The Picture of Dorian Gray
The story was first published in 1890 in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine
AuthorOscar Wilde
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenrePhilosophical fiction, Gothic fiction, decadent literature
Published1890 Lippincott's Monthly Magazine
Media typePrint
OCLC53071567
823.8
LC ClassPR5819.A2
TextThe Picture of Dorian Gray at Wikisource

The Picture of Dorian Gray is a philosophical novel by Irish writer Oscar Wilde. A shorter novella-length version was published in the July 1890 issue of the American periodical Lippincott's Monthly Magazine.[1][2] The novel-length version was published in April 1891.

The story revolves around a portrait of Dorian Gray painted by Basil Hallward, a friend of Dorian's and an artist infatuated with Dorian's beauty. Through Basil, Dorian meets Lord Henry Wotton and is soon enthralled by the aristocrat's hedonistic worldview: that beauty and sensual fulfillment are the only things worth pursuing in life. Newly understanding that his beauty will fade, Dorian expresses the desire to sell his soul, to ensure that the picture, rather than he, will age and fade. The wish is granted, and Dorian pursues a libertine life of varied amoral experiences while staying young and beautiful; all the while, his portrait ages and visually records every one of Dorian's sins.[3]

Wilde's only novel, it was subject to much controversy and criticism in its time but has come to be recognized as a classic of Gothic literature.

Origins

Plaque commemorating the dinner between Wilde, Doyle and the publisher on 30 August 1889 at 1 Portland Place, Regent Street, London

In 1889, J. M. Stoddart, an editor for Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, was in London to solicit novellas to publish in the magazine. On 30 August 1889, Stoddart dined with Oscar Wilde, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and T. P. Gill[4] at the Langham Hotel, and commissioned novellas from each writer.[5] Doyle promptly submitted The Sign of the Four, which was published in the February 1890 edition of Lippincott's. Stoddart received Wilde's manuscript for The Picture of Dorian Gray on 7 April 1890, seven months after having commissioned the novel from him.[5]

In July 1889, Wilde published "The Portrait of Mr. W. H.", a very different story but one that has a similar title to The Picture of Dorian Gray and has been described as "a preliminary sketch of some of its major themes", including homosexuality.[6][7]

Publication and versions

1890 novella

The literary merits of The Picture of Dorian Gray impressed Stoddart, but he told the publisher, George Lippincott, "in its present condition there are a number of things an innocent woman would make an exception to."[5] Fearing that the story was indecent, Stoddart deleted around five hundred words without Wilde's knowledge prior to publication. Among the pre-publication deletions were: (i) passages alluding to homosexuality and to homosexual desire; (ii) all references to the fictional book title Le Secret de Raoul and its author, Catulle Sarrazin; and (iii) all "mistress" references to Gray's lovers, Sibyl Vane and Hetty Merton.[5]

It was published in full as the first 100 pages in both the American and British editions of the July 1890 issue, first printed on 20 June 1890.[8] Later in the year the publisher of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, Ward, Lock and Company, published a collection of complete novels from the magazine, which included Wilde's.[9]

1891 novel

Original manuscript of one of the 1891 novel's new chapters; here labeled chapter 4, it would end up as chapter 5
The title page of the Ward Lock & Co 1891 edition of The Picture of Dorian Gray with decorative lettering, designed by Charles Ricketts

For the fuller 1891 novel, Wilde retained Stoddart's edits and made some of his own, while expanding the text from thirteen to twenty chapters and added the book's famous preface. Chapters 3, 5, and 15–18 are new, and chapter 13 of the magazine edition was divided into chapters 19 and 20 for the novel.[10] Revisions include changes in character dialogue as well as the addition of the preface, more scenes and chapters, and Sibyl Vane's brother, James Vane.[11]

The edits have been construed as having been done in response to criticism, but Wilde denied this in his 1895 trials, only ceding that critic Walter Pater, whom Wilde respected, did write several letters to him "and in consequence of what he said I did modify one passage" that was "liable to misconstruction".[12][13] A number of edits involved obscuring homoerotic references, to simplify the moral message of the story.[5] In the magazine edition (1890), Basil tells Lord Henry how he "worships" Dorian, and begs him not to "take away the one person that makes my life absolutely lovely to me." In the magazine edition, Basil focuses upon love, whereas, in the book edition (1891), he focuses upon his art, saying to Lord Henry, "the one person who gives my art whatever charm it may possess: my life as an artist depends on him."

Wilde's textual additions were about the "fleshing out of Dorian as a character" and providing details of his ancestry that made his "psychological collapse more prolonged and more convincing."[14] The introduction of the James Vane character to the story develops the socio-economic background of the Sibyl Vane character, thus emphasising Dorian's selfishness and foreshadowing James's accurate perception of the essentially immoral character of Dorian Gray; thus, he correctly deduced Dorian's dishonourable intent towards Sibyl. The sub-plot about James Vane's dislike of Dorian gives the novel a Victorian tinge of class struggle.

In April 1891 Ward, Lock and Company published the revised version of The Picture of Dorian Gray.[15] In the decade after Wilde's death, the authorized edition of the novel was published by Charles Carrington.[16]

2011 "uncensored" novella

The original typescript submitted to Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, housed at UCLA, had been largely forgotten except by professional Wilde scholars until the 2011 publication of The Picture of Dorian Gray: An Annotated, Uncensored Edition by the Belknap Press. This edition includes the roughly 500 words of text deleted by J. M. Stoddart, the story's initial editor, prior to its publication in Lippincott's in 1890.[17][18][19][20] For instance, in one scene, Basil Hallward confesses to have worshipped Dorian Gray with a "romance of feeling", and that he had never loved a woman.[18]

Preface

Following the criticism of the magazine edition of the novel, Wilde wrote a preface in which he indirectly addressed the criticisms in a series of epigrams. The preface was first published in The Fortnightly Review and then, a month later, in the book version of the novel.[21] The content, style, and presentation of the preface made it famous in its own right as a literary and artistic manifesto in support of artists' rights and art for art's sake.

To communicate how the novel should be read, Wilde used aphorisms to explain the role of the artist in society, the purpose of art, and the value of beauty. It traces Wilde's cultural exposure to Taoism and to the philosophy of Chuang Tsǔ (Zhuang Zhou). Before writing the preface, Wilde had written a book review of Herbert Giles's translation of the work of Zhuang Zhou, and in the essay "The Critic as Artist", Oscar Wilde said:

The honest ratepayer and his healthy family have no doubt often mocked at the dome-like forehead of the philosopher, and laughed over the strange perspective of the landscape that lies beneath him. If they really knew who he was, they would tremble. For Chuang Tsǔ spent his life in preaching the great creed of Inaction, and in pointing out the uselessness of all things.[22]

Summary

On a summer day in Victorian England, Lord Henry Wotton, an opinionated man, observes the sensitive artist Basil Hallward painting the portrait of Dorian Gray, a young man who is Basil's ultimate muse. While sitting for the painting, Dorian listens to Lord Henry espousing his hedonistic worldview. He begins to think that beauty is the only aspect of life worth pursuing, prompting Dorian to wish that his portrait would age instead of himself.

Under Lord Henry's influence, Dorian fully explores his sensuality. He discovers the actress Sibyl Vane, who performs Shakespeare plays in a dingy, working-class theatre. Dorian courts her and soon proposes marriage. The enamoured Sibyl calls him "Prince Charming" and swoons with happiness. However, her protective brother, James, warns that if "Prince Charming" harms her, he will murder him.

Dorian invites Basil and Lord Henry to see Sibyl perform in a play. Sibyl, too enamoured with Dorian to act, performs poorly, which makes both Basil and Lord Henry think Dorian has fallen in love with Sibyl because of her beauty instead of her talent. Embarrassed, Dorian rejects Sibyl, telling her that acting is her beauty; without that, she no longer interests him. Returning home, Dorian notices that the portrait has changed; his wish has come true, and the man in the portrait bears a subtle sneer of cruelty.

Conscience-stricken and lonely, Dorian decides to reconcile with Sibyl, but is too late; she has killed herself. Dorian understands that, where his life is headed, lust and beauty shall suffice. Dorian locks the portrait up, and for eighteen years, he experiments with every vice, influenced by a morally poisonous French novel that Lord Henry gave him.

One night, before leaving for Paris, Basil goes to Dorian's house to ask him about rumours of his self-indulgent sensualism. Dorian does not deny his debauchery, and takes Basil to see the portrait. The portrait has become so hideous that Basil can only identify it as his by the signature on it. Horrified, Basil beseeches Dorian to pray for salvation. In anger, Dorian blames his fate on Basil and kills him. Dorian then blackmails an old friend, scientist Alan Campbell, into using his knowledge of chemistry to destroy Basil's body. Alan later kills himself.

A 19th-century London opium den (based on fictional accounts of the day)

To escape the guilt of his crime, Dorian goes to an opium den, where, unbeknownst to him, James Vane is present. James was seeking vengeance upon Dorian ever since Sibyl killed herself but had no leads to pursue as the only thing he knew about Dorian was the nickname Sibyl called him. There, however, he hears someone refer to Dorian as "Prince Charming", and he accosts Dorian. Dorian deceives James into believing he is too young to have known Sibyl, as his face is still that of a young man. James relents and releases Dorian but is then approached by a woman from the opium den who reproaches James for not killing Dorian. She confirms Dorian's identity and explains that he has not aged in eighteen years. James runs after Dorian, but he has gone.

James then begins to stalk Dorian, who starts to fear for his life. During a shooting party, a hunter accidentally kills James, who was lurking in a thicket. On returning to London, Dorian tells Lord Henry that he will live righteously from now on. His new probity begins with deliberately not breaking the heart of the naïve Hetty Merton, his current romantic interest. Dorian wonders if his newly-found goodness has rescinded the corruption in the picture but when he looks at it, he sees only an even uglier image of himself. From that, Dorian understands that his true motives for the self-sacrifice of moral reformation were the vanity and curiosity of his quest for new experiences, along with the desire to restore beauty to the picture.

The death of Dorian Gray (Eugène Dété, after Paul Thiriat)

Deciding that only full confession will absolve him of wrongdoing, Dorian decides to destroy the last vestige of his conscience and the only piece of evidence remaining of his crimes – the portrait. In a rage, he takes the knife with which he murdered Basil and stabs the picture.

His servants awaken on hearing a cry from the locked room; on the street, a passerby who also heard the cry calls the police. On entering the locked room, the servants find an unknown old man stabbed in the heart, his figure withered and decrepit. The servants identify the disfigured corpse as Dorian only by the rings on the fingers, while the portrait beside him is beautiful again.

Characters

The painter Basil Hallward and the aristocrat Lord Henry Wotton observe the picture of Dorian Gray.

Major themes

Morality and societal influence

Throughout the novel, Wilde delves into the themes of morality and influence, exploring how societal values, individual relationships, and personal choices intersect to shape one's own moral compass. Dorian initially falls under Lord Henry's influence and "narcissistic perspective on art and life", despite Basil's warnings, but "eventually recognizes its limitations".[23] Through Lord Henry's dialogue, Wilde is suggesting, as professor Dominic Manganiello pointed out, that creating art inacts the innate ability to conjure criminal impulses.[23] Dorian's immersion in the elite social circles of Victorian London exposes him to a culture of superficiality and moral hypocrisy.[24] Supporting this idea, Sheldon W. Liebman offered the example of Wilde's inclusion of a great psychological intellect held by Lord Henry. Before Sybil's death, Henry was also a firm believer in vanity as the origin of a human being's irrationality.[24] This concept is broken for Henry after Sybil is found dead, the irony being that Dorian is the cause of her death and his motives are exactly as Lord Henry has taught them to him.[24]

The novel presents other relationships that influence Dorian's way of life and his perception of the world, proving the influence of society and its values on a person. While Lord Henry is clearly a persona that fascinates and captures Dorian's attention, Manganiello also suggests that Basil is also a person that may "evoke a change of heart" in Dorian.[23] However, at this point in the novel, Dorian has spent far too much time under Lord Henry's wing and brushes Basil off in "appositeness", leading Basil to claim that man has no soul but art does.[23] Dorian's journey serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of succumbing to the temptations of hedonism and moral relativism, highlighting the importance of personal responsibility and moral accountability in navigating the complexities of human existence.[24]

Homoeroticism and gender roles

The novel's representation of homoeroticism is subtle yet present by manifesting itself through interactions between male characters in a way that challenges the strict social norms of Victorian England.[25] The novel begins with a conversation between Lord Henry and Basil, where Basil reveals his artistic admiration for Dorian, setting the scene for a story with themes such as beauty, art, and the consequences of vanity. The interaction introduces the characters and foreshadows the complicated relationship between the artist and his muse.[3]

Similarly, gender roles influence the relationships between characters and form their expectations and behaviors; in particular, the expectations of masculinity and the critique of the Victorian ideal of manhood are seen throughout the narrative.[26] Dorian, with his eternal youth and beauty, challenges traditional male roles and the slow decay of his portrait reflects the deception of societal expectations. Additionally, the few female characters in the story, such as Sybil, are portrayed in ways that critique the limited roles and harsh judgments reserved for women during that era.[26] The novel's exploration of these themes provides commentary on the structures of Victorian society, revealing the performative side of gender roles that restrict and define both men and women.[3][26]

Influences and allusions

Wilde's own life

Wilde wrote in an 1894 letter:[27]

[The Picture of Dorian Gray] contains much of me in it — Basil Hallward is what I think I am; Lord Henry, what the world thinks me; Dorian is what I would like to be — in other ages, perhaps.[7][28]

Hallward is supposed to have been formed after painter Charles Haslewood Shannon.[29] Scholars generally accept that Lord Henry is partly inspired by Wilde's friend Lord Ronald Gower.[29][30] It was purported that Wilde's inspiration for Dorian Gray was the poet John Gray,[29] but Gray distanced himself from the rumour.[31] Some believe that Wilde used Robert de Montesquiou in creating Dorian Gray.[32]

Faust

Wilde is purported to have said, "in every first novel the hero is the author as Christ or Faust."[33][34] In both the legend of Faust and in The Picture of Dorian Gray a temptation (ageless beauty) is placed before the protagonist, which he indulges. In each story, the protagonist entices a beautiful woman to love him, and then destroys her life. In the preface to the novel, Wilde said that the notion behind the tale is "old in the history of literature", but was a thematic subject to which he had "given a new form".[35]

Unlike the academic Faust, the gentleman Dorian makes no deal with the Devil, who is represented by the cynical hedonist Lord Henry, who presents the temptation that will corrupt the virtue and innocence that Dorian possesses at the start of the story. Throughout, Lord Henry appears unaware of the effect of his actions upon the young man; and so frivolously advises Dorian, that "the only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it. Resist it, and your soul grows sick with longing."[36] As such, the devilish Lord Henry is "leading Dorian into an unholy pact, by manipulating his innocence and insecurity."[37]

Shakespeare

In the preface, Wilde speaks of the sub-human Caliban character from The Tempest. In chapter seven, when he goes to look for Sibyl but is instead met by her manager, he writes: "He felt as if he had come to look for Miranda and had been met by Caliban".

When Dorian tells Lord Henry about his new love Sibyl Vane, he mentions the Shakespeare plays in which she has acted, and refers to her by the name of the heroine of each play. In the 1891 version, Dorian describes his portrait by quoting Hamlet,[note 1] in which the eponymous character impels his potential suitor (Ophelia) to madness and possibly suicide, and Ophelia's brother (Laertes) to swear mortal revenge.

Joris-Karl Huysmans

The anonymous "poisonous French novel" that leads Dorian to his fall is a thematic variant of À rebours (1884), by Joris-Karl Huysmans. In the biography Oscar Wilde (1989), the literary critic Richard Ellmann said:

Wilde does not name the book, but at his trial he conceded that it was, or almost [was], Huysmans's À rebours ... to a correspondent, he wrote that he had played a "fantastic variation" upon À rebours, and someday must write it down. The references in Dorian Gray to specific chapters are deliberately inaccurate.[39]

Possible Disraeli influence

Some commentators have suggested that The Picture of Dorian Gray was influenced by the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli's (anonymously published) first novel Vivian Grey (1826) as, "a kind of homage from one outsider to another."[40] The name of Dorian Gray's love interest, Sibyl Vane, may be a modified fusion of the title of Disraeli's best known novel (Sybil) and Vivian Grey's love interest Violet Fane, who, like Sibyl Vane, dies tragically.[41][42] There is also a scene in Vivian Grey in which the eyes in the portrait of a "beautiful being" move when its subject dies.[43]

Reactions

Contemporary response

Even after the removal of controversial text, The Picture of Dorian Gray offended the moral sensibilities of British book reviewers, to the extent, in some cases, of saying that Wilde merited prosecution for violating the laws guarding public morality.

In the 30 June 1890 issue of the Daily Chronicle, the book critic said that Wilde's novel contains "one element ... which will taint every young mind that comes in contact with it." In the 5 July 1890 issue of the Scots Observer, a reviewer asked "Why must Oscar Wilde 'go grubbing in muck-heaps?'" The book critic of The Irish Times said, The Picture of Dorian Gray was "first published to some scandal."[44] Such book reviews achieved for the novel a "certain notoriety for being 'mawkish and nauseous', 'unclean', 'effeminate' and 'contaminating'."[45] Such moralistic scandal arose from the novel's homoeroticism, which offended the sensibilities (social, literary, and aesthetic) of Victorian book critics. Most of the criticism was, however, personal, attacking Wilde for being a hedonist with values that deviated from the conventionally accepted morality of Victorian Britain.

In response to such criticism, Wilde aggressively defended his novel and the sanctity of art in his correspondence with the British press. Wilde also obscured the homoeroticism of the story and expanded the personal background of the characters in the 1891 book edition.[46]

Due to controversy, retailing chain W H Smith, then Britain's largest bookseller,[47] withdrew every copy of the July 1890 issue of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine from its bookstalls in railway stations.[5]

At Wilde's 1895 trials, the book was called a "perverted novel" and passages (from the magazine version) were read during cross-examination.[48] The book's association with Wilde's trials further hurt the book's reputation. In the decade after Wilde's death in 1900, the authorized edition of the novel was published by Charles Carrington, who specialized in literary erotica.

Modern response

The novel was considered a poorly written novel and unworthy of critical attention until about the 1980s. Richard Ellmann wrote that "parts of the novel are wooden, padded, self-indulgent"; Édouard Roditi held a similarly negative opinion about the novel. Afterwards, critics began to view is it as a masterpiece of Wilde's oeuvre.[49] Joyce Carol Oates wrote of the book "it is exceptionally good-in fact, one of the strongest and most haunting of English novels", while noting that the reputation of the novel was still questionable.[50]

In a 2009 review, critic Robin McKie considers the novel to be technically mediocre, saying that the conceit of the plot guaranteed its fame, but the device is never pushed to its full.[51] On the other hand, in March 2014, Robert McCrum of The Guardian listed it among the 100 best novels ever written in English, calling it "an arresting, and slightly camp, exercise in late-Victorian gothic".[52]

Legacy and adaptations

Main articles: Adaptations of The Picture of Dorian Gray and Music based on the works of Oscar Wilde § The Picture of Dorian Gray

Angela Lansbury as Sibyl Vane in the film adaptation The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945). Lansbury was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance.

Though not initially a widely appreciated component of Wilde's body of work following his death in 1900, The Picture of Dorian Gray has come to attract a great deal of academic and popular interest, and has been the subject of many adaptations to film and stage.

In 1913, it was adapted to the stage by writer G. Constant Lounsbery at London's Vaudeville Theatre.[15] In the same decade, it was the subject of several silent film adaptations. Perhaps the best-known and most critically praised film adaptation is 1945's The Picture of Dorian Gray, which earned an Academy Award for best black-and-white cinematography, as well as a Best Supporting Actress nomination for Angela Lansbury, who played Sibyl Vane.

In 2003, Stuart Townsend played Dorian Gray in the film League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In 2009, the novel was loosely adapted into the film Dorian Gray, starring Ben Barnes as Dorian and Colin Firth as Lord Henry. Reeve Carney portrays Dorian Gray in John Logan's Penny Dreadful, which aired on Showtime from 2014 to 2016.

The Dorian Award[53] is named in honor of Wilde, in reference to The Picture of Dorian Gray; the original award was a simple certificate with an image of Wilde along with a graphic of hands holding a black bow tie.[54] The first Dorian Awards were announced in January 2010 (nominees were revealed the previous month).[55]

Bibliography

Editions include:

Notes

  1. ^ The reference is in chapter 19. Lord Henry asks "By the way, what has become of that wonderful portrait [Basil] did of you?" Dorian's response, a few lines later, includes 'I am sorry I sat for it. The memory of the thing is hateful to me. Why do you talk of it? It used to remind me of those curious lines in some play—"Hamlet," I think—how do they run?—
    "Like the painting of a sorrow,
    A face without a heart."
    Yes: that is what it was like.'[38]

References

  1. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) – Introduction
  2. ^ McCrum, Robert (24 March 2014). "The 100 best novels: No 27 – The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde (1891)". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  3. ^ a b c The Picture of Dorian Gray (Project Gutenberg 20-chapter version), line 3479 et seq. in plain text (Chapter VII).
  4. ^ Wilde, Oscar (1979). R. Hart-Davis (ed.). Selected Letters. Oxford University Press. p. 95.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Frankel, Nicholas (2011) [1890]. "Textual Introduction". In Wilde, Oscar (ed.). The Picture of Dorian Gray: An Annotated, Uncensored Edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press (Harvard University Press). pp. 38–64. ISBN 978-0-674-05792-0.
  6. ^ Hovey, Jaime (2006). A Thousand Words: Portraiture, Style, and Queer Modernism. Ohio State University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8142-1014-7.
  7. ^ a b Lawler, Donald L.; Knott, Charles E. (1976). "The Context of Invention: Suggested Origins of "Dorian Gray"". Modern Philology. 73 (4): 389–398. doi:10.1086/390676. ISSN 0026-8232. JSTOR 435740. S2CID 162007929.
  8. ^ LORANG, ELIZABETH (2010). ""The Picture of Dorian Gray" in Context: Intertextuality and "Lippincott's Monthly Magazine"". Victorian Periodicals Review. 43 (1): 19–41. ISSN 0709-4698. JSTOR 25732085.
  9. ^ Mason, Stuart (1914). Bibliography of Oscar Wilde. London: T. Werner Laurie. pp. 108–110.
  10. ^ "Differences between the 1890 and 1891 editions of "Dorian Gray"". Github.io. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  11. ^ PUDNEY, ERIC (2012). "Paradox and the Preface to "Dorian Gray"". The Wildean (41): 118–123. ISSN 1357-4949. JSTOR 45270321.
  12. ^ Mikhail, E. H. (17 June 1979). Oscar Wilde: Interviews and Recollections. Springer. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-349-03926-5.
  13. ^ Lawler, Donald L., An Inquiry into Oscar Wilde's Revisions of 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' (New York: Garland, 1988)
  14. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) – A Note on the Text
  15. ^ a b Bristow, Joseph (12 October 2006). Introduction. The Picture of Dorian Gray. By Wilde, Oscar (Oxford World's Classics ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192807298.
  16. ^ Mason, Stuart (1914). Bibliography of Oscar Wilde. London: T. Werner Laurie. pp. 347–349.
  17. ^ "The Picture of Dorian Gray – Oscar Wilde, Nicholas Frankel – Harvard University Press". Hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  18. ^ a b Flood, Alison (27 April 2011). "Uncensored Picture of Dorian Gray published". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  19. ^ "Thursday: The Uncensored "Dorian Gray"". The Washington Post. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  20. ^ Wilde, Oscar (2011) [1890]. Frankel, Nicholas (ed.). The Picture of Dorian Gray: An Annotated, Uncensored Edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press (Harvard University Press). ISBN 978-0-674-05792-0.
  21. ^ Wilde, Oscar (2005). Bristow, Joseph (ed.). The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, Vol. 3: The Picture of Dorian Gray: The 1890 and 1891 Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. lvi.
  22. ^ Ellmann, The Artist as Critic p. 222.
  23. ^ a b c d Manganiello, Dominic (1983). "Ethics and Aesthetics in "The Picture of Dorian Gray"". The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies. 9 (2): 25–33. ISSN 0703-1459.
  24. ^ a b c d Liebman, Sheldon W. (1999). "Character Design in "the Picture of Dorian Gray"". Studies in the Novel. 31 (3): 296–316. ISSN 0039-3827.
  25. ^ Muriqi, Luljeta. "Homoerotic codes in The Picture of Dorian Gray". Lund University.
  26. ^ a b c Brias Aliaga, Nuria. "FEMININITY AND FEMALE PRESENCE IN OSCAR WILDE'S THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY" (PDF). University of Barcelona.
  27. ^ "Your handwriting fascinates me and your praise charms me". natlib.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  28. ^ "The Picture of Dorian Gray". The Modern Library. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013.
  29. ^ a b c SCHWAB, ARNOLD T. (2010). "Symons, Gray, and Wilde: A Study in Relationships". The Wildean (36). JSTOR: 2–27. JSTOR 45270165.
  30. ^ Wilde, Oscar; Frankel, Nichols (ed.) The Picture of Dorian Gray: An Annotated, Uncensored Edition The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, London 2011, p68
  31. ^ Riess, Jeanie (13 September 2012). "Ten Famed Literary Figures Based on Real-Life People". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  32. ^ Munhall, Edgar, Whistler and Montesquiou: The Butterfly and the Bat, New York and Paris: The Frick Collection/Flammarion, 1995, p. 13.
  33. ^ Wilde, Oscar (1969). The Picture of Dorian Gray. Magnum Books. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  34. ^ "Shaw and Wilde". Britannica. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  35. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) – Preface
  36. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) – Chapter II
  37. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine – a summary of and a commentary on Chapter II of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 29 July 2006)
  38. ^ Wilde, Oscar (17 April 2008) [1891]. Bristow, Joseph (ed.). The Picture of Dorian Gray. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford University Press. p. 180. ISBN 9780199535989.
  39. ^ Ellmann, Richard (1988). Oscar Wilde. Vintage Books. p. 316. ISBN 9780394759845.
  40. ^ McCrum, Robert (2 December 2013). "The 100 best novels: No 11 – Sybil by Benjamin Disraeli (1845)". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  41. ^ Disraeli, Benjamin (1826). Vivian Grey (1853 version ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 263–5.
  42. ^ CLAUSSON, NILS (2006). "Lady Alroy's Secret: 'Surface and Symbol' in Wilde's 'The Sphinx without a Secret'". The Wildean (28). JSTOR: 24–32. JSTOR 45269274.
  43. ^ Disraeli (1853) p101-2
  44. ^ Battersby, Eileen (7 April 2010). "Wilde's Portrait of Subtle Control". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  45. ^ The Modern Library – a synopsis of the novel and a short biography of Oscar Wilde. (retrieved 6 July 2006)
  46. ^ CliffsNotes:The Picture of Dorian Gray – an introduction and overview the book (retrieved 5 July 2006) Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ "The Picture of Dorian Gray as first published in Lippincott's Magazine". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 19 November 2022.
  48. ^ Mikhail, E. H. (17 June 1979). Oscar Wilde: Interviews and Recollections. Springer. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-1-349-03926-5.
  49. ^ Liebman, Sheldon W. (1999). "Character Design in "the Picture of Dorian Gray"". Studies in the Novel. 31 (3): 296. ISSN 0039-3827. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  50. ^ Oates, Joyce Carol (1980). ""The Picture of Dorian Gray": Wilde's Parable of the Fall". Critical Inquiry. 7 (2). ISSN 0093-1896. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  51. ^ McKie, Robin (25 January 2009). "Classics Corner: The Picture of Dorian Gray" Archived 24 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian (London).
  52. ^ McCrum, Robert (24 March 2014). "The 100 best novels: No 27 – The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde (1891)". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
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  54. ^ E! "Party Pics: Hollywood Gay and Lesbian Entertainment Critics Association Winners Toast" Retrieved November 29, 2017
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