Yan Hui
Yan Hui in Half-Portraits of the Great Sage and Virtuous Men of Old (至聖先賢半身像)
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinYán Huí
Alternative names
Yan Hui in his temple at Qufu in Shandong
Courtesy name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinZǐyuān
Yan Yuan
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinYán Yuān
Master Yan
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinYánzǐ
Posthumous name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu PinyinFùshèng
Literal meaningSecond Coming of the Sage

Yan Hui (c. 521–481 BC) was a Chinese philosopher. He was the favorite disciple of Confucius[1] and one of the most revered figures of Confucianism. He is venerated in Confucian temples as one of the Four Sages.


Yan Hui is also known by his courtesy name Ziyuan and as Yan Yuan, a combination of his surname and courtesy name. He is also reverently referred to as Master Yan or Yanzi.


Painting of Yanzi by Kanō Sansetsu.
Japan, Edo period, 1632.

Yan Hui was a native of the state of Lu. His father Yan Wuyou (Yan Lu) was one of the earliest disciples of Confucius.[1] Yan Hui was about 30 years younger than Confucius, and became a student of the Master at a young age.[2]

Yan Hui was Confucius' favorite disciple.[3] "After I got Yan Hui," Confucius remarked, "the disciples came closer to me."[2][4][5] We are told that once, when he found himself on the Nang hill with Yan Hui, Zilu, and Zigong, Confucius asked them to tell him their different aims, and he would choose between them. Zilu began, and when he had done, the master said, "It marks your bravery." Zigong followed, on whose words the judgment was, "They show your discriminating eloquence." At last came Yan Hui, who said, "I should like to find an intelligent king and sage ruler whom I might assist. I would diffuse among the people instructions on the five great points, and lead them on by the rules of propriety and music, so that they should not care to fortify their cities by walls and moats, but would fuse their swords and spears into implements of agriculture. They should send forth their flocks without fear into the plains and forests. There should be no sunderings of families, no widows or widowers. For a thousand years there would be no calamity of war. Yu would have no opportunity to display his bravery, or Ts'ze to display his oratory." The master pronounced, "How admirable is this virtue!"[6]


When Yan Hui was twenty-nine, his hair was all white. He died at an early age.[6]

Given his age and accounts, it was suspected that Yan was one of the first recorded cases of progeria.[6][failed verification]

After the death of Yan Hui, Confucius lamented, "Heaven has bereft me! Heaven has bereft me!". When told by other students that he was showing "excessive grief", the old philosopher replied: "Am I showing excessive grief? Well, for whom would I show excessive grief if not for this man?".[7] Even years later, Confucius would say that no other student could take Yan Hui's place, so gifted and dedicated Yan Hui had been.[8]


Yan Hui, along with Confucius himself, was venerated by the first emperor of the Han dynasty. The title which he now has in the sacrificial Canon—Fusheng ("Continuator of the Sage")—was conferred in the ninth year of the Jiajing era, A.D. 1530. Almost all the present sacrificial titles of the worthies in the Temple of Confucius were fixed at that time. Yan Hui's place is the first of the Four Assessors, on the east of Confucius.[6]


The Yan family were from Langye (琅邪).[9] The Yans abandoned northern China in 317. The devastation of the north during the Western Jin's (266–420) collapse caused the southward journey of Yan Han, who was mentioned in the Guan wo sheng fu by Yan Zhitui. After that, they served the Southern Dynasties.[10]

In 495 CE, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei, who venerated Confucius and his teachings, bestowed official ranks upon two scions of Yan Hui's lineage.[11]

The clan had resided in the south for eight generations when Yan Zhitui (531–591) was born.[12] His grandfather, Yan Jianyuan had committed suicide by hunger strike after the 502 rebellion against the Southern Qi.[13] Yan Zhitui's father was Yan Xie. His elder brothers were Yan Zhiyi and Yan Zhisan. Yan Zhitui himself served under several dynasties during his lifetime and composed the Family Instructions to the Yan Clan (Yanshi Jiaxun 顏氏家訓).[14] He also compiled the Yuanhun Zhi 冤魂志.[15] In the approximately 1,000 years from Yan Hui's to Yan Zhitui's generation, two Yans sought a military career; most of the Yans served as literati.[16]

For most of the Ming (1368–1644) and during the entire Qing (1644–1912) dynasty, Yan Hui's descendants held the hereditary title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì), a scholarly rank from the Hanlin Academy.[17] The current only direct descendant (the seventy-ninth generation) of Yan Hui is Yan Binggang (顏秉刚).[18]

In Taiwan there is an office called the "Sacrificial Official" (Fengsiguan 奉祀官) to the Four Sages of Confucianism, which include Yan Hui.[19]


Fusheng Hall, the main sanctuary of the Temple of Yan Hui in Qufu, Shandong province

Yan Hui is venerated at the Temple of Yan Hui, which is located in Qufu's walled city, a few blocks north of the Temple of Confucius.

Yan Hui's tomb is now surrounded by hundreds of tombs of his descendants, forming the Yan Family Cemetery ("Yan Forest"). A stele was installed at his tomb during the Jurchen Jin dynasty, and re-erected during the Ming Dynasty. The tomb is well preserved.[20]

See also



  1. ^ a b Confucius 1997, p. 201.
  2. ^ a b Chin 2007, p. 75.
  3. ^ Confucius & Slingerland 2003, p. 11
  4. ^ "Kongzi Jiayu". Ctext.
  5. ^ "Shiji". Ctext.
  6. ^ a b c d Confucius & Legge 2009, p. 113
  7. ^ Confucius & Slingerland 2003, p. 114
  8. ^ Chin 2007, p. 74
  9. ^ Anthony DeBlasi (1 February 2012). Reform in the Balance: The Defense of Literary Culture in Mid-Tang China. SUNY Press. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-0-7914-8833-1.
  10. ^ Patricia Buckley Ebrey; Anne Walthall; James B. Palais (2013). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-1-111-80815-0.
  11. ^ Li Gang (2010). "State Religious Policy". In John Lagerwey; Pengzhi Lü (eds.). Early Chinese Religion: The Period of Division (220-589 Ad). BRILL. p. 257. ISBN 978-90-04-17585-3.
  12. ^ Albert E. Dien (2007). Six Dynasties Civilization. Yale University Press. p. 426. ISBN 978-0-300-07404-8.
  13. ^ Naomi Standen (2007). Unbounded Loyalty: Frontier Crossings in Liao China. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2983-4.
  14. ^ Robin Wang (2003). Images of Women in Chinese Thought and Culture: Writings from the Pre-Qin Period Through the Song Dynasty. Hackett Publishing. pp. 245–. ISBN 0-87220-651-3.
  15. ^ Robert Ford Campany (1996). Strange Writing: Anomaly Accounts in Early Medieval China. SUNY Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7914-2659-3.
  16. ^ Mark Edward LEWIS (30 June 2009). China between Empires. Harvard University Press. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-0-674-04015-1. Yan Zhitui Family instructions for the Yan clan.
  17. ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (1911). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.
  18. ^ Xin bian Lou xiang zhi. Xin bian "Lou xiang zhi" bian zuan wei yuan hui., 新编《陋巷志》编纂委员会. (Di 1 ban ed.). Jinan: Qi Lu shu she. 2002. ISBN 7-5333-1093-4. OCLC 52309513.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. ^ "台湾儒家奉祀官将改为无给职 不排除由女子继任". Sina.com. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  20. ^ "A Regular Report on the Implementation of the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Part II: Preservation Status of the Specific World Heritage. Treaty signatory state: The People's Republic of China. Name of property: Confucius Temple, Confucius Forest and Confucius Mansion in Qufu" (PDF). Whc.unesco.org. p. 63. Retrieved 2016-05-20.