The game's 36×36 board with pieces in their opening positions

Taikyoku shōgi (Japanese: 大局将棋, lit. "ultimate shogi") is the largest known variant of shogi (Japanese chess). The game was created around the mid-16th century (presumably by priests) and is based on earlier large board shogi games. Before the rediscovery of taikyoku shogi in 1997, tai shogi was believed to be the largest physically playable chess variant ever. (Even some infinite chess variants have been made playable in virtual space using procedural rendering of the board as pieces move outward, but of course an infinitely large chess board can not be physically printed.) It has not been shown that taikyoku shogi was ever widely played. There are only two sets of restored taikyoku shogi pieces and one of them is held at Osaka University of Commerce.[1] One game may be played over several long sessions and require each player to make over a thousand moves.

Because the game was found only recently after centuries of obscurity, it is difficult to say exactly what all the rules were. Several documents describing the game have been found; however, there are differences between them. It is not too clear how accurate the rules given by modern sources for the game are, because many of the pieces appear in other shogi variants with a consistent move there, but are given different moves in taikyoku shogi. The board, and likewise the pieces, were made much smaller than usual for the other variants, making archeological finds difficult to decipher. Research into this game continues.

Rules of the game

Taikyoku shogi is very different from other large-board shogi variants: tenjiku shogi, dai dai shogi, maka dai dai shogi, and tai shogi. The most notable differences lie with the piece movements and their promotions.

Objective

The objective of the game is to capture the opponent's king(s) and prince(s). When the last of these is captured, the game ends. There are no rules for check or checkmate; however, in practice a player resigns when checkmated. Unlike standard shogi, pieces may not be dropped back into play after being captured.

Game equipment

Two players, Black and White (or 先手 sente and 後手 gote), play on a board ruled into a grid of 36 ranks (rows) by 36 files (columns) with a total of 1,296 squares. The squares are differentiated by marking or color.

Each player has a set of 402 wedge-shaped pieces of 207[Note 1] types. The players must remember 253 sets of moves. The pieces are of slightly different sizes with the larger pieces near the king and becoming progressively smaller for pieces further from the king, regardless of power. In general, the stronger pieces are nearer to the king.

Several of the English names were chosen to correspond to rough equivalents in Western chess, rather than as translations of the Japanese names.

Each piece has its name in the form of two or three kanji written on its face. On the reverse side of some pieces are two or three other characters, often in a different color (commonly red instead of black); this reverse side is used to indicate that the piece has been promoted during play. The pieces of the two sides do not differ in color, but instead each piece is shaped like a wedge, and faces forward, toward the opposing side. This shows who controls the piece during play.

Listed below are the pieces of the game and, if they promote, which pieces they promote to. Promotions prefaced with a star are not also represented as their own pieces, existing only as promotions.

(Sometimes the queen is called the "free king", a direct translation of its Japanese name. The kirin's name is sometimes anglicised as kylin.)

Setup

Taikyoku Shogi

Below is a diagram showing the setup of one player's pieces. The way one player sees their own pieces is the same way the opposing player will see their pieces.

Board layout
                                                                       
          D         GB       D             D       GB         D          
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P
LC MK VM OX LB VP VH BN DH DK SE HF EL SP VL TG SC LD DG SC TG VL SP EL HF SE DK DH BN VH VP LB OX VM MK RC
CH SL VR WN RE M SD HS GN OS EA BS SG LP T BE I GM GE I BE T LP SG BS EA OS GN HS SD M RE WN VR SL CH
EC BL EB HO OW CM CS SW BM BT OC SF BB OR SQ SN RD LI FE RD SN SQ OR BB SF OC BT BM SW CS CM OW HO EB VI EC
TC VW SX DO FH VB AB EW LH CK OM CC WS ES VS NT TF RM MT TF NT VS SU NB CC OM CK LH EW AB VB FH DO SX VW TC
WC WH HD SM PR WB FL EG FD PS FY ST BI WG F KR CA GT LL HM PH F WG BI ST FY PS FD EG FL WB PR SM HD WH WC
CI CE B R WF FC MF VT SO LS CL CR RH HE VO GD GO DV DS GO GD VO HE RH CR CL LS SO VT MF FC WF R B CE CI
SV VE N PI CG PG H O CN SA SR GL LN CT GS VD WL GG VG WL VD GS CT LN GL SR SA CN O H PG CG PI N VE SV
GC SI RN RW BG RO LT LE BO WD FP RB OK PC WA FI C KM PM C FI WA PC OK RB FP WD BO RI TT RO BG RW RN SI GC
RV WE TD FS CO RA FO MS RP RU SS GR RT BA BD WR S NK DE S GU YA BA RT GR SS RU RP MS FO RA CO FS TD FG RV
L TS RR W DM ML LO BC HR FR ED CD FT Q RS LG G K CP G RG RS Q FT WO ED FR HR BC LO MR DM W RR WT L
Legend
AB – Angry boar
B – Bishop
BA – Running Bear
BB – Blind Bear
BC – Beast Cadet
BD – Buddhist Devil
BE – Bear Soldier
BG – Bishop General
BI – Blind Dog
BL – Blue Dragon
BM – Blind Monkey
BN – Burning Soldier
BO – Beast Officer
BS – Boar Soldier
BT – Blind Tiger
C – Copper General
CA – Capricorn
CC – Chinese Cock
CD – Ceramic Dove
CE – Cloud Eagle
CG – Chicken General
CH – Chariot Soldier
CI – Stone Chariot
CK – Flying Cock
CL – Cloud Dragon
CM – Climbing Monkey
CN – Center Standard
CO – Captive Officer
CP – Prince
CR – Copper Chariot
CS – Cat Sword
CT – Captive Cadet
D – Dog
DE – Drunken Elephant
DG – Roaring Dog
DH – Dragon Horse
DK – Dragon King
DO – Donkey
DM – Fire Demon
DS – Dark Spirit
DV – Deva
EA – Earth General
EB – Enchanted Badger
EC – Earth Chariot
ED – Earth Dragon
EG – Fierce Eagle
EL – Soaring Eagle
ES – Eastern Barbarian
EW – Evil Wolf
F – Fire General
FC – Flying Cat
FD – Flying Dragon
FE – Free Eagle
FG – Fragrant Elephant
FH – Flying Horse
FI – Fire Dragon
FL – Ferocious Leopard
FO – Forest Demon
FP – Free Pup
FR – Free Demon
FS – Flying Swallow
FT – Free Dream-Eater
FY – Flying Goose
G – Gold General
GB – Go Between
GC – Gold Chariot
GD – Great Dragon
GE – Great Standard
GG – Great General
GL – Golden Deer
GM – Great Master
GN – Wood General
GO – Golden Bird
GR – Great Dove
GS – Great Stag
GT – Great Turtle
GU – Guardian of the Gods
H – Horse General
HD – Howling Dog
HE – Ram's-Head Soldier
HF – Horned Falcon
HM – Hook-Mover
HO – Horseman
HR – Running Horse
HS – Horse Soldier
I – Iron General
K – King
KM – Kirin-Master
KR – Kirin
L – Lance
LB – Longbow Soldier
LC – Left Chariot
LD – Lion Dog
LE – Left Dragon
LG – Left General
LH – Liberated Horse
LI – Lion Hawk
LL – Little Turtle
LN – Lion
LO – Long-Nosed Goblin
LP – Leopard Soldier
LS – Little Standard
LT – Left Tiger
M – Mountain General
MF – Mountain Falcon
MK – Side Monkey
ML – Left Mountain Eagle
MR – Right Mountain Eagle
MS – Mountain Stag
MT – Center Master
N – Knight
NB – Northern Barbarian
NK – Neighboring King
NT – Violent wolf
O – Ox General
OC – Oxcart
OK – Old Kite
OM – Old Monkey
OR – Old Rat
OS – Ox Soldier
OW – Swooping Owl
OX – Flying Ox
P – Pawn
PC – Peacock
PG – Pup General
PH – Phoenix
PI – Pig General
PM – Phoenix-Master
PR – Prancing Stag
PS – Poisonous Snake
Q – Queen
R – Rook
RA – Rain Dragon
RB – Rushing Bird
RC – Right Chariot
RD – Reclining Dragon
RE – River General
RG – Right General
RH – Running Chariot
RI – Right Dragon
RM – Roc-Master
RN – Running Stag
RO – Rook General
RP – Running Pup
RR – Running Rabbit
RS – Rear Standard
RT – Running Tiger
RU – Running Serpent
RV – Reverse Chariot
RW – Running Wolf
S – Silver General
SA – Side Boar
SC – Crossbow Soldier
SD – Front Standard
SE – Sword Soldier
SF – Side-Flyer
SG – Stone General
SI – Side Dragon
SL – Side Soldier
SM – Side Mover
SN – Coiled Serpent
SO – Soldier
SP – Spear Soldier
SQ – Square-Mover
SR – Silver Rabbit
SS – Side Serpent
ST – Strutting Crow
SU – Southern Barbarian
SV – Silver Chariot
SW – Swallow's Wings
SX – Side Ox
T – Tile General
TC – Tile Chariot
TD – Turtle Dove
TF – Treacherous Fox
TG – Savage Tiger
TS – Turtle-snake
TT – Right Tiger
VB – Violent Bear
VD – Violent Dragon
VE – Vertical Bear
VG – Vice General
VH – Vertical Horse
VI – Vermillion Sparrow
VL – Vertical Leopard
VM – Vertical Mover
VO – Violent Ox
VP – Vertical Pup
VR – Vertical Soldier
VS – Violent Stag
VT – Vertical Tiger
VW – Vertical Wolf
W – Whale
WA – Water Dragon
WB – Water Buffalo
WC – Wood Chariot
WD – Wind Dragon
WE – White Elephant
WF – Side Wolf
WG – Water General
WH – White Horse
WL – Woodland Demon
WN – Wind General
WO – Wooden Dove
WR – Wrestler
WS – Western Barbarian
WT – White Tiger
YA – Yaksha

The Howling Dog pieces (HD) are placed on the left and right depending on their promotions; the Howling dog that promotes to a Left Dog on the left, and the Howling Dog that promotes to a Right Dog on the right.

The queen could also be abbreviated FK (for free king) and the kirin as Ky (for kylin).

Game play

The players alternate making a move, with Black moving first. (The traditional terms 'black' and 'white' are used to differentiate the sides during discussion of the game, but are no longer literally descriptive.) A move consists of moving a single piece on the board and potentially promoting that piece or displacing (capturing) an opposing piece.

Movement and capture

Most pieces in the game move in a unique manner. An opposing piece is captured by displacement: That is, if a piece moves to a square occupied by an opposing piece, the opposing piece is displaced and removed from the board. A piece cannot move to a square occupied by a friendly piece (meaning another piece controlled by the moving player).

Each piece on the game moves in a characteristic pattern. Pieces move either orthogonally (that is, forward, backward, left, or right, in the direction of one of the arms of a plus sign, +), or diagonally (in the direction of one of the arms of a multiplication sign, ×). The lion, lion hawk and knight are exceptions at the beginning of the game, in that they do not move, or are not required to move, in a straight line. (The Buddhist spirit, teaching king, heavenly horse and furious fiend are similar, but they only appear as pieces promote.)

Categories of movement

Many pieces are capable of several kinds of movement, with the type of movement most often depending on the direction in which they move. The movement categories are:

Step movers

Some pieces move only one square at a time. (If a friendly piece occupies an adjacent square, the moving piece may not move in that direction; if an opposing piece is there, it may be displaced and captured.)

The step movers are the prince, generals (except: bishop, rook, pig, vice, great and wood), wolves, earth dragon, running horse, running rabbit, turtle snake, turtle dove, flying swallow, rain dragon, mountain stag, running pup, running serpent, side serpent, yaksha, Buddhist devil, violent stag, drunken elephant, neighboring king, chariots (except: reverse, running and copper), right tiger, left tiger, wind dragon, free pup, rushing bird, old kite, bears (except running), side boar, cloud eagle, flying cat, little standard, cloud dragon, soldiers (except soldier and chariot), violent ox, dark spirit, deva, howling dog, side mover, prancing stag, ferocious leopard, fierce eagle, poisonous snake, flying goose, strutting crow, blind dog, Chinese cock, phoenix, kirin, side ox, angry boar, liberated horse, flying cock, monkeys, barbarians, vermillion sparrow, swooping owl, old rat, cat sword, swallow's wings, blind tiger, side flyer, coiled serpent, reclining dragon, go between, dog, vertical mover, vertical pup, vertical horse, dragon horse, dragon king and pawn.

Limited ranging pieces

Some pieces can move along a limited number (2 to 7) of free (empty) squares along a straight line in certain directions. Other than the limited distance, they move like ranging pieces (see below).

The limited ranging pieces are the king, standards, free dream-eater, wooden dove, dragons (except: rain, side, wind, cloud, flying and reclining), demons, beast cadet, mountain eagle, white tiger, ceramic dove, turtle dove, captive officer, mountain stag, side serpent, great dove, running tiger, running bear, yaksha, Buddhist devil, guardian of the Gods, wrestler, gold chariot, running stag, beast officer, free pup, rushing bird, old kite, peacock, phoenix master, kirin master, silver chariot, vertical bear, pig general, chicken general, horse general, ox general, silver rabbit, golden deer, captive cadet, great stag, stone chariot, cloud eagle, mountain falcon, vertical tiger, copper chariot, golden bird, prancing stag, water buffalo, fierce eagle, water general, mountain general, fire general, turtles, vertical wolf, donkey, enchanted badger, flying horse, angry boar, violent bear, liberated horse, barbarians, center master, roc master, horseman, soldiers (except: rook, ram's-head, spear and sword), wing general, wind general, wood general, great master and roaring dog.

Jumping pieces

Several pieces can jump, that is, they can pass over any intervening piece, whether friend or foe, with no effect on either.

The jumping pieces are the wooden dove, running horse, mountain eagle, phoenix master, kirin master, knight, lion, great stag, vice general, flying cat, mountain falcon, golden bird, flying dragon, phoenix, kirin, turtles, treacherous fox, center master, roc master, free eagle, lion hawk, great master, horned falcon, soaring eagle, roaring dog and lion dog.

Ranging pieces

Many pieces can move any number of empty squares along a straight line, limited only by the edge of the board. If an opposing piece intervenes, it may be captured by moving to that square and removing it from the board. A ranging piece must stop where it captures, and cannot bypass a piece that is in its way. If a friendly piece intervenes, the moving piece is limited to a distance that stops short of the intervening piece; if the friendly piece is adjacent, it cannot move in that direction at all.

The ranging pieces are the standards, queen, free dream-eater, wooden dove, dragons (except: violent, flying and reclining), demons, running horse, mountain eagle, whale, running rabbit, tigers (except blind), turtle snake, ceramic dove, lance, oxcart, chariots, flying swallow, running pup, running serpent, great dove, running bear, running stag, running wolf, free pup, phoenix master, kirin master, vertical bear, side boar, silver rabbit, golden deer, great stag, cloud eagle, bishop, rook, side wolf, mountain falcon, soldiers (except: sword, burning and crossbow), violent ox, golden bird, white horse, howling dog, side mover, water buffalo, turtles, vertical wolf, side ox, liberated horse, treacherous fox, roc master, vermillion sparrow, horseman, swallow's wings, side flyer, great master, side monkey, vertical mover, flying ox, vertical pup, vertical horse, dragon horse, dragon king, horned falcon, soaring eagle, roaring dog and lion dog.

Hook moves (changing tack)

The hook-mover, long-nosed goblin, capricorn, and peacock can move any number of squares along a straight line, as a normal ranging piece, but may also abruptly change tack left or right by 90° at any one place along the route, and then continue as a ranging piece. Turning a corner like this is optional.

The range covered by a hook move is the equivalent of two moves by a rook, or two moves by a bishop, depending on the piece. However, a hook move is functionally a single move: The piece cannot capture twice in one move, nor may it capture and then move on. It must stop before an intervening piece (unless it first changes direction to avoid it), and must stop when it captures, just like any other ranging piece. It can only change direction once per move.

Area movers

The lion and lion hawk may take multiple (2) steps in a single turn. These do not have to be in a line, so these pieces can potentially reach every square within two or three steps of the starting square, not just squares along one of the diagonals or orthogonals. Such moves are also useful to get around obstructions. An area mover must stop where it captures.

Limited range jumping pieces

The golden bird and several promoted pieces have the option of jumping a limited number of squares, and then continuing on in the same direction as a ranging piece.

Range jumping (flying) pieces

The ancient dragon may jump over any number of pieces, friend or foe, along a straight line, but only when making a capture. Otherwise it moves as a ranging piece.

Range capturing pieces

The great general, vice general, rook general, bishop general, violent dragon and flying crocodile may jump over any number of pieces, friend or foe, along a diagonal or orthogonal. They capture all pieces they jump.

However, they may only jump pieces of lower rank, whether friend or foe. The relevant ranking is:

  1. King, prince
  2. Great general
  3. Vice general
  4. Rook general, bishop general, violent dragon, flying crocodile

Individual pieces

Notation
Steps a limited number of squares along a straight line.
Jumps to this square, bypassing any intervening piece.
! Igui (capture without moving). Counts as two steps.
May jump directly to this square, or reach it through a multiple-step move.
Ranges along a straight line, crossing any number of empty squares
May turn 90° at this square.
Pawn (歩兵)
         
       
       
         
         
Earth general (土将) and go between (仲人)
         
       
       
       
         
Stone general (石将)

Because it cannot move orthogonally or backward, a stone general can only reach less than half the squares on the board.

         
     
       
         
         
Iron general (鉄将) and dog (犬)
         
   
       
         
         
Swooping owl (鴟行), old rat (老鼠) and Strutting crow (烏行)
         
       
       
     
         
Tile general (瓦将) and sword soldier (刀兵)
         
     
       
       
         
Copper general (銅将), flying goose (鳫飛) and climbing monkey (登猿)
         
   
       
       
         
Reclining dragon (臥龍)
         
       
   
       
         
Coiled serpent (蟠蛇)
         
       
       
   
         
Flying cock (鶏飛)
         
     
   
         
         
Cat sword (猫刄)

Because it cannot move orthogonally, a cat sword can only reach half the squares on the board.

         
     
       
     
         
Evil wolf (悪狼)
         
   
   
         
         
Silver general (銀将) and violent stag (猛鹿)
         
   
       
     
         
Blind dog (盲犬) and Chinese cock (淮鶏)
         
     
   
       
         
Old monkey (古猿)
         
     
       
   
         
Gold general (金将) and violent wolf (猛狼)
         
   
   
       
         
Ferocious leopard (猛豹)
         
   
       
   
         
Blind monkey (盲猿) and blind bear (盲熊)
         
     
   
     
         
Drunken elephant (醉象), neighboring king (近王) and Rushing boar (行猪)
         
   
   
     
         
Deva (提婆)
         
     
   
   
         
Dark spirit (無明)
         
     
   
   
         
Blind tiger (盲虎)
         
     
   
   
         
Prince (太子), left general (左将), right general (右将), bear's eyes (熊眼) and venomous wolf (毒狼)
         
   
   
   
         
Wood general (木将)
             
         
         
           
             
             
             
Donkey (驢馬) and enchanted badger (変狸)
             
           
           
   
           
           
             
Flying horse (馬麟)
             
         
         
           
         
         
             
Beast cadet (獣曹)
             
       
       
   
         
         
             
King (玉将), fragrant elephant (香象) and white elephant (白象)
             
       
       
   
       
       
             
Rushing bird (行鳥)
         
       
   
   
     
         
         
Angry boar (嗔猪)
             
         
       
       
             
             
             
Violent bear (猛熊)
Eastern barbarian (東夷) and western barbarian (西戎)
         
       
   
   
       
       
         
Northern barbarian (北狄), southern barbarian (南蛮) and prancing stag (踊鹿)
             
       
   
           
             
Poisonous snake (毒蛇)
             
           
       
   
           
             
             
Old kite (古鵄)

Kite here refers to the bird of prey.

             
         
         
       
         
         
             
Fierce eagle (猛鷲)
             
         
       
       
         
         
             
Guardian of the gods (金剛)
                 
               
               
               
   
               
               
               
                 
Wrestler (力士)
                 
             
             
             
               
             
             
             
                 
Captive cadet (禽曹)

When it promotes to a captive officer (see above), it demotes (moving only two squares orthogonally instead of three).

                 
           
           
           
   
             
             
             
                 
Horse general (馬将), ox general (牛将), wind general (風将) and river general (川将)
         
       
       
   
       
       
         
         
         
Fire general (火将)
             
           
           
       
           
           
           
           
             
Water general (水将) and mountain general (山将)
                 
             
             
           
               
               
                 
                 
                 
Buddhist devil (羅刹)
                 
             
             
             
           
               
                 
                 
                 
Yaksha (夜叉)
                 
             
   
               
                 
Sword general (刀将)
                 
           
           
           
               
               
                 
                 
                 
Captive officer (禽吏)
                 
             
           
           
       
             
             
             
                 
Beast officer (獣吏)
                 
           
           
           
       
             
             
             
                 
Heavenly tetrarch (四天)
                     
               
               
               
               
   
               
               
               
               
                     
Chicken general (鶏将) and pup general (狗将)
         
       
       
       
       
       
     
         
         
         
         
Pig general (豚将)
                     
                 
                 
                 
                 
                   
                   
                   
                     
                     
                     
Mountain stag (山鹿)
                 
                 
             
             
           
       
               
               
               
               
                 
Leopard king (豹王)
                         
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                         
Turtle dove (山鳩)
                         
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                   
                       
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
Crossbow soldier (弓兵)
                 
               
               
           
           
           
   
               
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
Burning soldier (炮兵)
                         
                       
                       
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
           
                       
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
                         
Lance (香車), oxcart (牛車), and savage tiger (猛虎)
       
       
       
         
         
Reverse chariot (反車)
       
       
       
       
       
Side dragon (横龍)
       
       
         
         
Mountain witch (山母)
         
         
       
   
   
White horse (白駒), bird of paradise (⿰古寺·⿱時鳥) and multi-general (雜将)
   
   
       
       
       
Rook (飛車), soldier (兵士), running chariot (走車), square-mover (方行) and gliding swallow (燕行)
       
       
       
       
Free serpent (奔蛇), coiled dragon (蟠龍) and whale (鯨鯢)
       
       
       
   
   
Bishop (角行)

Because it cannot move orthogonally, a bishop can only reach half the squares on the board.

     
     
       
     
     
Free wolf (奔狼) and running leopard (走豹)
   
   
         
         
Wizard stork (仙·⿱而鷦)
     
     
       
       
Flying ox (飛牛), free bear (奔熊), free leopard (奔豹) and great whale (大鯨)
   
   
       
   
   
Treacherous fox (隠狐)
Cavalier (騎士) and strong chariot (強車)
   
   
       
       
Free dragon (奔龍) and free tiger (奔虎)
     
     
   
   
Queen (奔王), free stag (奔鹿) and strong eagle (勁鷲)
   
   
   
   
Howling dog (left and right) (𠵇犬)
       
       
       
       
         
Vertical horse (竪馬)
       
   
       
       
         
Spear soldier (鎗兵)
       
       
   
       
         
Vertical pup (竪狗)
       
       
       
   
         
Raiding falcon (延鷹)
       
   
   
         
         
Right iron chariot (右鉄車)
         
       
   
     
       
Left iron chariot (左鉄車)
         
       
   
     
       
Vertical leopard (竪豹)
       
   
   
       
         
Right dog (右犬)
       
       
       
     
       
Left dog (左犬)
       
       
       
     
       
Ram's-head soldier (羊兵) and Flying swallow (飛燕)
     
     
       
       
         
Wood chariot (木車)
       
     
       
     
       
Tile chariot (瓦車)
       
     
       
     
       
Running boar (走猪), Running pup (走狗), running serpent (走蛇), Earth chariot (土車) and Vertical-mover (竪行).
       
       
   
       
       
Violent ox (猛牛)
     
   
       
       
         
Side wolf (横狼)
         
       
       
         
Side ox (横牛)
         
       
       
         
Side-mover (横行)
         
       
       
         
Side monkey (横猿)
         
     
       
         
Divine sparrow (神雀)

Note : this description is ambiguous and can be interpreted two ways.

Plodding ox (歬牛)
       
   
       
   
       
Swallow's wings (燕羽)
         
   
       
         
Side-flyer (横飛)
         
     
     
         
Flying stag (飛鹿) and copper elephant (銅象)
       
   
   
   
       
Vermillion sparrow (朱雀)
       
   
   
   
       
Turtle-snake (玄武)
       
   
   
   
       
Side boar (横猪)
         
   
   
         
Left chariot (左車)
     
     
     
       
       
Right chariot (右車)
     
     
     
       
       
Great tiger (大虎)
         
       
       
       
Right tiger (右虎)
       
     
   
     
       
Left tiger (左虎)
       
     
   
     
       
Great bear (大熊)
   
   
   
       
         
Running rabbit (走兎)
   
   
       
   
         
Left army (左軍)
       
   
 
   
       
Right army (右軍)
       
   
 
   
       
Divine turtle (神亀)
       
   
   
   
     
Running wolf (走狼)
     
   
         
         
Flying falcon (飛鷹)
     
   
       
     
     
Burning chariot (炮車)
   
   
   
       
       
Dragon king (龍王)
       
   
   
       
Dragon horse (龍馬)
     
   
   
   
     
Free boar (奔猪)
   
   
       
         
Wind dragon (風龍)
     
     
     
       
Cloud dragon (雲龍)
     
   
   
   
   
Rain dragon (雨龍)
         
   
   
   
Fire ox (火牛) and violent wind (暴風)
   
   
   
   
   
Chinese river (淮川)
     
   
   
     
Vertical tiger (竪虎)
       
       
       
       
       
       
         
Wind snapping turtle (風鼈)
           
       
       
           
           
           
           
Running tile (走瓦), Running tiger (走虎) and running bear (走熊)
           
           
   
           
           
Golden deer (金鹿)
         
         
         
           
         
         
             
Silver rabbit (銀兎)
             
         
         
           
         
         
         
Walking heron (歩䳲)
           
       
       
   
           
           
           
Young bird (𦬨鳥)
           
           
           
   
       
       
           
Right dragon (右龍)
           
           
 
           
           
Left dragon (左龍)
           
           
 
           
           
Blue dragon (青龍)
         
         
   
           
           
White tiger (白虎)
           
         
         
           
           
             
Divine tiger (神虎)
       
     
     
       
       
         
Divine dragon (神龍)
         
         
 
           
           
Running stag (奔鹿)
         
     
     
       
       
         
Rear standard (後旗)
           
       
       
       
       
           
Ceramic dove (鳩盤) and Elephant king (象王)
         
       
       
   
       
       
         
Woodland demon (林鬼) and Free chicken (奔鶏)
       
       
       
   
           
           
           
Horseman (騎兵) and Great horse (大駒)
       
       
   
           
           
Free dog (奔犬)
       
       
       
   
       
       
           
Running ox (走牛)
       
       
       
         
         
             
Chariot soldier (車兵)
       
       
   
       
       
Fire demon (火鬼) and Water buffalo (水牛)

The fire demon cannot burn other pieces as in tenjiku shogi.

         
       
       
       
       
         
Strong bear (強熊)
       
   
   
   
   
         
Liberated horse (風馬)
       
       
   
       
       
       
         
Vertical bear (竪熊) and Vertical soldier (竪兵)
           
           
   
           
             
Tiger soldier (虎兵)
         
   
   
       
       
         
         
Earth dragon (地龍)

The Japanese Wikipedia describes another set of movements for this piece.

Silver chariot (銀車)
           
       
       
           
       
           
           
Stone chariot (石車)
           
       
   
           
           
Side soldier (横兵)
         
       
       
       
         
         
Gold chariot (金車)
           
       
   
       
           
Boar soldier (猪兵), leopard soldier (豹兵) and bear soldier (熊兵)
       
       
   
           
             
Free pup (奔狗), free ox (奔牛), free horse (奔馬) and free pig (奔豚)
       
       
   
       
           
Little standard (小旗)
           
       
       
       
           
           
Copper chariot (銅車)
               
           
           
           
               
               
               
               
               
Forest demon (森鬼)
             
           
           
           
   
               
               
               
               
Great dragon (大龍)
         
       
   
   
       
   
   
       
         
Center standard (中旗) and front standard (前旗)
               
           
           
           
           
           
           
               
Great dove (大鳩)
             
           
           
           
   
           
           
           
             
Great standard (大旗)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
               
Vertical wolf (竪狼)
       
       
       
       
   
       
       
       
         
Side serpent (横蛇)
         
       
       
       
       
         
         
         
Cloud eagle (雲鷲)
               
           
           
           
           
               
               
               
               
Goose wing (鴻翼)
               
           
   
           
               
Horse soldier (馬兵) and ox soldier (牛兵)
           
           
   
               
                 
Spear general (鎗将)
               
               
               
   
               
               
                 
Burning general (炮将)
           
           
           
   
               
               
                 
Beast bird (獣鳥) and captive bird (禽鳥)
           
           
           
   
           
           
             
Crossbow soldier (弩兵) and Great leopard (大豹)
               
           
           
           
       
               
                 
                 
                 
Thunder runner (雷走)
               
               
               
               
               
   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                     
Fire dragon (火龍)
                   
               
               
               
               
               
               
                   
                   
                   
Water dragon (水龍)
                   
                   
                   
               
               
               
               
               
               
                   
Longbow general (弩将)
                   
                   
   
                       
                       
Right phoenix (右鵰)
                     
                     
   
                     
                     
Peaceful mountain (泰山)
                     
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
   
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
Free demon (奔鬼)

The Japanese Wikipedia describes another set of movements for this piece.

Free dream-eater (奔獏)
                   
                   
   
                   
                   
Free fire (奔火)
         
       
       
       
   
   
   
   
       
       
       
         
Running dragon (走龍)
       
       
       
       
   
   
   
   
       
       
       
         
Great shark (大鱗)
                       
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                       
                       
                       
                       
Crossbow general (弓将)
                       
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
           
                       
                       
                         
                         
                         
                         
Playful cockatoo (遊䳇)
                       
                   
                   
                   
   
                   
                   
                       
                       
Knight (桂馬)
         
     
         
       
         
         
         
Flying dragon (飛龍)
             
         
             
           
             
         
             
Kirin (麒麟)
             
         
       
         
             
Phoenix (鳳凰)
             
         
           
       
           
         
             
Flying cat (飛猫)
                 
           
                 
                 
           
           
                 
                 
                 
Running horse (走馬)
       
       
       
           
           
         
             
Mountain falcon (山鷹)
Note: This is the depiction of the diagram in Japanese wiki. However, the text makes no mention of an ability to move orthogonally sideways.
Little turtle (小亀)
    |    
       
       
   
       
       
       
Great stag (大鹿)
           
       
           
       
       
           
Left mountain eagle (左山鷲)
       
       
       
       
       
         
Right mountain eagle (右山鷲)
       
       
       
       
       
         
Kirin-master (麟師) and Great turtle (大亀)
           
           
           
           
   
           
           
           
           
Phoenix-master (鳳師)
           
           
           
           
   
           
           
           
           
Great master (大師)
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                       
Horned falcon (角鷹)
       
       
       
       
       
       
Soaring eagle (飛鷲)
       
       
       
       
       
       
Roaring dog (吼犬)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
               
Lion-dog (狛犬)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
Great dream-eater (大獏)
           
           
           
           
Heavenly horse (天馬)
       
   
       
       
         
     
         
Spirit turtle (霊亀)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
Treasure turtle (宝亀)
       
       
       
       
       
       
Wooden dove (鳩槃)
                     
                     
                     
                     
                   
                   
               
                   
                   
                     
                     
                     
                     
Center master (中師)
           
           
           
             
   
           
           
           
               
Roc-master (鵬師)
                   
                   
                   
                   
                       
                       
   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                   
                       
Free eagle (奔鷲)
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
Free bird (奔翅)
           
           
           
      3 3      
           
           
           
               
Great falcon (大鷹)
       
   
   
   
   
       
Teaching king (教王)
           
           
                 
                 
       
                 
                 
           
           
Mountain crane (山鶻)
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
Great eagle (大鷲)
       
       
       
       
       
       
Great elephant (大象)
               
           
           
      1      
1 1
      3 1 3      
           
           
           
Golden bird (金翅)
           
           
           
      3 3      
   
           
           
           
               
Ancient dragon (元龍)
   
   
       
   
   
Rain demon (霖鬼)
             
       
       
       
   
           
           
           
           
Rook general (飛将)
       
       
       
       
Bishop general (角将)
     
     
       
     
     
Great general (大将)
   
   
   
   
Violent dragon (猛龍)
         
       
       
   
       
       
         
Flying crocodile (飛鰐)
               
           
           
           
           
           
               
               
Vice general (副将)
         
       
         
       
         
       
         
Hook-mover (鉤行)
   
   
   
   
Long-nosed goblin (tengu) (天狗)

Unlike in other shogi variants, in taikyoku the tengu cannot move orthogonally, and therefore can only reach half of the squares on the board. This is the move of the capricorn, and may be an error.

     
     
       
     
     
Capricorn (摩羯)
The description of the Tengu implies the capricorn also can move one square orthogonally. If it isn't the case, it can only reach half of the squares on the board.
Peacock (孔雀)
     
         
     
       
     
         
             
Heavenly tetrarch king (四天王)
       
       
    !    
! !
    !    
       
       
Lion (獅子)
Note: The restrictions when capturing a lion in chu shogi do not apply in taikyoku shogi.
Furious fiend (奮迅)
Buddhist spirit (法性)
Lion hawk (獅鷹)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 208 or 209 if the left and right Howling Dog pieces or the left and right Mountain Eagle pieces are counted as separate.

References

  1. ^ Osaka University of Commerce: Amusement Industry Labo. "過去の展示情報 (Past exhibition information)". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  2. ^ Depending on the source, this might instead be 古鵰 (old phoenix) or 石鵰 (stone phoenix)