Theatrical release poster
Directed byJan de Bont
Written byGraham Yost
Produced byMark Gordon
CinematographyAndrzej Bartkowiak
Edited byJohn Wright
Music byMark Mancina
Distributed by20th Century Fox
Release dates
  • June 7, 1994 (1994-06-07) (Hollywood)
  • June 10, 1994 (1994-06-10) (United States)
Running time
116 minutes
CountryUnited States
Budget$30–37 million[1][2]
Box office$350.4 million[3]

Speed is a 1994 American action thriller film directed by Jan de Bont (in his feature film directorial debut) and written by Graham Yost. The film stars Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Bullock, Joe Morton, and Jeff Daniels. Its story revolves around a bus that is rigged by a terrorist to explode if its speed falls below 50 miles per hour.

The film premiered in Hollywood on June 7, 1994, and was released in the rest of the United States on June 10, 1994. It became critically and commercially successful, grossing $350.4 million on a $30–37 million budget, becoming the fifth-highest-grossing film of 1994 and winning two Academy Awards for Best Sound Effects Editing and Best Sound. The film solidified Sandra Bullock as a leading actress and also solidified Reeves as an action movie leading man. A sequel, Speed 2: Cruise Control which fared worse critically and commercially, was released three years later on June 13, 1997, without Reeves's involvement.


LAPD SWAT bomb disposal officers Jack Traven and Harry Temple thwart an attempt to bomb an elevator filled with people for a $3 million ransom by Howard Payne, an extortionist bomber. As they corner Payne, he takes Harry hostage. Jack shoots Harry in the leg, forcing the bomber to release him. Payne flees and detonates the bomb, seemingly killing himself. A few days later, Jack and Harry are praised by Lieutenant "Mac" McMahon, and Harry is promoted. Having survived the incident, however, Payne watches from afar. The next morning, a mass transit bus explodes from a bomb planted by Payne. Contacting Jack, he explains that a similar bomb is rigged on another bus, which will arm once it reaches 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) and detonate if it drops below 50.

Payne also demands an updated ransom of $3.7 million and threatens to remote detonate the bus if any passengers are offloaded. Jack races through freeway traffic and boards the bus, but the bomb is already armed. A felon on board, fearing Jack is about to arrest him, wildly discharges his gun, accidentally wounding Sam Silver, the bus driver. Another passenger, Annie Porter, takes over for Sam. When she tries to slow down so he can get help, Jack is forced to reveal the bomb to the passengers. Jack examines the bomb underneath the bus and calls Harry. The bus is cleared to drive on an unopened freeway section. Mac demands that they offload the passengers onto a flatbed trailer, but Jack warns him about Payne's plot.

Payne then calls Jack again. While being convinced to allow Sam to be offloaded for medical attention, Payne detonates a smaller bomb after witnessing a passenger attempt to get off, killing her. When Jack learns part of the freeway is incomplete, he persuades Annie to accelerate so they can jump the gap. After narrowly succeeding, he directs her to Los Angeles International Airport, which has unobstructed runways. Meanwhile, Harry finds out Payne was an Atlanta PD bomb squad officer. He leads a SWAT team to Payne's home, but the property explodes, killing him and most of his team. In a last-ditch attempt to defuse the bomb, Jack goes under the bus on a towed sled, but when its tow line breaks from road debris, he accidentally punctures the fuel tank.

After the passengers grab him back aboard, Jack learns that Payne has been watching the passengers on a hidden surveillance camera, allowing him to be one step ahead at every moment. Mac has a local news crew record the transmission and rebroadcasts it in a loop to fool Payne while the passengers are offloaded onto an airport bus. Jack and Annie escape through a floor access panel before the empty bus collides with a Boeing 707 cargo plane and explodes. Jack and Mac head to Pershing Square to drop the ransom. Realizing that he has been fooled by the looped recording - and the LAPD are waiting for him, a furious Payne poses as a police officer to kidnap Annie and recover the ransom. Jack follows Payne into the Metro Red Line subway, and discovers that Annie has been fitted with an explosive vest rigged to a pressure-release detonator.

Payne hijacks a subway train, handcuffs Annie to a pole, and sets the train in motion while Jack pursues them. After shooting the controls and killing the train driver, Payne attempts a bribe with the money, but is enraged when a dye pack in the bag explodes, tainting the cash. A crazed Payne battles Jack on the train's roof and gains the upper hand, trying to strangle him. However, Jack pushes Payne's head up, and he is decapitated by an oncoming railway signal.

Jack deactivates Annie's vest, but cannot free her from the pole. Unable to stop the train, Jack accelerates it, causing it to jump the tracks, as it plows through a construction site and then bursts onto Hollywood Boulevard. The train car comes to a halt, on the street. Unharmed, Jack and Annie share a kiss while a crowd looks on in amazement.



Part of the film featured the bus making its way onto Interstate 110 through the traffic.


Screenwriter Graham Yost was told by his father, Canadian television host Elwy Yost, about a 1985 film called Runaway Train starring Jon Voight, about a train that speeds out of control. The film was based on a 1963 concept by Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa. Elwy mistakenly believed that the train's situation was due to a bomb on board. (Such a theme had in fact been used in a 1975 Japanese film, The Bullet Train.) After seeing the Voight film, Graham decided that it would have been better if there had been a bomb on board a bus with the bus being forced to travel at 20 mph to prevent an actual explosion. A friend suggested that this be increased to 50 mph.[4] The film's end was inspired by the end of the 1976 film Silver Streak. Yost had initially named the film Minimum Speed reflecting on the plot element of the bus being unable to drop below a speed. He realized that using "minimum" would immediately apply a negative connotation to the title, and simply renamed it to Speed.[5]

Yost's initial script would have the film completely occur on the bus; there was no elevator or subway scene, the bus would have driven around Dodger Stadium due to the ability to drive around in circles, and would have culminated with the bus running into the Hollywood Sign and destroying it.[5] Upon finishing the script, Yost took his idea to Paramount Pictures, which expressed interest in green-lighting the film and chose John McTiernan to direct due to his blockbuster films Predator, Die Hard, and The Hunt for Red October. However, McTiernan eventually declined to do so, feeling the script was too much of a Die Hard retread, and suggested Jan De Bont, who agreed to direct because he had the experience of being the director of photography for action movies, including McTiernan's Die Hard and The Hunt for Red October. Michael Bay wanted to direct the film.[6] Despite a promising script, Paramount passed on the project, feeling audiences would not want to see a movie which takes place for two hours on a bus, so De Bont and Yost then took the project to 20th Century Fox which also distributed Die Hard.[7] Fox agreed to green-light the project on the condition there were action sequences in the film other than the bus. De Bont then suggested starting the film off with the bomb on an elevator in an office building, as he had an experience of being trapped in an elevator while working on Die Hard.[7] Yost used the opening elevator scene to establish Traven as being clever enough to overcome the villain, comparable to Perseus tricking Medusa into looking at her own reflection.[5] Yost then decided to conclude the film on a subway train to have a final plot twist not involving the action on the bus. Fox then immediately approved the project.[7][5]

In preparing the shooting script, one unnamed author had revised Yost's script in a manner that Yost had called "terrible".[5] Yost spent three days "reconfiguring" this draft.[5] Jan de Bont brought in Joss Whedon a week before principal photography started to work on the script.[8] According to Yost: "Joss Whedon wrote 98.9 percent of the dialogue. We were very much in sync, it's just that I didn't write the dialogue as well as he did."[7] One of Whedon's contributions was reworking Traven's character once Keanu Reeves was cast. Reeves did not like how the Jack Traven character came across in Yost's original screenplay. He felt that there were "situations set up for one-liners and I felt it was forced—Die Hard mixed with some kind of screwball comedy."[9] With Reeves' input, Whedon changed Traven from being "a maverick hotshot" to "the polite guy trying not to get anybody killed,"[8] and removed the character's glib dialogue and made him more earnest.[9]

Yost also gave Whedon credit for the "Pop quiz, hotshot" line.[5] Another of Whedon's contributions was changing the character of Doug Stephens (Alan Ruck) from a lawyer ("a bad guy and he died", according to the writer) to a tourist, "just a nice, totally out-of-his-depth guy".[8] Whedon worked predominantly on the dialogue, but also created a few significant plot points, like the killing of Harry Temple.[8] Yost had originally planned for Temple to be the villain of the story, as he felt that having an off-screen antagonist would not be interesting. However, Yost recognized that there was a lot of work in the script to establish Temple as this villain. When Dennis Hopper was cast as Howard Payne, Yost recognized that Hopper's Payne readily worked as a villain, allowing them to rewrite Temple to be non-complicit in the bomb situation.[5]


Jeff Speakman was originally attached to star in Speed when the project was under Paramount's management, but was dropped from the project when it was sold to 20th Century Fox.[10] Stephen Baldwin, the first choice for the role of Jack Traven, declined the offer because he felt the character (as written in the earlier version of the script) was too much like the John McClane character from Die Hard.[9] According to Yost, they had also considered Tom Cruise, Tom Hanks, Wesley Snipes, and Woody Harrelson.[5] Director Jan de Bont ultimately chose Keanu Reeves to play Jack Traven after seeing him in Point Break. He felt that the actor was "vulnerable on the screen. He's not threatening to men because he's not that bulky, and he looks great to women".[9] Reeves had dealt with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) before on Point Break, and said he noted their strong concern for human life, which he incorporated into Traven.[9] The director did not want Traven to have long hair and wanted the character "to look strong and in control of himself".[9] To that end, Reeves shaved his head almost completely. The director remembers, "everyone at the studio was scared shitless when they first saw it. There was only like a millimeter. What you see in the movie is actually grown in".[9] Reeves also spent two months at Gold's Gym in Los Angeles to get in shape for the role.[9]

For the character of Annie, Yost said that they initially wrote the character as African American and as a paramedic as to justify how she would be able to handle driving a speeding bus through traffic. The role was offered to Halle Berry but she declined the part.[5] Berry would later regret the decision.[11] Later, the character had then been changed to a driver's education teacher, and made the character more of a comic-relief sidekick to Jack, with Ellen DeGeneres in mind for the part.[12] Instead, Annie became both Jack's sidekick and later love interest, leading to the casting of Sandra Bullock. Sandra Bullock came to read for Speed with Reeves to make sure there was the right chemistry between the two actors. She recalls that they had to do "all these really physical scenes together, rolling around on the floor and stuff."[13] Meryl Streep and Kim Basinger were also offered the role of Annie but both declined.[14] Anne Heche was offered the opportunity to consider the role.[15]


Principal photography began on September 7, 1993, and completed on December 23, 1993, in Los Angeles. De Bont used an 80-foot model of a 50-story elevator shaft for the opening sequence.[16] While Speed was in production, actor and Reeves's close friend River Phoenix died.[9] Immediately after Phoenix died, de Bont changed the shooting schedule to work around Reeves and decided to give him scenes that were easier to do. "It got to him emotionally. He became very quiet, and it took him quite a while to work it out by himself and calm down. It scared the hell out of him", de Bont recalls.[9] Initially, Reeves was nervous about the film's many action sequences, downright saying to de Bont “Oh, I’m not an action hero. I don’t like it. I don’t know how to do it.”, which de Bont actually thought as an advantage feeling that the actor, like his character, "happened to be thrown into a situation that is not normal to him". As the shooting progressed, he became more involved with the stunts.[17] He wanted to do the stunt in which Traven jumps from a Jaguar onto the bus himself, and rehearsed it in secret after de Bont disapproved. On the day of the sequence, Reeves did the stunt himself, terrifying de Bont in the process.

Eleven GM New Look buses (TDH-5303)[18] and three Grumman 870 buses[19] were used in the film's production. Two of them were blown up, one was used for the high-speed scenes, one had the front cut off for inside shots, and one was used solely for the "under bus" shots. Another bus was used for the bus jump scene, which was done in one take.[20] The buses were painted in livery and colors approximating those of the Big Blue Bus serving Santa Monica, although the transit agency (Santa Monica Intercity Lines) and route (33 Downtown) were fictionalized for the film.[18] One of the buses used for filming was sold at auction for US$102,000 in 2018.[21]

Eleven GM New Look buses were used to represent the bus in the film.

Many of the film's freeway scenes were filmed on California's Interstate 105 and Interstate 110 at the stack interchange known today as the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, which was not officially open at the time of filming. While scouting this location, De Bont noticed big sections of road missing and told screenwriter Graham Yost to add the bus jump over the unfinished freeway to the script.[16] In the scene in which the bus must jump across a gap in an uncompleted elevated freeway-to-freeway ramp while still under construction, a ramp was used to give the bus the necessary lift off so that it could jump the full fifty feet. The bus used in the jump was empty except for the driver, who wore a shock-absorbing harness that suspended him mid-air above the seat, so he could handle the jolt on landing, and avoid spinal injury (as was the case for many stuntmen in previous years that were handling similar stunts). The highway section the bus jumped over is the directional ramp from I-105 WB to I-110 NB (not the HOV ramp from I-110 SB to I-105 WB as commonly believed),[22] and as the flyover was already constructed, a gap was added in the editing process using computer-generated imagery with the help of Sony Pictures Imageworks.[20] A 2009 episode of MythBusters attempted to recreate the bus jump as proposed, including the various tricks that they knew were used by the filmmakers such as the ramp, and proved that the jump, as in the film, would never have been possible.[23]

On a commentary track on the region 1 DVD, De Bont reports that the bus jump stunt did not go as planned. To do the jump, the bus had everything possible removed to make it lighter. On the first try the stunt driver missed the ramp and crashed the bus, making it unusable. This was not reported to the studio at the time. A second bus was prepared and two days later a second attempt was successful. But, again, things did not go as intended. Advised that the bus would only go about 20 feet, the director placed one of his multiple cameras in a position that was supposed to capture the bus landing. However, the bus traveled much farther airborne than anyone had thought possible. It crashed down on top of the camera and destroyed it. Luckily, another camera placed about 90 feet from the jump ramp recorded the event.

Filming of the final scenes occurred at Mojave Airport, which doubled for Los Angeles International Airport. The shots of the LACMTA Metro Red Line through the construction zone were shot using an 1/8 scale model of the Metro Red Line, except for the jump when it derailed.[20]

The MD520N helicopter used throughout the film, registration N599DB, Serial LN024, was sold to the Calgary Police Service[24] in 1995,[25] where it was in use until 2006; it was then sold to a private owner.[24]


Box office

Speed was released on June 10, 1994, in 2,138 theaters in the United States and Canada, and debuted at the number one position above The Flintstones and City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold, grossing $14.5 million on its opening weekend.[26][27] It set opening records for Fox in Brazil with a gross of $669,725 and in South Africa with a gross of $267,140.[28][29] The film stayed in the number 1 spot for a week before being taken by Wolf.[30] For its second weekend, it generated a total gross of $12.9 million.[31] When The Lion King debuted on its third weekend, Speed continued to remain in second place.[32] It spent eight consecutive weeks at number one in Australia and ten in Japan.[33][34] The film grossed $121.3 million in the United States and Canada and $229.2 million internationally for a worldwide total of $350.5 million, well above its $30–37 million production budget.[3][1][2] It would remain as Sandra Bullock's highest-grossing film until 2013 when Gravity surpassed it.[35]

Critical response

Speed received rave reviews from critics.[36] On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 95% based on 73 reviews, with an average rating of 8.10/10. The site's critics consensus reads: "A terrific popcorn thriller, Speed is taut, tense, and energetic, with outstanding performances from Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, and Sandra Bullock."[37] On Metacritic the film has a weighted average score of 78 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews."[38] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[39]

Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four out of four stars and wrote, "Films like Speed belong to the genre I call Bruised Forearm Movies, because you're always grabbing the arm of the person sitting next to you. Done wrong, they seem like tired replays of old chase cliches. Done well, they're fun. Done as well as Speed, they generate a kind of manic exhilaration".[40] Ebert also praised Hopper as "certainly the creepiest villain in the movies right now" and lauded Reeves's transition into a believable action star, after his earlier roles as "dreamy, sensitive characters". In his review for Rolling Stone magazine, Peter Travers wrote, "Action flicks are usually written off as a debased genre, unless, of course, they work. And Speed works like a charm. It's a reminder of how much movie escapism can still stir us when it's dished out with this kind of dazzle".[41] In her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin wrote, "Mr. Hopper finds nice new ways to convey crazy menace with each new role. Certainly, he's the most colorful figure in a film that wastes no time on character development or personality".[42] Entertainment Weekly gave the film an "A" rating and Owen Gleiberman wrote, "It's a pleasure to be in the hands of an action filmmaker who respects the audience. De Bont's craftsmanship is so supple that even the triple ending feels justified, like the cataclysmic final stage of a Sega death match".[43] Time magazine's Richard Schickel wrote, "The movie has two virtues essential to good pop thrillers. First, it plugs uncomplicatedly into lurking anxieties—in this case the ones we brush aside when we daily surrender ourselves to mass transit in a world where the loonies are everywhere".[44] Filmmaker Quentin Tarantino named the film one of the twenty best films he had seen from 1992 to 2009.[45][46]

Entertainment Weekly magazine's Owen Gleiberman ranked Speed as 1994's eighth best film.[47] The magazine also ranked the film eighth on their "The Best Rock-'em, Sock-'em Movies of the Past 25 Years" list.[48] Speed also ranks 451 on Empire magazine's 2008 list of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time".[49]

Mark Kermode of the BBC recalled having named Speed his film of the month working at Radio 1 at the time of release, and stated in 2017, having re-watched the film for the first time in many years, that it had stood the test of time and was a masterpiece.[50]

Home media


Year-end lists


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Association Ceremony Date Category Recipient Results
Awards Circuit Community Awards 1994 Best Stunt Ensemble Gary Hymes
Eddie Matthews
William Morts
Jimmy Ortega
Brian Smrz
Best Film Editing John Wright Nominated
Best Achievement in Sound David McMillan Nominated
Best Visual Effects Boyd Shermis Nominated
Honorable Mentions Jan de Bont Won
Academy Awards March 27, 1995 Best Film Editing John Wright Nominated
Best Sound Gregg Landaker
Steve Maslow
Bob Beemer
David MacMillan
Best Sound Effects Editing Stephen Hunter Flick Won
American Cinema Editors Awards 1995 Best Edited Feature Film John Wright Nominated
BAFTA Awards 1995 Best Sound Stephen Hunter Flick
Gregg Landaker
Steve Maslow
Bob Beemer
David MacMillan
Best Special Visual Effects Boyd Shermis
John Frazier
Ron Brinkman
Richard E. Hollander
Best Editing John Wright Won
Blockbuster Entertainment Awards 1995 Favorite Actress - Action/Adventure Sandra Bullock Won
BMI Film & TV Awards 1995 BMI Film Music Award Mark Mancina Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards 1995 Most Promising Actress Sandra Bullock Nominated
Cinema Audio Society Awards 1995 Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing
for Feature Films
Gregg Landaker
Steve Maslow
Bob Beemer
David MacMillan
Edgar Allan Poe Awards 1995 Best Motion Picture Graham Yost Nominated
Golden Camera Awards 1995 Golden Screen Won
Japan Academy Prize Awards 1995 Best Foreign Film Nominated
Jupiter Awards 1994 Best International Actress Sandra Bullock Won
Motion Picture Sound Editors Awards 1995 Best Sound Editing - Sound Effects & Foley,
Domestic Feature Film
Stephen Hunter Flick
Donald Flick
David E. Stone
Eric Potter
Paul Berolzheimer
David Bartlett
John Dunn
Patricio A. Libenson
Dean Beville
John T. Cucci
Ken Dufva
Judee Flick
Avram D. Gold
Warren Hamilton, Jr.
Greg Hedgepath
Dean Manly
Dan O'Connell
Catherine Rowe
Joan Rowe
Kirk Schuler
Bruce Stubblefield
Solange S. Schwalbe
MTV Movie + TV Awards June 10, 1995 Best Movie Nominated
Best Male Performance Keanu Reeves Nominated
Best Female Performance Sandra Bullock Won
Best On-Screen Duo Keanu Reeves
Sandra Bullock
Best Kiss Nominated
Most Desirable Male Keanu Reeves Nominated
Most Desirable Female Sandra Bullock Won
Best Villain Dennis Hopper Won
Best Action Sequence -
for the bus escape/airplane explosion
Nickelodeon Kid's Choice Awards May 20, 1995 Favorite Movie Nominated
Favorite Movie Actor Keanu Reeves Nominated
Favorite Movie Actress Sandra Bullock Nominated
Nikkan Sports Film Awards 1995 Best Foreign Film Won
Saturn Awards June 26, 1995 Best Action/Adventure-Thriller Film Nominated
Best Director Jan de Bont Nominated
Best Actress Sandra Bullock Won[a]

American Film Institute recognition:



A soundtrack album featuring "songs from and inspired by" the film was released on June 28, 1994, with the following tracks.[83] The soundtrack was commercially successful in Japan, being certified gold by the RIAJ in 2002.[84]

Speed: Songs From And Inspired By The Motion Picture
1."Speed"Billy Idol, Steve Stevens4:22
2."A Million Miles Away"The Plimsouls3:41
3."Soul Deep"Gin Blossoms3:06
4."Let's Go for a Ride"Cracker3:07
5."Go Outside and Drive"Blues Traveler4:51
6."Crash"Ric Ocasek5:05
7."Rescue Me"Pat Benatar3:01
8."Hard Road"Rod Stewart4:28
9."Cot"Carnival Strippers5:23
10."Cars ('93 Sprint Remix)"Gary Numan4:02
11."Like a Motorway"Saint Etienne5:43
12."Mr. Speed"Kiss3:17
Total length:50:04


In addition to the soundtrack release, a separate album featuring 40 minutes of Mark Mancina's score from the film was released on August 30, 1994 by 20th Century Fox Film Scores.[85] The CD track order does not follow the chronological order of the film's events.[citation needed]

La-La Land Records and Fox Music released a limited expanded version of Mark Mancina's score on February 28, 2012.[86] The newly remastered release features 69:25 of music spread over 32 tracks (in chronological order). In addition, it includes the song "Speed" by Billy Idol.[86]


Main article: Speed 2: Cruise Control

In June 1997, a sequel, Speed 2: Cruise Control, was released to negative reviews and disappointing box-office. Sandra Bullock agreed to star again as Annie, for financial backing for another project, but Keanu Reeves declined the offer to return as Jack. As a result, Jason Patric was written into the story as Alex Shaw, Annie's new boyfriend, with her and Jack having broken up due to her worry about Jack's dangerous lifestyle. Willem Dafoe starred as the film's villain John Geiger, and Glenn Plummer (who played Reeves's character's carjacking victim) also cameos as the same character, this time driving a boat that Alex takes control of. The film is considered one of the worst sequels of all time, scoring only 4% (based on 71 reviews) on Rotten Tomatoes.[87]


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See also


  1. ^ Tied with Jamie Lee Curtis for True Lies.


  1. ^ a b Weinraub, Bernard (June 11, 1994). "Hurtling to the Top: A Director Is Born". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  2. ^ a b Bart, Peter (July 29, 2021). "Peter Bart: Hollywood Yearns For Budget-Bending Box Office Blast-Offs Of Former Summers". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on August 11, 2021. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Speed". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 16, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  4. ^ Empire - Special Collectors' Edition - The Greatest Action Movies Ever (published in 2001)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bierly, Mandi (June 10, 2014). "'Speed' 20th anniversary: Screenwriter Graham Yost looks back". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  6. ^ Weintraub, Steve (April 20, 2022). "Exclusive: Michael Bay Breaks Down the Making of 'Ambulance' in 60-Minute Q&A and Answers Tons of Fan Questions". Collider.
  7. ^ a b c d O'Hare, Kate (June 6, 2003). "The 'Bus Guy' triumphs". The Post-Star. Archived from the original on November 25, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d Kozak, Jim (August–September 2005). "Serenity Now!". In Focus. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gerosa, Melina (June 10, 1994). "Speed Racer". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  10. ^ "The Art of Action: Episode 17 Jeff Speakman". YouTube. Scott Adkins. Event occurs at 41:30. Archived from the original on November 15, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  11. ^ "Halle Berry Shares Which Role She Almost Took From Sandra Bullock (Exclusive) | Entertainment Tonight". www.etonline.com. April 30, 2019.
  12. ^ Bierly, Mandi (June 10, 2014). "'Speed' 20th anniversary: Screenwriter Graham Yost looks back". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  13. ^ Svetkey, Benjamin (July 22, 1994). "Overdrive". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  14. ^ "Sandra Bullock, Keanu Reeves and Jan de Bont look back at 'Speed' 20 years later". June 10, 2014. Archived from the original on September 21, 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  15. ^ "Anne Heche on Being Blacklisted for Coming Out, Talks Differences Between Her & Ellen's Experiences". YouTube. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  16. ^ a b McCabe, Bob (June 1999). "Speed". Empire. p. 121.
  17. ^ "Jan De Bont on Twister: "The Last Great Action Movie"". Vulture. July 23, 2020.
  18. ^ a b Strohl, Daniel (May 24, 2018). "Pop quiz, hot shot: What's the bus from 'Speed' worth at auction?". Hemmings. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  19. ^ "1979 Grumman Flxible 870 ADB in "Speed, 1994"". IMCDb.org. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c Dennis Hopper (host) (1994). The Making of 'Speed' (Documentary). 20th Century Fox. Archived from the original on September 21, 2019. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  21. ^ Burwick, Kevin (June 10, 2018). "Speed Bus Goes for $102K at Auction, Can It Still Hit 55MPH?". Movieweb. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  22. ^ GJW. "Speed: Filming Locations - part 4". Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  23. ^ Mackie, Drew (June 13, 2014). "20 Reasons to Love Speed, 20 Years Later". People. Archived from the original on January 20, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  24. ^ a b "C-FCPS C-GCPS N599DB McDonnell Douglas MD520N C/N LN024". Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  25. ^ Service, Calgary Police (January 24, 2013). "Helicopter Air Watch for Community Safety HAWCS". Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  26. ^ "'Speed' Drives to a Fast Start : Movies: The thriller passes 'The Flintstones,' while 'City Slickers II' gallops to third at the box office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  27. ^ Horn, John (June 15, 1994). "'Speed' races to the front of box-office pack". The Post-Star. Associated Press. p. 11. Archived from the original on April 29, 2023. Retrieved April 29, 2023 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  28. ^ Groves, Don (September 20, 1994). "'Clear' sailing in U.K.; 'Flintstones' wows Oz". Daily Variety. p. 4.
  29. ^ Groves, Don (August 22, 1994). "O'seas B.O. stuck in 'Stones' age". Variety. p. 13.
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  31. ^ "'Wolf' Tops Week's Films". Tyler Morning Telegraph. June 20, 1994. p. 20. Archived from the original on October 15, 2023. Retrieved October 15, 2023. Open access icon
  32. ^ "Lion King' rules nation's box office". United Press International. June 27, 1994. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  33. ^ "International box office". Variety. August 29, 1994. p. 14.
  34. ^ Groves, Don (February 20, 1995). "'Star Trek' fever hits German B.O.". Variety. p. 12.
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