A click torque wrench

A torque wrench is a tool used to apply a specific torque to a fastener such as a nut, bolt, or lag screw. It is usually in the form of a socket wrench with an indicating scale, or an internal mechanism which will indicate (as by 'clicking', a specific movement of the tool handle in relation to the tool head) when a specified (adjustable) torque value has been reached during application.

A torque wrench is used where the tightness of screws and bolts is a crucial parameter of assembly or adjustment. It allows the operator to set the torque applied to the fastener to meet the specification for a particular application. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts.

Torque screwdrivers and torque wrenches have similar purposes and may have similar mechanisms.

History

Conceptual illustration of J. H. Sharp's patented wrench

The first patent for a torque wrench was filed by John H. Sharp of Chicago in 1931. This wrench was referred to as a torque measuring wrench and would be classified today as an indicating torque wrench.[1]

In 1935, Conrad Bahr and George Pfefferle patented an adjustable ratcheting torque wrench. The tool featured audible feedback and restriction of back-ratcheting movement when the desired torque was reached.[2] Bahr, who worked for the New York City Water Department, was frustrated at the inconsistent tightness of flange bolts he found while attending to his work. He claimed to have invented the first torque limiting tool in 1918 to alleviate these problems.[3][better source needed] Bahr's partner, Pfefferle, was an engineer for S.R. Dresser Manufacturing Co and held several patents.

Types

Beam

Beam-type torque wrench. The indicator bar remains straight while the main shaft bends proportionally to the force applied at the handle.
Detailed view of the torque display scale on a beam type torque wrench. This one is displaying an applied torque of about 160 in.lbf or 18 N·m.

The most basic form of torque wrench consists of two beams. The first is a lever used to apply the torque to the fastener being tightened and serves also as the handle of the tool. When force is applied to the handle it will deflect predictably and proportionally with said force in accordance with Hooke's law. The second beam is only attached at one end to the wrench head and free on its other, this serves as the indicator beam. Both of these beams run parallel to each other when the tool is at rest, with the indicator beam usually on top. The indicator beam's free end is free to travel over a calibrated scale attached to the lever or handle, marked in units of torque. When the wrench is used to apply torque, the lever bends and the indicating beam stays straight. Thus, the end of the indicating beam points to the magnitude of the torque that is currently being applied.[4] This type of wrench is simple, inherently accurate, and inexpensive.

The beam type torque wrench was developed in between late 1920s and early 1930s by Walter Percy Chrysler for the Chrysler Corporation and a company known as Micromatic Hone. Paul Allen Sturtevant—a sales representative for the Cedar Rapids Engineering Company at that time—was licensed by Chrysler to manufacture his invention. Sturtevant patented the torque wrench in 1938 and became the first individual to sell torque wrenches.[5]

A more sophisticated variation of the beam type torque wrench has a dial gauge indicator on its body that can be configured to give a visual or electrical indication when a preset torque is reached.[6][7]

Deflecting beam

The dual-signal deflecting beam torque wrench was patented by the Australian Warren and Brown company in 1948.[8] It employs the principle of applying torque to a deflecting beam rather than a coil spring. This is claimed to help prolong the accuracy of the wrench throughout its working life, with a greater safety margin on maximum loading and provides more consistent and accurate readings throughout the range of each wrench. The operator can both hear the signal click and see (and feel) a physical indicator when the desired torque is reached.[9]

Simplified diagram of a deflecting beam torque wrench
Two W&B torque wrenches

The wrench functions in the same general way as an ordinary beam torque wrench. There are two beams both connected to the head end but only one through which torque is applied. The load carrying beam is straight and runs from head to handle, it deflects when torque is applied. The other beam (indicating beam) runs directly above the deflecting beam for about half of the length then bends away to the side at an angle from the deflecting beam. The indicating beam retains its orientation and shape during operation. Because of this, there is relative displacement between the two beams. The deflecting beam torque wrench differs from the ordinary beam torque wrench in how it utilizes this relative displacement. Attached to the deflecting beam is a scale and onto that is fitted a wedge which can be slid along the length of the scale parallel to the flexing beam. This wedge is used to set the desired torque. Directly facing this wedge is the side of the angled indicating beam. From this side protrudes a pin, which acts as a trigger for another pin, the latter pin is spring loaded, and fires out of the end of the indicating beam once the trigger pin contacts the adjustable wedge. This firing makes a loud click and gives a visual and tactile indication that the desired torque has been met. The indicator pin can be reset by simply pressing it back into the indicating beam.[9][10]

Slipper

Simplified principle of a slipper type head

A slipper type torque wrench consists of a roller and cam (or similar) mechanism. The cam is attached to the driving head, the roller pushes against the cam locking it in place with a specific force which is provided by a spring (which is in many cases adjustable). If a torque which is able to defeat the holding force of the roller and spring is applied, the wrench will slip and no more torque will be applied to the bolt. A slipper torque wrench will not overtighten the fastener by continuing to apply torque beyond a predetermined limit.[11]

Click

Click-type torque wrench with socket attached, adjusted by turning the knurled handle
Conceptual drawing of the operation of a click type torque wrench

A more sophisticated method of presetting torque is with a calibrated clutch mechanism. One common form uses a ball detent and spring, with the spring preloaded by an adjustable screw thread, calibrated in torque units. The ball detent transmits force until the preset torque is reached, at which point the force exerted by the spring is overcome and the ball "clicks" out of its socket. This design yields greater precision as well as giving tactile and audible feedback. The wrench will not start slipping once the desired torque is reached, it will only click and bend slightly at the head; the operator can continue to apply torque to the wrench without any additional action or warnings from the wrench.[12][13]

A number of variations of this design exist for different applications and different torque ranges. A modification of this design is used in some drills to prevent gouging the heads of screws while tightening them. The drill will start slipping once the desired torque is reached.

"No-hub" wrench

These are specialized torque wrenches used by plumbers to tighten the clamping bands on hubless soil pipe couplings. They are usually T-handled wrenches with a one-way combination ratchet and clutch. They are preset to a fixed torque designed to secure the coupling adequately but insufficient to damage it.[14]

Electronic torque wrench

Electronic torque wrenches

See also: Battery torque wrench

With electronic (indicating) torque wrenches, measurement is by means of a strain gauge attached to the torsion rod. The signal generated by the transducer is converted to the required unit of torque (e.g. N·m or lbf·ft) and shown on the digital display. A number of different joints (measurement details or limit values) can be stored. These programmed limit values are then permanently displayed during the tightening process by means of LEDs or the display. At the same time, this generation of torque wrenches can store all the measurements made in an internal readings memory. This reading's memory can then be easily transferred to a PC via the interface (RS232) or printed. A popular application of this kind of torque wrench is for in-process documentation or quality assurance purposes. Typical accuracy level would be ±0.5% to 4%.

Programmable electronic torque / angle wrenches

Main article: Torque-angle tension control

Torque measurement is conducted in the same way as with an electronic torque wrench but the tightening angle from the snug point or threshold is also measured. The angle is measured by an angle sensor or electronic gyroscope. The angle measurement process enables joints which have already been tightened to be recognized. The inbuilt readings memory enables measurements to be statistically evaluated. Tightening curves can be analyzed using the software via the integrated tightening-curve system (force/path graph). This type of torque wrench can also be used to determine breakaway torque, prevail torque and the final torque of a tightening job. Thanks to a special measuring process, it is also possible to display the yield point (yield controlled tightening). This design of torque wrench is highly popular with automotive manufacturers for documenting tightening processes requiring both torque and angle control because, in these cases, a defined angle has to be applied to the fastener on top of the prescribed torque (e.g. 50 N⋅m or 37 lbf⋅ft + 90° – here the 50 N⋅m or 37 lbf⋅ft means the snug point/threshold and +90° indicates that an additional angle has to be applied after the threshold).

In 1995, Saltus-Werk Max Forst GmbH applied for an international patent for the first electronic torque wrench with angle measurement which did not require a reference arm.

Mechatronic torque wrenches

Mechatronic torque wrench

Torque measurement is achieved in the same way as with a click-type torque wrench but, at the same time, the torque is measured as a digital reading (click and final torque) as with an electronic torque wrench. This is, therefore, a combination of electronic and mechanical measurements. All the measurements are transferred and documented via wireless data transmission. Users will know they have achieved the desired torque setting when the wrench "beeps".

Torque wrench standardization

ISO

The International Organization for Standardization maintains standard ISO 6789. This standard covers the construction and calibration of hand-operated torque tools. They define two types of torque tool encompassing twelve classes, these are given by the table below. Also given is the percentage allowable deviation from the desired torque.[15][16]

Torque wrench types Torque wrench tolerance
Type Class Description ≤ 10 Nm >10 Nm
Type 1: Indicating Class A Wrench with torsion or flexing bar ±6%
Class B Wrench with rigid body and indicator ±6% ±4%
Class C Wrench with rigid body and electronic measurement ±6% ±4%
Class D Screwdriver with indicator ±6%
Class E Screwdriver with electronic measurement ±6% ±4%
Type 2: Setting Class A Adjustable wrench with indicator ±6% ±4%
Class B Fixed torque wrench ±6% ±4%
Class C Adjustable wrench without indicator ±6% ±4%
Class D Adjustable screwdriver with indicator ±6%
Class E Fixed screwdriver ±6%
Class F Adjustable screwdriver without indicator ±6%
Class G Adjustable wrench with flexing bar and indicator ±6%

The ISO standard also states that even when overloaded by 25% of the maximum rating, the tool should remain reliably usable after being re-calibrated. Re-calibration for tools used within their specified limits should occur after 5000 cycles of torquing or 12 months, whichever is soonest. In cases where the tool is in use in an organization which has its own quality control procedures, then the calibration schedule can be arranged according to company standards.[15][16]

Tools should be marked with their torque range and the unit of torque as well as the direction of operation for unidirectional tools and the maker's mark. If a calibration certificate is provided, the tool must be marked with a serial number that matches the certificate or a calibration laboratory should give the tool a reference number corresponding with the tool's calibration certificate.[15][16]

ASME

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers maintains standard ASME B107.300. This standard has the same type designation as the ISO standard with the addition of the type 3, (limiting) torque tool. This type will release the drive once the desired torque is met so that no more torque can be applied. This standard, however, uses different class designations within each type as well as additional style and design variants within each class. The standard also separates manual and electronic tools into different sections and designations. The ASME and ISO standards cannot be considered compatible. The table below gives some of the types and tolerances specified by the standard for manual torque tools. [17] [18]

Torque wrench types Torque wrench tolerance
Type Class Style <20% max rating 20–100% max rating
Type 1: Indicating Class A: Deflecting beam Style 1: Plain scale ±0.8% ±4%
Style 2: Scale with signal
Style 3: Scale with memory
Class B: Deflecting beam, changeable head Style 1: Plain scale
Style 2: Scale with signal
Style 3: Scale with memory
Class C: Rigid housing Style 1: Plain scale
Style 2: Scale with signal
Style 3: Scale with memory
Class D: Rigid housing, changeable head Style 1: Plain scale
Style 2: Scale with signal
Style 3: Scale with memory
Class E: Screwdriver, indicating Style 1: Plain scale
Style 2: Scale with signal
Type 2: Setting[note 1] Class A: With graduation Style 1: Without ratchet ±0.8% ±4%
Style 2: With ratchet ±0.8% ±4%
Style 3: Changeable head ±0.8% ±4%
Style 4: Flexible head with ratchet See standard
Class B: Without graduation Style 1: Without ratchet ±0.8% ±4%
Style 2: With ratchet ±0.8% ±4%
Style 3: Changeable head ±0.8% ±4%
Style 4: Flexible head with ratchet See standard
Type 3: Limiting Class A: Screwdriver Style 1: Without graduation ±1.2% ±4%
Style 2: With graduation
Class B: T handle Style 1: Without graduation
Style 2: With graduation

Tools should be marked with the model number of the tool, the unit of torque and the maker's mark. For unidirectional tools, the word "TORQUES" or "TORQUE" and the direction of operation must also be marked.[17]

Using torque wrenches

Precision

Click type torque wrenches are precise when properly calibrated—however the more complex mechanism can result in loss of calibration sooner than the beam type, where there is little to no malfunction, (however the thin indicator rod can be accidentally bent out of true). Beam type torque wrenches are impossible to use in situations where the scale cannot be directly read—and these situations are common in automotive applications. The scale on a beam type wrench is prone to parallax error, as a result of the large distance between indicator arm and scale (on some older designs). There is also the issue of increased user error with the beam type—the torque has to be read at every use and the operator must use caution to apply loads only at the floating handle's pivot point. Dual-beam or "flat" beam versions reduce the tendency for the pointer to rub, as do low-friction pointers.

Extensions

The use of cheater bars that extend from the handle end can damage the wrench, so only manufacturer specified equipment should be used.[19]

Diagrammatic torque wrench with extensions. Showing lengths and torques referenced in the section text.
Diagrammatic torque wrench with extensions. Showing lengths and torques referenced in the section text.

Using socket extensions requires no adjustment of the torque setting.[20]

Using a crow's foot or similar extension requires the use of the following equation:[21][22][20]

using a combination of handle and crow's foot extensions requires the use of the following equation:[20]

where:

These equations only apply if the extension is colinear with the length of the torque wrench. In other cases, the distance from the torque wrench's head to the bolt's head, as if it were in line, should be used. If the extension is set at 90° then no adjustment is required. These methods are not recommended except for extreme circumstances.[20]

Storage

For click (or other micrometer) types, when not in use, the force acting on the spring should be removed by setting the scale to its minimum rated value in order to prevent permanent set in the spring.[23][24] Never set a micrometer style torque wrench to zero as the internal mechanism requires a small amount of tension in order to prevent components shifting and reduction of accuracy.[23]

Calibration

As with any precision tool, torque wrenches should be periodically re-calibrated. As previously stated, according to ISO standards calibration should happen every 5000 operations or every year, whichever comes first.[15][16] It is possible that torque wrenches can fall up to 10% out of calibration in the first year of use.[18]

Calibration, when performed by a specialist service which follows ISO standards, follows a specific process and constraints. The operation requires specialist torque wrench calibration equipment with an accuracy of ±1% or better. The temperature of the area where calibration is being performed should be between 18 °C and 28 °C with no more than a 1 °C fluctuation and the relative humidity should not exceed 90%.[15]

Before any calibration work can be done, the tool should be preloaded and torqued without measure according to its type. The tool is then connected to the tester and force is applied to the handle (at no more than 10° from perpendicular) for values of 20%, 60% and 100% of the maximum torque and repeated according to their class. The force should be applied slowly and without jerky or irregular motion. The table below gives more specifics regarding the pattern of testing for each class of torque wrench.[15][16]

Type Class Pre-calibration Calibration procedure
Type 1 All classes Preload once at the highest certified value 5 measurements in a row for all values
Type 2 Class A Preload five times at the highest certified value 5 measurements in a row for all values
Class B 5 measurements at nominal value
Class C 10 measurements in a row for all values
Class D 5 measurements in a row for all values
Class E 5 measurements at nominal value
Class F 10 measurements in a row for all values
Class G 5 measurements in a row for all values

While professional calibration is recommended, for some people it would be out of their means. It is possible to calibrate a torque wrench in the home shop or garage. The process generally requires that a certain mass is attached to a lever arm and the torque wrench is set to the appropriate torque to lift said mass. The error within the tool can be calculated and the tool may be able to be altered or any work done adjusted for this error.[25][26][27]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ASME Type 2 is somewhat complicated and cannot be elaborated on in depth without the table becoming too large for the article.

References

  1. ^ US 2007880, Sharp John H., "Torque-measuring wrench", published July 9, 1935  "Torque-measuring wrench". Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved January 17, 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. ^ US 2074079, Charles, Bahr Conrad & Pfefferle, George H., "Torque measuring wrench", published Mar 16, 1937  "Torque measuring wrench". Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved January 17, 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Fleming, Wes (Dec 18, 2017). "The Most Important Tool: Torque Wrench". Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved Jan 17, 2019.
  4. ^ US 2231240, Zimmerman Herman W, "Torque measuring wrench", published Feb 11, 1941  "Torque measuring wrench". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  5. ^ "Official Sturtevant Richmont LinkedIn". Archived from the original on 2022-06-01. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  6. ^ US 2167720, Willard C Kress, "Torque-indicating wrench", published Aug 1, 1939  "Torque-indicating wrench". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ "DIAL TORQUE WRENCH REPAIR, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING MANUAL" (PDF). CDI Torque Products. 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-10-16. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  8. ^ "Warren & Brown company history". Warren & Brown. Archived from the original on 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  9. ^ a b "Warren & Brown Precision Tools Catalogue" (PDF). Warren & Brown. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-12. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  10. ^ "Deflecting beam torque wrench operating instructions" (PDF). Kincrome Professional Quality Tools. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  11. ^ US 1860871, Wilfred A Pouliot, "Safety wrench", published May 31, 1932  "Safety wrench". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ Tegger. "How does a torque wrench work?". The Unofficial Honda / Acura Usenet FAQ. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
  13. ^ US 4485703, Bosko Grabovac & Ivan Vuceta, "Torque wrench", published Dec 4, 1984  "Torque wrench". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  14. ^ "Raptor No-Hub Torque Wrenches" (PDF). Raptor tools. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  15. ^ a b c d e f ISO6789 - Assembly tools for screws and nuts. Hand torque tools. Requirements and test methods for design conformance testing, quality conformance testing and recalibration procedure. International Organization for Standardization. 2003.
  16. ^ a b c d e Sofia. "Torque Wrench Calibration Services". Calibrate.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  17. ^ a b ASME B107.300-2010 (Incorporation of ASME B107.14, B107.28, and B107.29) Torque Instruments. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2010.
  18. ^ a b Warren Brown; Scott Hamilton; An Nguyen; Tom Smith (July 17–21, 2011). Field Calibration and Accuracy of Torque Wrenches. ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  19. ^ "Premium and Standard Manual Torque Wrenches Pre-Set and Adjustable" (PDF). ASG Jergens, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  20. ^ a b c d "Chapter 20-50-11: Standard torque values - maintenance practices". Boeing 737-200 maintenance manuals. Vol. 20. 2007. pp. 202–203.
  21. ^ "Torque Wrench Extension Calculator". Norbar Torque. Archived from the original on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  22. ^ "Crowfoot adapters". Belknap Inc. Archived from the original on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  23. ^ a b "The ten things you should know about your torque wrench". Norbar Torque. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  24. ^ "Proper Torque Wrench Use and maintenance (Technical reference)" (PDF). Snap-on Tools. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  25. ^ Various. "How to Calibrate a Torque Wrench". wikiHow. Archived from the original on 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  26. ^ Ivy, Aubrey. "How to Calibrate a Torque Wrench". Helicopter Maintenance Magazine. Archived from the original on 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  27. ^ Sleepy Gomez. "How-To Calibrate A Torque Wrench". rcramer.com. Archived from the original on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2016-10-23.