Supreme Court of Georgia
Map
Established1845
LocationAtlanta, Georgia
Composition methodNon-partisan statewide election
Authorized byGeorgia Constitution
Appeals toSupreme Court of the United States
Number of positions9
WebsiteOfficial website
Chief Justice
CurrentlyMichael P. Boggs
SinceJuly 18, 2022
The Supreme Court of Georgia is located at the Nathan Deal Judicial Center in Atlanta

The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest judicial authority of the U.S. state of Georgia. The court was established in 1845 as a three-member panel. Since 1896, the justices (increased in number to six, then to seven in 1945, and finally to nine in 2017)[1] have been elected by the people of the state. The justices are currently elected in statewide non-partisan elections for six-year terms, with any vacancies filled through an appointment by the Governor.[2][3]

The first Chief Justice of the Court was Joseph Henry Lumpkin, who was appointed to that position in 1863. Under the current Constitution of Georgia, the Chief Justice is designated as "the chief presiding and administrative officer of the court," and is elected by the justices.[4] The justices also elect a Presiding Justice to serve if the Chief Justice is absent or is disqualified.[4] As of 2022, the chief justice of the court is Michael P. Boggs, and the Presiding Justice is Nels S. D. Peterson. Both justices were sworn into their respective positions on July 18, 2022.[5]

History

Georgia was established as a state under the federal Constitution in 1788. In the state's early days the justice system was set up so that matters of law were settled at a local level with no appellate courts. In 1799, the Judiciary Act stated that the judges of Georgia would meet annually and discuss any laws or rules that may have or would cause argument among the state. This allowed much of the laws and rules to be somewhat uniform across the state.[6] This did not last long, however, as the General Assembly (state legislature) repealed that procedure in 1801, referring any arguments then-outstanding back to each county for decision by the local presiding judge.[6]

From then, the judges of the superior courts (the general trial courts) began conferring informally on difficult points of law. When a group of superior court judges declared an act of the legislature unconstitutional, however, the legislature in 1815 disapproved even of this practice.[6]

At that point, with no way of ensuring superior court decisions would be uniform throughout the state, several successive governors from the 1820s to 1840s urged the creation of a supreme court.[6] In 1828, Governor John Forsyth complained that the then-eight superior court judges were not bound by precedent from either their predecessors not from a higher court. As a result, there was neither "uniformity nor certainty in the laws for the security of the rights of persons or property. The confusion produced by contemporary contradictory decisions, everyday increases – property is held and recovered in one part, and lost in another part of the state under like circumstances – rights are asserted and maintained in one circuit, and denied in another, in analogous cases."[6]

The state Constitution was finally amended in 1835 to authorize the establishment of a supreme court, but the court itself was not established by legislative act until 1845. The original court consisted of three justices: Joseph Henry Lumpkin as the presiding justice, Hiram Warner, and Eugenius A. Nisbet. Their salaries were $2,500 a year. The court held its first session in Talbotton, Georgia, on January 26, 1846, and held sessions by "riding circuit," that is, holding court at several locations throughout the superior court circuits of the state, traveling at their own expense.[6]

Subsequent state constitutions and amendments have modified the composition and practice of the court. The 1865 Constitution, following the American Civil War, ended the practice of circuit-riding by providing that the court would sit in the state capital (today, Atlanta). An 1896 constitutional amendment expanded the court by three justices and provided for popular election of the justices. A seventh justice was added by an amendment in 1945. The current state constitution authorizes up to nine justices, and the eighth and ninth seats were created by the Appellate Jurisdiction Reform Act in 2016.[6]

The Judicial building which housed the Supreme Court of Georgia from 1954 until 2019.

The supreme court was originally housed in room 341 on the third floor of the Georgia State Capitol. In 1954 it moved to room 606 on the sixth floor of the Judicial Building across the street.[7] On Dec. 6, 2019, the supreme court moved into the Nathan Deal Judicial Center at 330 Capitol Ave. S.E.[8] The seven-story, 215,000-square-foot judicial center is the most expensive state-funded building in Georgia history, costing $130 million to build in 2019. It is named after former governor Nathan Deal.[9]

Justices

Current justices

See also: List of justices of the Supreme Court of Georgia (U.S. state)

Justice Born Joined Chief Justice Term ends[a] Appointed by Law school
Michael P. Boggs, Chief Justice (1962-12-28) December 28, 1962 (age 61) January 1, 2017 2022–present 2024 Nathan Deal (R) Mercer
Nels S. D. Peterson, Presiding Justice (1978-09-17) September 17, 1978 (age 45) January 1, 2017 2024 Nathan Deal (R) Harvard
Sarah Hawkins Warren 1981 or 1982 (age 41–42) September 17, 2018 2026 Nathan Deal (R) Duke
Charlie Bethel (1976-03-03) March 3, 1976 (age 47) October 18, 2018 2026 Nathan Deal (R) Georgia
John J. Ellington (1960-10-26) October 26, 1960 (age 63) December 19, 2018 2024 [b] Georgia
Carla Wong McMillian (1973-05-27) May 27, 1973 (age 50) March 27, 2020 2028 Brian Kemp (R) Georgia
Shawn Ellen LaGrua 1962 (age 61–62) January 7, 2021 2028 Brian Kemp (R) Georgia State
Verda Colvin 1964 or 1965 (age 58–59) July 20, 2021 2028 Brian Kemp (R) Georgia
Andrew Pinson 1985 or 1986 (age 37–38) July 20, 2022 2024 Brian Kemp (R) Georgia

Chief Justices

Name Year appointed End term
Joseph Henry Lumpkin 1863 1867
Hiram B. Warner 1867, 1872 1868,1880
Joseph E. Brown 1868 1870
O. A. Lochrane 1871 1872
James Jackson 1880 1887
Logan Edwin Bleckley 1887 1894
Thomas J. Simmons 1894 1905
W. H. Fish 1905 1923
Richard Russell Sr. 1923 1938
Charles S. Reid 1938 1943
R. C. Bell 1943 1946
William Franklin Jenkins 1946 1948
William Henry Duckworth 1948 1969
Bond Almand 1969 1972
Carlton Mobley 1972 1974
Benning M. Grice 1974 1975
Horace Elmo Nichols 1975 1980
Hiram K. Undercofler 1980 1980
Robert H. Jordan 1980 1982
Harold N. Hill, Jr. 1982 1986
Thomas O. Marshall 1986 1989
Charles L. Weltner 1990 1992
Harold G. Clarke 1990 1994
Willis B. Hunt, Jr. 1994 1995
Robert Benham 1995 2001
Norman S. Fletcher 2001 2005
Leah Ward Sears 2005 2009
Carol W. Hunstein 2009 2012
George H. Carley 2012 2012
Carol W. Hunstein 2012 2013
Hugh P. Thompson 2013 2016
P. Harris Hines 2017 2018
Harold Melton 2018[10][11] 2021
David Nahmias 2021 2022
Michael P. Boggs 2022 present

Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court of Georgia has the right and authority over every case that involves the review of select appellate jurisdiction. The cases in which it can perform rule over are the cases that bring in question of constitutionality of a law, constitutional arrangement, or mandate. Any election contest can be judged by the Supreme Court of Georgia and the cases it has appellate jurisdiction in are the following:

Each justice can create an opinion, but it must be passed to the other justices, and after a discussion, depending on the majority, that opinion can be taken in or nulled. In the instance that any justice cannot serve in a case due to disqualification or any other reason, a judge to substitute has is[clarification needed] sent[clarification needed] by the Court to take that place.

Courtroom security

Courtroom security is provided by the Capitol Police Division of the Georgia Department of Public Safety.

Bar admissions

The Supreme Court of Georgia is unusual among state high courts in that, while it sets forth and implements the rules for admitting new lawyers to the state bar, it does not formally conduct the admissions. Instead, new lawyers are admitted to practice by taking an oath before a judge of one of the superior courts (that is, a local trial-level court).[12]

The Office of Bar Admissions is an administrative arm of the Supreme Court that is responsible for implementing the rules for admission. That Office assists two separate boards appointed by the Supreme Court. The Board to Determine Fitness of Bar Applicants handles "character and fitness" issues, inquiring into a candidate's "honesty, trustworthiness, diligence, [and] reliability" to determine fitness to practice law.[13] The Board of Bar Examiners administers and grades the state's bar examination each February and July.[13] Subject to educational and other criteria, the boards will certify for admission candidates who meet the character and fitness requirements and pass both the bar examination and the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination.[12] Candidates may then obtain admission to the Bar by appearing in superior court, and then separately seek admission to the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Term ends Dec. 31 of the year listed.
  2. ^ Took office after winning a nonpartisan election.

References

  1. ^ "Georgia governor OK's bill expanding state Supreme Court by 2". jacksonville.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  2. ^ National Center for State Courts. "Judicial Selection in the States – Methods of Judicial Selection – Georgia". www.judicialselection.us. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  3. ^ Constitution of the State of Georgia (as amended through Jan. 1, 2017), Article VI, Section VII, http://www.senate.ga.gov/Documents/gaconstitution.pdf
  4. ^ a b Constitution of the State of Georgia (as amended through Jan. 1, 2017), Article VI, Section VI, http://www.senate.ga.gov/Documents/gaconstitution.pdf
  5. ^ "03/16/2022—Michael Boggs to Become New Chief Justice" (Press release). Supreme Court of Georgia. March 16, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "The Supreme Court of Georgia History". Supreme Court of Georgia.
  7. ^ "Georgia Supreme Court – Court of Appeal". Courthouses.co.
  8. ^ "SUPREME COURT MOVE TO NATHAN DEAL JUDICIAL CENTER". Supreme Court of Georgia. November 26, 2019.
  9. ^ Keenan, Sean Richard (February 12, 2020). "How the $130M Nathan Deal Judicial Center came together near downtown". Curbed Atlanta. VoxMedia.
  10. ^ "9/4/18 – NEW CHIEF JUSTICE OF GEORGIA SUPREME COURT". Supreme Court of Georgia. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  11. ^ "Biographies". gasupreme.us.
  12. ^ a b "Rules Governing Admission to the Practice of Law, Supreme Court of Georgia." https://www.gabaradmissions.org/rules-governing-admission
  13. ^ a b "Georgia Office Of Bar Admissions – Frequently Asked Questions". www.gabaradmissions.org. Retrieved August 29, 2018.

Citations

Huebner, Timothy. The Southern Judicial Tradition: State Judges and Sectional Distinctiveness, 1790–1890. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1999.

Georgia, S. O. (2016). Rules. Retrieved April 20, 2017, from http://www.gasupreme.us/rules/

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