever observed

Types of disorder

Causes

In some cases the cause is unknown. However, there are various known causes of speech impairments, such as hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, an increase in mental strain, constant bullying, intellectual disability, substance use disorder, physical impairments such as cleft lip and palate, and vocal abuse or misuse.[12] After strokes, there is known to be a higher incidence of apraxia of speech, which is a disorder affecting neurological pathways involved with speech.[13] Poor motor function is also suggested to be highly associated with speech disorders, especially in children.[14] Hereditary causes have also been suggested, as many times children of individuals with speech disorders will develop them as well.[15] 20-40% individuals with a family history of a specific language impairment are likely to be diagnosed, whereas only 4% of the population overall is likely to be diagnosed.[16] There are also language disorders that are known to be genetic, such as hereditary ataxia, which can cause slow and unclear speech.[17]

Treatment

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Many of these types of disorders can be treated by speech therapy, but others require medical attention by a doctor in phoniatrics. Other treatments include correction of organic conditions and psychotherapy.[18]

In the United States, school-age children with a speech disorder are often placed in special education programs. Children who struggle to learn to talk often experience persistent communication difficulties in addition to academic struggles.[19] More than 700,000 of the students served in the public schools' special education programs in the 2000–2001 school year were categorized as having a speech or language impairment. This estimate does not include children who have speech and language impairments secondary to other conditions such as deafness".[12] Many school districts provide the students with speech therapy during school hours, although extended day and summer services may be appropriate under certain circumstances.

Patients will be treated in teams, depending on the type of disorder they have.[clarification needed] A team can include speech–language pathologists, specialists, family doctors, teachers, and family members.

Student doing speech therapy
Student doing speech therapy

Social effects

Having a speech disorder can have negative social effects, especially among young children. Those with a speech disorder can be targets of bullying because of their disorder. This bullying can result in decreased self-esteem.[20] Religion and culture also play a large role in the social effects of speech disorders. For example, in many African countries like Kenya cleft palates are largely considered to be caused by a curse from God. This can cause people with cleft palates to not receive care in early childhood, and end in rejection from society.[6] For those with speech disorders, listeners reactions are often negative, which may correlate negative effects to self-esteem. It has also been shown that adults tend to view individuals with stutters in more negative ways than those without them.[21]

Language disorders

Language disorders are usually considered distinct from speech disorders, although they are often used synonymously.

Speech disorders refer to problems in producing the sounds of speech or with the quality of voice, where language disorders are usually an impairment of either understanding words or being able to use words and do not have to do with speech production.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sheikh, Shakeel; Sahidullah, Md; Hirsch, Fabrice; Ouni, Slim (July 2021). "Machine Learning for Stuttering Identification: Review, Challenges & Future Directions". arXiv:2107.04057 [cs.SD].
  2. ^ a b Kennison, Shelia M. (2014). Introduction to language development. Los Angeles. ISBN 978-1-4129-9606-8. OCLC 830837502.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ Feldman, Heidi M. (2006-04-26). "Evaluation and Management of Language and Speech Disorders in Preschool Children". Pediatrics in Review. 26 (4): 131–142. doi:10.1542/pir.26-4-131. PMID 15805236. S2CID 28457530. Retrieved 2022-10-06.
  4. ^ Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Obiakor, Festus E., eds. (2016-10-24). General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities. Advances in Special Education. Vol. 31. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/s0270-4013201631. ISBN 978-1-78635-542-3.
  5. ^ Fox, A. V.; Dodd, Barbara; Howard, David (2009-03-07). "Risk factors for speech disorders in children". International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 37 (2): 117–131. doi:10.1080/13682820110116776. ISSN 1368-2822. PMID 12012611.
  6. ^ a b Ndung'u, Ruth; Kinyua, Mathew (2009-11-05). "Cultural Perspectives in Language and Speech Disorders". Disability Studies Quarterly. 29 (4). doi:10.18061/dsq.v29i4.986. ISSN 2159-8371.
  7. ^ Deputy, Paul; Human Communication Disorders; March 10, 2008
  8. ^ "Apraxia of Speech". NIDCD. 2015-08-18. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  9. ^ "Dysarthria: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  10. ^ Pinto JA, Corso RJ, Guilherme AC, Pinho SR, Nóbrega Mde O (March 2004). "Dysprosody nonassociated with neurological diseases--a case report". J Voice. 18 (1): 90–6. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2003.07.005. PMID 15070228.
  11. ^ "Stuttering". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  12. ^ a b "Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11)." National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs11txt.htm Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Basilakos, Alexandra (2018-02-22). "Contemporary Approaches to the Management of Post-stroke Apraxia of Speech". Seminars in Speech and Language. 39 (1): 025–036. doi:10.1055/s-0037-1608853. ISSN 0734-0478. PMC 5834303. PMID 29359303.
  14. ^ Robinson, Roger J. (2008-11-12). "Causes and Associations of Severe and Persistent Specific Speech and Language Disorders in Children". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 33 (11): 943–962. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1991.tb14811.x. PMID 1720749. S2CID 7412606.
  15. ^ Kang, Changsoo; Drayna, Dennis (2011-09-22). "Genetics of Speech and Language Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 12 (1): 145–164. doi:10.1146/annurev-genom-090810-183119. ISSN 1527-8204. PMID 21663442.
  16. ^ Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April Ann (2003-04-21). "A Family Aggregation Study: The Influence of Family History and Other Risk Factors on Language Development". Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 46 (2): 261–272. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2003/021). ISSN 1092-4388. PMC 1569819. PMID 14700370.
  17. ^ Vogel, Adam P; Folker, Joanne; Poole, Matthew L (2014-10-28). Cochrane Neuromuscular Group (ed.). "Treatment for speech disorder in Friedreich ataxia and other hereditary ataxia syndromes". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD008953. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008953.pub2. PMID 25348587.
  18. ^ "Speech Defect". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-speechde.html Archived 2007-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Scott G. G.; O'Donnell P. J.; Sereno S. C. (May 2012). "Emotion words affect eye fixations during reading". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 38 (3): 783–792. doi:10.1037/a0027209. PMID 22329788.
  20. ^ Krueger, Breanna I. (2019-02-26). "Eligibility and Speech Sound Disorders: Assessment of Social Impact". Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups. 4 (1): 85–90. doi:10.1044/2018_PERS-SIG1-2018-0016. S2CID 150998147.
  21. ^ Williams, Dale F.; Dietrich, Susan (1996-01-01). "Effects of speech and language disorders on raters' perceptions". Journal of Communication Disorders. 29 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1016/0021-9924(94)00014-X. ISSN 0021-9924. PMID 8722526.
  22. ^ "NICHCY's New Home". nichcy.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2005-06-05.