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WebDAV
Communication protocol
OSI layerApplication
Port(s)80, 443
RFC(s)RFC 2518, RFC 4918
Websitewww.webdav.org

WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is a set of extensions to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which allows user agents to collaboratively author contents directly in an HTTP web server by providing facilities for concurrency control and namespace operations, thus allowing Web to be viewed as a writeable, collaborative medium and not just a read-only medium.[1] WebDAV is defined in RFC 4918 by a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[2]

The WebDAV protocol provides a framework for users to create, change and move documents on a server. The most important features include the maintenance of properties about an author or modification date, namespace management, collections, and overwrite protection. Maintenance of properties includes such things as the creation, removal, and querying of file information. Namespace management deals with the ability to copy and move web pages within a server's namespace. Collections deal with the creation, removal, and listing of various resources. Lastly, overwrite protection handles aspects related to the locking of files. It takes advantage of existing technologies such as Transport Layer Security, digest access authentication or XML to satisfy those requirements.[3]

Many modern operating systems provide built-in client-side support for WebDAV.

History

WebDAV began in 1996 when Jim Whitehead worked with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to host two meetings to discuss the problem of distributed authoring on the World Wide Web with interested people.[4][5] Tim Berners-Lee's original vision of the Web involved a medium for both reading and writing. In fact, Berners-Lee's first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, could both view and edit web pages; but, as the Web grew, it became a read-only medium for most users. Whitehead and other like-minded people wanted to transcend that limitation.[6][7]

The meetings resulted in the formation of an IETF working group because the new effort would lead to extensions to HTTP, which the IETF had started to standardize.

As work began on the protocol, it became clear that handling both distributed authoring and versioning together would involve too much work and that the tasks would have to be separated. The WebDAV group focused on distributed authoring, and left versioning for the future. (The Delta-V extension added versioning later – see the Extensions section below.)

The WebDAV working group concluded its work in March 2007, after the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) accepted an incremental update to RFC 2518. Other extensions left unfinished at that time, such as the BIND method, have been finished by their individual authors, independent of the formal working group.[8]

Implementation

WebDAV collaborative authoring in a compatible HTTP server
WebDAV collaborative authoring in a compatible HTTP server

WebDAV extends the set of standard HTTP verbs and headers allowed for request methods. The added verbs include:

Properties

The properties of WebDAV protocol are name–value pair, in which a "name" is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and the "values" are expressed through XML elements. Furthermore, the methods to handle the properties are PROPFIND and PROPPATCH.[9]

Server support

Client support

Documents produced by the working group

The WebDAV working group produced several works:

Other documents published through IETF

Extensions and derivatives

For versioning, the Delta-V protocol under the Web Versioning and Configuration Management working group adds resource revision tracking, published in RFC 3253.

For searching and locating, the DAV Searching and Locating (DASL) working group never produced any official standard although there are a number of implementations of its last draft. Work continued as non-working-group activity.[23] The WebDAV Search specification attempts to pick up where the working group left off, and was published as RFC 5323 in November 2008.[24]

For calendaring, CalDAV is a protocol allowing calendar access via WebDAV. CalDAV models calendar events as HTTP resources in iCalendar format, and models calendars containing events as WebDAV collections.

For groupware, GroupDAV is a variant of WebDAV which allows client/server groupware systems to store and fetch objects such as calendar items and address book entries instead of web pages.

For MS Exchange interoperability, WebDAV can be used for reading/updating/deleting items in a mailbox or public folder. WebDAV for Exchange has been extended by Microsoft to accommodate working with messaging data. Exchange Server version 2000, 2003, and 2007 support WebDAV. However, WebDAV support has been discontinued in Exchange 2010[25] in favor of Exchange Web Services (EWS), a SOAP/XML based API.

Additional Windows-specific extensions

See also: Microsoft Open Specification Promise

As part of the Windows Server Protocols (WSPP) documentation set,[26] Microsoft published the following protocol documents detailing extensions to WebDAV:

WebDAV clients

Client Creator Operating system support License Interface
Cyberduck David V. Kocher Windows, OS X GPL GUI
davfs2 GNOME team FUSE GPL VFS
davix CERN Windows, Linux, OS X LGPL CLI
GVfs GNOME team GNOME GPL VFS
KIO KDE team KDE GPL VFS
Konqueror KDE team KDE GPL GUI
GNOME Files GNOME team GNOME GPL GUI
SmartFTP SmartSoft Ltd Windows Proprietary GUI
WebDrive South River Technologies Windows, OS X, iOS, Droid Proprietary VFS
WinSCP Martin Přikryl Windows GPL CLI and GUI

WebDAV libraries

Libraries Creator Operating system or platform License Language
Apache Wink Apache Software foundation JVM Java
Apache Tomcat Apache Software foundation JVM Java
Apache Jackrabbit Apache Software foundation JVM ASF Java
sabre/dav fruux Windows, Linux, MacOSX New BSD PHP


Alternatives to WebDAV

See also

References

  1. ^ Whitehead & Goland 1999, p. 293.
  2. ^ Whitehead 1998, p. 34.
  3. ^ Whitehead & Goland 1999, p. 294.
  4. ^ "Proposed agenda for San Mateo Meeting". 1996.
  5. ^ "Brief mtg. summary". 1996.
  6. ^ "Re: Updated agenda".
  7. ^ Whitehead 1998, p. 40.
  8. ^ Whitehead 1998, p. 39-40.
  9. ^ Whitehead & Goland 1999, p. 299.
  10. ^ "Module http.handlers.webdav - Caddy Documentation". Retrieved 2 September 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Access to EGroupware via WebDAV (CalDAV/CardDAV)". Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  12. ^ "lighttpd mod webdav".
  13. ^ "WebDAV implementation of Mailfence". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Nextcloud 18 User Manual". nextcloud.com. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Module ngx_http_dav_module". nginx website. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  16. ^ "Module nginx-dav-ext-module". github.com. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  17. ^ "ownCloud Documentation". owncloud.com. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  18. ^ "Seafile Community Manual". Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  19. ^ "Installing and Configuring WebDAV on IIS 7 and Later". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  20. ^ "WebDAV Extension for IIS". IIS.net. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  21. ^ "rclone serve webdav". rclone.org. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  22. ^ "Using the WebDAV Redirector". microsoft.com. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  23. ^ DASL Archived 2004-06-03 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ WebDav SEARCH
  25. ^ Discontinued Features: Exchange 2010 SP1 Help Microsoft TechNet
  26. ^ "WSPP – Windows Server Protocols documentation". 2011.
  27. ^ "MS-WDVME – Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Protocol: Microsoft Extensions". 2014.
  28. ^ "MS-WDV – Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Protocol: Client Extensions". 2011.
  29. ^ "MS-WDVSE – Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Protocol: Server Extensions". 2011.
  30. ^ "MS-WEBDAVE – Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning Error Extensions Protocol Specification". 2011.
  31. ^ Rau, Thomas (19 October 2017). "Filme, Musik & Bilder im Heimnetzwerk streamen". PC-WELT (in German). Retrieved 5 November 2020.