Throne of Blood
Throne of Blood.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byAkira Kurosawa
Screenplay by
Based onMacbeth
by William Shakespeare (uncredited)
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyAsakazu Nakai
Edited byAkira Kurosawa
Music byMasaru Sato
Production
company
Distributed byToho
Release date
  • January 15, 1957 (1957-01-15) (Japan)
Running time
110 minutes
CountryJapan
LanguageJapanese
Budget¥120 million[1]
Box office$46,808[2]

Throne of Blood (Japanese: 蜘蛛巣城, Hepburn: Kumonosu-jō, lit.'Spider Web Castle') is a 1957 Japanese jidaigeki film co-written, produced, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa, with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya. The film transposes the plot of William Shakespeare's play Macbeth from Medieval Scotland to feudal Japan, with stylistic elements drawn from Noh drama. The film stars Toshiro Mifune and Isuzu Yamada in the lead roles, modelled on the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.

As with the play, the film tells the story of a warrior who assassinates his sovereign at the urging of his ambitious wife. Kurosawa was a fan of the play and intended to make his own adaptation for several years, delaying it after learning of Orson Welles' Macbeth (1948). Among his changes was the ending, which required archers to fire arrows around Mifune. The film was shot around Mount Fuji and Izu Peninsula.

Despite the change in setting and language and numerous creative liberties, Throne of Blood is often considered one of the better film adaptations of the play, and has received much critical praise. The film won two Mainichi Film Awards, including Best Actor for Toshiro Mifune.

Plot

Generals Miki and Washizu are samurai commanders and friends under Lord Tsuzuki, a local lord, who reigns in the castle of the Spider's Web Forest. After defeating the lord's enemies in battle, they return to Tsuzuki's castle. On their way through the thick forest surrounding the castle, they meet an evil spirit, who foretells their future. The spirit tells them that today Washizu will be named Lord of the Northern Garrison and Miki will become commander of the first fortress. The spirit then foretells that Washizu eventually will become Lord of Spider's Web Castle, and finally she tells Miki that his son will become lord of the castle. When the two return to Tsuzuki's estate, he rewards them with exactly what the spirit had predicted. As Washizu discusses this with Asaji, his wife, she manipulates him into making the second part of the prophecy come true by murdering Tsuzuki when he visits.

Washizu kills Tsuzuki with the help of his wife, who gives drugged sake to the lord's guards, causing them to fall asleep. When Washizu returns in shock at his deed, Asaji grabs the bloody spear and puts it in the hands of one of the three unconscious guards. She then yells "intruder" through the courtyard, and Washizu slays the guard before he has a chance to plead his innocence. Tsuzuki's vengeful son Kunimaru and Noriyasu, an advisor to Tsuzuki, both suspect Washizu as the traitor and try to warn Miki, who refuses to believe what they are saying about his friend. Under Asaji's influence, Washizu is unsure of Miki's loyalty, but chooses Miki's son as his heir because he and Asaji have no child of their own. Washizu plans to tell Miki and his son about his decision at a grand banquet. However, Asaji tells him that she is pregnant, which leaves him with a quandary concerning his heir; now Miki and his son have to be eliminated.

During the banquet, Washizu is agitated because Miki and his son have not shown up. Washizu drinks sake copiously. He loses his self-control when Miki's ghost suddenly appears. In a delusional panic, he reveals what has happened to Miki by exclaiming that he is willing to slay Miki a second time, going so far as unsheathing his sword and striking the air over Miki's mat. Asaji, attempting to pick up the pieces of Washizu's blunder, tells the guests that he is only drunk and that they must retire for the evening. One of Washizu's men arrives carrying a bundle (presumably the severed head of Miki) and tells Washizu and Asaji that Miki's son escaped. Washizu kills the assassin.

Later, Washizu is distraught to learn his heir is stillborn. In order to ascertain the outcome of the impending battle with his foes, Washizu returns to the forest to summon the evil spirit. The spirit tells him that he will not be defeated in battle until "the trees of the Spider's Web Forest rise against the castle". Washizu believes this is impossible and becomes confident of his victory. Washizu tells his troops of the evil spirit's prophecy, and they share his confidence of victory. The next morning, Washizu is awakened by the screams of Asaji's attendants. Striding into his wife's quarters, he finds Asaji in a semi-catatonic state, trying to wash clean an imaginary stain and stench of blood from her hands. Distracted by the sound of his troops, Washizu leaves to investigate. Washizu is told by a panicked soldier that the trees of Spider's Web Forest "have risen to attack us".

Washizu tries to muster his troops, but they ignore his commands. Washizu's troops begin firing arrows at him, several go through his armor and one pierces his neck, severely wounding him, and when he tells them that to kill the Great Leader is treason, they accuse Washizu of the murder of his predecessor. With his enemies approaching the castle gates, he falls to his arrow wounds, trying to draw his sword as he dies. It is then revealed that the attacking force had used trees, cut from the forest during the night, to shield their advance onto the castle.

Cast

Actor Character Macbeth analogue
Toshiro Mifune Taketoki Washizu Macbeth[3][4]
Isuzu Yamada Lady Asaji Washizu[5] Lady Macbeth[6][4]
Takashi Shimura Noriyasu Odagura Macduff[7]
Akira Kubo Yoshiteru Miki Fleance[8]
Yōichi Tachikawa Kunimaru Tsuzuki Malcolm[4]
Minoru Chiaki Yoshiaki Miki Banquo[4][8][9]
Takamaru Sasaki Lord Kuniharu Tsuzuki King Duncan[10]
Chieko Naniwa Witch[4] The Three Witches[11]
Kokuten Kōdō First General
Sachio Sakai Washizu's samurai[5]
Yū Fujiki Washizu's samurai[5]
Kichijirō Ueda Washizu's workman[5]
Takeshi Katō Tsuzuki's samurai
Shōbun Inoue Tsuzuki's messenger
Asao Koike Tsuzuki's messenger
Eiko Miyoshi Senior lady-in-waiting
Isao Kimura Messenger (Phantom)
Seiji Miyaguchi Messenger (Phantom)

Crew

Personnel taken from Throne of Blood by Robert N. Watson.[12]

Production

Development

Noh was an influence on the film.
Noh was an influence on the film.

William Shakespeare's plays had been read in Japan since the Meiji Restoration in 1868,[11] though banned during World War II for not being Japanese.[13] Director Akira Kurosawa stated that he had admired Shakespeare's Macbeth for a long time, and that he envisioned making a film adaptation of it after he completed his 1950 film Rashomon. When he learned that Orson Welles had released his own version of Macbeth in 1948, Kurosawa decided to postpone his adaptation project for several years.[14]

Kurosawa believed that Scotland and Japan in the Middle Ages shared social problems and that these had lessons for the present day. Moreover, Macbeth could serve as a cautionary tale complementing his 1952 film Ikiru.[14]

In May 1956, Kurosawa announced that he would be producing three samurai films for Toho, Throne of Blood, The Hidden Fortress, and Revenge, each to be filmed from September 1956 to early 1957 by other directors.[15] Ishirō Honda, best known for directing the 1954 kaiju film Godzilla, was slated to direct Throne of Blood, but Kurosawa ended up direct all three films himself.[16]

The film combines Shakespeare's play with the Noh style of drama.[17] Kurosawa was an admirer of Noh, which he preferred over Kabuki. In particular, he wished to incorporate Noh-style body movements and set design.[18] Noh also makes use of masks, and the evil spirit is seen, in different parts of the film, wearing faces reminiscent of these masks, starting with yaseonna (old lady).[19] Noh often stresses the Buddhist doctrine of impermanence. This is connected to Washizu being denied salvation, with the chorus singing that his ghost is still in the world.[20] Furthermore, the film score's use of flute and drum are drawn from Noh.[21]

Writing

All three of Kurosawa's frequent script collaborators participated for the first time: Hideo Oguni, Shinobu Hashimoto, and Ryūzō Kikushima, each working with the director for their fourth time. Initially, the screenwriters wrote the script with the intention that it would be directed by Ishirō Honda, but Toho insisted Kurosawa take the directing position after reading the script and realizing a large budget was required for the film.[15]

Set design

Cast and crew members on the open set of Throne of Blood, published in the early September 1956 issue of Kinema Junpo. (from left to right) Shinjin Akiike, Fumio Yanoguchi, Kuichirō Kishida, Samaji Nonagase, Takao Saitō, Toshiro Mifune (in the jeep), Minoru Chiaki, Takashi Shimura, Teruyo Saito (scripter), Yoshirō Muraki, Akira Kurosawa, Hiroshi Nezu, Asakazu Nakai, and Sōjirō Motoki.
Cast and crew members on the open set of Throne of Blood, published in the early September 1956 issue of Kinema Junpo. (from left to right) Shinjin Akiike, Fumio Yanoguchi, Kuichirō Kishida, Samaji Nonagase, Takao Saitō, Toshiro Mifune (in the jeep), Minoru Chiaki, Takashi Shimura, Teruyo Saito (scripter), Yoshirō Muraki, Akira Kurosawa, Hiroshi Nezu, Asakazu Nakai, and Sōjirō Motoki.

The castle exteriors were built and shot on the volcanic slopes of Mount Fuji.[22] The castle courtyard was constructed at Toho's Tamagawa studio, with volcanic soil brought from Fuji so that the ground matched.[23] The interiors were shot in a smaller studio in Tokyo. The forest scenes were a combination of actual Fuji forest and studio shots in Tokyo. Washizu's mansion was shot in the Izu Peninsula.[23][24]

In Kurosawa's own words,

It was a very hard film to make. We decided that the main castle set had to be built on the slope of Mount Fuji, not because I wanted to show this mountain but because it has precisely the stunted landscape that I wanted. And it is usually foggy. I had decided that I wanted lots of fog for this film... Making the set was very difficult because we didn't have enough people and the location was so far from Tokyo. Fortunately, there was a U.S. Marine Corps base nearby, and they helped a great deal; also a whole MP battalion helped us out. We all worked very hard indeed, clearing the ground, building the set. Our labor on this steep fog-bound slope, I remember, absolutely exhausted us; we almost got sick.[23][24]

Production designer Yoshirō Muraki said the crew opted to employ the color black in the set walls, and a lot of armor, to complement the mist and fog effects. This design was based on ancient scrolls depicting Japanese castles.[25]

Special effects

The scene in which trees from the Spider's Web Forest approach the castle, was created by Toho's special effects department and directed by Eiji Tsuburaya. Originally, this scene was longer, but Kurosawa cut several shots of trees from the film because he was unimpressed by them.[26]

Washizu's death scene, in which his own archers turn upon him and shoot him with arrows, was in fact performed with real arrows, shot by knowledgeable and skilled archers. During filming, Mifune waved his arms, which was how the actor indicated his intended bodily direction. This was for his own safety in order to prevent the archers from accidentally hitting him.[27]

Release

The film was released theatrically in Japan on January 15, 1957 by Toho,[28] and grossed ¥198 million, making it the second-highest-grossing Japanese film of 1957,[29] after Shintoho's Emperor Meiji and the Great Russo-Japanese War, which grossed ¥542.91 million.[30] In the United States, the film was distributed by Brandon Films with English subtitles at 105 minutes and opened on November 22, 1961.[5][28]

Throne of Blood was the first film to be screened at the 1st BFI London Film Festival on October 16, 1957.[31][32] After the screening, Akira Kurosawa attended a party at film critic Dilys Powell's house, and had dinner with actor Laurence Olivier, and actress Vivien Leigh who were planning on playing Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in a film adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth that never materialized. Oliver told Kurosawa that he had enjoyed watching the film and was impressed by the scene in which Toshiro Mifune's Macbeth is shot by arrows. Isuzu Yamada's acting impressed Leigh, and she asked why Yamada made such little movement when she was mad.[33][32]

In 1991, the film was released in the United States on LaserDisc by The Criterion Collection, and on VHS by Media Home Entertainment.[34] Toho released the film on DVD in Japan in 2002 and on Blu-ray in 2010.[35] In 2013, Madman Entertainment distributed the film on DVD in Region 4.[36] In Region A, The Criterion Collection released the film on Blu-ray in 2014, having released the film on DVD 10 years earlier.[37]

In 2018, the film was screened by the National Film Archive of Japan at the Essential 2018 National Film Archive Opening Cinema Memorial in Kyōbashi, Tokyo, along with 9 other Japanese films.[38] In 2021, the Kawakita Memorial Film Institute screened a 4K remaster of the film at the 12th 10am Film Festival.[39]

Reception

Critical response

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 95% based on 44 reviews, with an average score of 8.80/10. The site's consensus states, "A career high point for Akira Kurosawa -- and one of the best film adaptations of a Shakespeare play".[40]

In 1961, the Time review praised Kurosawa and the film as "a visual descent into the hell of greed and superstition".[41] Bosley Crowther from The New York Times called the idea of Shakespeare in Japanese "amusing," and complimented the cinematography.[42] Most critics stated it was the visuals that filled the gap left by the removal of Shakespeare's poetry.[43] U.K. directors Geoffrey Reeve and Peter Brook considered the film to be a masterpiece, but denied it was a Shakespeare film because of the language.[44] Film historian Donald Richie praised the film as "a marvel because it is made of so little: fog, wind, trees, mist".[45][21] Film critic Stephen Prince compared its minimalist landscapes to the painting technique sumi-e.[46]

The film has received praise from literary critics despite the many liberties it takes with the original play. The American literary critic Harold Bloom judged it "the most successful film version of Macbeth".[47] Sylvan Barnet writes it captured Macbeth as a strong warrior, and that "Without worrying about fidelity to the original," Throne of Blood is "much more satisfactory" than most Shakespeare films.[48] Film historian David A. Conrad wrote that just as Shakespeare's play commented on "questions of legitimacy, masculinity, and civil war" that resonated in early 17th-century England, Kurosawa's movie engages with contemporary Japanese debates about the "spiderless cobweb" of postwar bureaucracy and industry.[49] In his 2015 Movie Guide, Leonard Maltin gave the film four stars, calling it a "graphic, powerful adaptation".[3]

Accolades

Award Category Recipient(s) Result Ref(s)
Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Akira Kurosawa Nominated [50]
Kinema Junpo Awards Best 10 Japanese Films 4th place [51]
Best Actress Isuzu Yamada Won
Mainichi Film Awards Best Actor Toshiro Mifune Won [52]
Best Art Direction Yoshirō Muraki Won
Blue Ribbon Awards Best 10 Japanese Films 7th place [53]
Technology Award Yoshirō Muraki Won
Visual Technology Awards Art Yoshirō Muraki Won [54]

Legacy

Akira Kurosawa's 1960 film The Bad Sleep Well, was heavily influenced by William Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas.[55] Roman Polanski's 1971 film version of Macbeth has similarities to Throne of Blood, in shots of characters on twisted roads, set design, and music to identify locations and psychological conditions.[56] Toshiro Mifune's death scene was the source of inspiration for Piper Laurie's death scene in the 1976 film Carrie,[57] in which knives are thrown at her, in this case by character Carrie White using her psychic powers. In 1985, Kurosawa returned to adapting Shakespeare, choosing the play King Lear for his final epic film Ran, and again moving the setting to feudal Japan.[58]

Throne of Blood is referenced in the anime film Millennium Actress (2001) in the form of the Forest Spirit/Witch.[59] It was adapted for the stage by director Ping Chong, premiering at the 2010 Oregon Shakespeare Festival in Ashland, Oregon.[60]

See also

References

  1. ^ Usui 1959, p. 329.
  2. ^ "Throne of Blood". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Maltin 2014, p. 1429.
  4. ^ a b c d e McDougal 1985, p. 253.
  5. ^ a b c d e Galbraith IV 2002, pp. 683–684.
  6. ^ Richie 1998, p. 117.
  7. ^ Burnett 2014, p. 67.
  8. ^ a b Phillips 2013, p. 31.
  9. ^ Hatchuel, Vienne-Guerrin & Bladen 2013.
  10. ^ Davies 1994, p. 161.
  11. ^ a b Buchanan 2014, p. 73.
  12. ^ Watson 2020, p. 93.
  13. ^ Buchanan 2014, p. 74.
  14. ^ a b Richie 1998, p. 115.
  15. ^ a b Hamano 2009, p. 684.
  16. ^ Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 130.
  17. ^ Prince 1991, p. 142–147.
  18. ^ McDonald 1994, p. 125.
  19. ^ McDonald 1994, p. 129.
  20. ^ McDonald 1994, p. 130.
  21. ^ a b Jin 2009, p. 90.
  22. ^ Galbraith IV 2002, p. 233.
  23. ^ a b c Richie 1998, p. 123.
  24. ^ a b Richie 1964.
  25. ^ Richie 1998, p. 122.
  26. ^ Takase 2003, p. 303.
  27. ^ Blair, Gavin J. (March 16, 2016). "1957: When Akira Kurosawa's 'Throne of Blood' Was Ahead of Its Time". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 15, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  28. ^ a b Galbraith IV 2008, p. 129.
  29. ^ Kinema Junpo 2012, p. 128.
  30. ^ Kinema Junpo 2012, p. 138.
  31. ^ Kurosawa 1957, p. 60.
  32. ^ a b Hamano 2009, pp. 287–294.
  33. ^ Kurosawa 1957, pp. 61–62.
  34. ^ "黒澤明監督作品/LDジャケット特集". LD, DVD, & Blu-ray Gallery (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 9, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  35. ^ "蜘蛛巣城 : DVD・ブルーレイ". Eiga.com (in Japanese). Kakaku.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  36. ^ "Throne of Blood". Madman Entertainment NZ. Madman Entertainment. Archived from the original on May 3, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  37. ^ Baumgarten, Marjorie (January 8, 2014). "DVD Extra: 'Throne of Blood'". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  38. ^ "国立映画アーカイブ新企画に黒澤明&小林正樹&今村昌平&相米慎二の名作ずらり!". Eiga.com (in Japanese). Kakaku.com. August 20, 2018. Archived from the original on August 22, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  39. ^ "「午前十時の映画祭 12」ラインナップ発表 「理由なき反抗」「8 1/2」「空の大怪獣ラドン」…40年代から00年代の名作29本". Eiga.com (in Japanese). Kakaku.com. February 21, 2021. Archived from the original on April 24, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  40. ^ "Throne of Blood". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  41. ^ "Cinema: Kurosawa's Macbeth". Time. December 1, 1961. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  42. ^ Crowther, Bosley (November 23, 1961). "Screen: Change in Scene: Japanese Production of 'Macbeth' Opens". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  43. ^ Yoshimoto 2000, p. 268.
  44. ^ Jin 2009, p. 88.
  45. ^ Richie 1998, p. 120.
  46. ^ Prince, Stephen (January 6, 2014). "Throne of Blood: Shakespeare Transposed". The Criterion Collection. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  47. ^ Bloom 1999, p. 519.
  48. ^ Barnet 1998, p. 197-198.
  49. ^ Conrad 2022, p. 116-122.
  50. ^ Schneider 2008, p. 337.
  51. ^ Kinema Junpo 2012, pp. 138, 146.
  52. ^ "毎日映画コンクール 第12回(1957年)". Mainichi Film Awards (in Japanese). Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  53. ^ "ブルーリボン賞ヒストリー". Cinema Hochi (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  54. ^ "日本映画技術賞 受賞一覧 - 一般社団法人 日本映画テレビ技術協会". www.mpte.jp (in Japanese). Motion Picture and Television Engineering Society of Japan. Archived from the original on November 25, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  55. ^ Tsuzuki 2010, p. 299.
  56. ^ Kliman 2004, p. 195.
  57. ^ Zinoman 2011, p. 168.
  58. ^ Davies 1994, p. 153.
  59. ^ Cavallaro 2009, p. 17.
  60. ^ Isherwood, Charles (November 11, 2010). "Sprawling Cinema, Tamed to a Stage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved December 10, 2016.

Bibliography