This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sultanate of Sambas" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
Sambas Sultanate
كسلطانن سمبس
Kesultanan Sambas
1609–1956
Flag of Sambas Sultanate
Flag
CapitalSambas
Common languagesMalay language
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentIslamic Absolute Monarchy
History 
• Established
1609
• Disestablished
1956
Today part ofIndonesia

The Sultanate of Sambas (Malay: كسلطانن سمبس, romanized: Kesultanan Sambas) was a traditional Malay state on the Western coast of the island of Borneo, in modern-day Indonesia.

History

At first governed by governors, Sambas became a kingdom in 1609 with the descendant of Sepudak. She married one of her daughters to a prince of Sultan Muhammad Hassan of Brunei, Prince Tengah whom later became the first and the last Sultan of Sarawak for Bruneian Empire. The child of this union, Muhammad Saif ud-din I became the first Muslim Sultan of Sambas.

Sambas remained independent until the era of the Dutch East India Company, when the capital was bombarded in 1812. The Dutch took control in 1819, leading into frequent minglings into succession, deposing and exiling Abu Bakar Taj ud-din II to Java.

Umar Akam ud-din III, the Sultan of Sambas (1854-1866)

The state was stable, featuring strong, durable leaders, until the Japanese conquest of 1942, when Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II was executed in the Pontianak Incident at Mandor in 1944. The Sultanate was thereafter suspended and replaced by a Japanese council. It returned with the return of the Dutch in 1946. They installed another Sultan, who died in 1956, ending the line.

From 1984, the head of the Royal House was Winata Kusuma of Sambas, who was recognised as Sultan in 2000 and installed in July 2001. He died in 2008.

The Sultan

The meaning of "Sultan" is "His Highness" and his royal name consists of Sri Paduka al-Sultan Tuanku, followed by his personal reign name, ibni al-Marhum and concludes with his father's reigning titles and his name.

The wife of the Sultan is titled Sri Paduka Ratu .

The Sultanate followed male primogeniture, with the sons of royal wives having precedence over those of common wives.

List of rulers

Panembahan Ratu (King) of Sambas:

Sultanate of Sambas:

Family tree

Family tree of Sambas Monarchs
Muhammad
Shafiuddin I

(1)
r. 1671-1682
Muhammad
Tajuddin

(2)
r. 1682-1718
Umar
Aqamaddin I

(3)
r. 1718-1732
Abubakr
Kamaluddin

(4)
r. 1732-1762
Umar
Aqamaddin II

(5)
r. 1762-1786,
1793-1802
Achmad
Tajuddin I

(6)
r. 1786-1793
Abubakr
Tajuddin I

(7)
r. 1802-1815
Muhammad Ali
Shafiuddin I

(8)
r. 1815-1828
Usman
Kamaluddin I

(9)
r. 1828-1832
Umar
Aqamaddin III

(10)
r. 1832-1846
Abubakr
Tajuddin II

(11)
r. 1846-1854
Umar
Kamaluddin II

(12)
r. 1854-1866
Muhammad
Shafiuddin II

(13)
r. 1866-1924
Muhammad Ali
Shafiuddin II

(14)
r. 1924-1926
Pangeran
Achmad Tajuddin II
Muhammad
Ibrahim
Shafiuddin

(15)
r. 1931-1944
Head of the
Royal Family
Muhammad
Taufik

(16)
r. 1944-1984
Winata
Kusuma

(17)
r. 1984-2008
Muhammad
Tarhan

(18)
r. 2008-present