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Steam power developed slowly over a period of several hundred years, progressing through expensive and fairly limited devices in the early 17th century, to useful pumps for mining in 1700, and then to Watt's improved steam engine designs in the late 18th century. It is these later designs, introduced just when the need for practical power was growing due to the Industrial Revolution, that truly made steam power commonplace.

Development phases

Early examples

Development of a practical steam engine

The Newcomen Engine: Steam power in practice

Watt's engine

Improving power

See also


  1. ^ William of Malmesbury. William of Malmesbury's Chronicle of the Kings of England: From the earliest period to the reign of King Stephen. p. 176.
  2. ^ "Top Comments - Steamed Edition". Daily Kos. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  3. ^ "History Of Science And Technology In Islam". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  4. ^ Thurston, pp 14
  5. ^ a b Thurston, pp 16
  6. ^ Thurston, Robert (1878). "A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine". New York, New York: D. Appleton and Company: 19–24. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Thurston, pp 25
  8. ^ Thurston, pp 31-41
  9. ^ Thurston, ch 2
  10. ^ Hulse David K: "The early development of the steam engine"; TEE Publishing, Leamington Spa, UK, ISBN, 85761 107 1
  11. ^ a b c Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).
  12. ^ The "Lap" engine; part of the collection at the Science Museum in London.
  13. ^ Musson; Robinson (1969). Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. University of Toronto Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780802016379.
  14. ^ a b c Thomson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790-1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 34. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
  15. ^ Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997). A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-19-504606-4.
  16. ^ Young, Robert: "Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive"; the Book guild Ltd, Lewes, UK (2000) (reprint of 1923 ed.)
  17. ^ Benett, Stuart (1986). A History of Control Engineering 1800-1930. Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 978-0-86341-047-5.
  18. ^ Hunter, Louis C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730-1930, Vol. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  19. ^ Walter, John (2008). "The Engine Indicator" (PDF). pp. xxv–xxvi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2012.
  20. ^ Hunter, Louis C.; Bryant, Lynwood (1991). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730-1930, Vol. 3: The Transmission of Power. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: MIT Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-262-08198-9.
  21. ^ Griffiths, Denis (1993). "Chapter 5: Triple Expansion and the First Shipping Revolution". In Gardiner, Robert; Greenhill, Dr. Basil (eds.). The Advent of Steam - The Merchant Steamship before 1900. Conway Maritime Press Ltd. pp. 106–126. ISBN 0-85177-563-2.
  22. ^ McNeil, Ian (1990). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14792-1.
  23. ^ "World's First Steam Driven Airplane" Popular Science, July 1933, detailed article with drawings
  24. ^ George & William Besler (29 April 2011). The Besler Steam Plane (YouTube). Bomberguy.
  25. ^ "UK team breaks steam car record". BBC News. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
  26. ^ a b "The British Steam Car Official Land Speed Record Holder". The British Steam Car Challenge. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  27. ^ Copied from Wikipedia Steam turbine. See that article for references. Retrieved Aug 24, 2021