Young Pioneers of China
中国少年先锋队
LeaderA Dong
Founded1924; 100 years ago (1924) (foundation)
13 October 1949; 74 years ago (1949-10-13) (official)
HeadquartersBeijing
Membership130,000,000 (2007)[1]
Ideology
Mother party
International affiliationInternational Committee of Children's and Adolescents' Movements (historical)[citation needed]
NewspaperChina Children's News
China Teenagers' News
Websitezgsxd.k618.cn Edit this at Wikidata
Young Pioneers of China standing honour guard at the Monument to the People's Heroes at Tiananmen Square
A group of Young Pioneers in Tiananmen Square in October 2007

The Young Pioneers of China (Chinese: 中国少年先锋队; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shàonián Xiānfēngduì), often shortened to the Young Pioneers (Chinese: 少先队; pinyin: Shàoxiānduì) and sometimes translated into English as Red Pioneers,[2]: 60  is a mass youth organization for children aged six to fourteen in the People's Republic of China. The Young Pioneers of China is run by the Communist Youth League, an organization of older youth that comes under the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Young Pioneers of China is similar to Pioneer Movements that exist or existed in many Communist countries around the world.

History

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The Youth and Children of China Movement (simplified Chinese: 中国少年儿童队; traditional Chinese: 中國少年兒童隊; pinyin: Zhōngguó shàonián értóng duì) was created on October 13, 1949, by the CCP, and given its present name in June 1953. Between its own founding in 1921 and the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, the CCP ran various other youth movements in communist-held areas.

During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1978), the Young Pioneers Movement was temporarily dismantled. It was replaced by the Little Red Guards, who were the younger counterparts of the Red Guards, the implementers of the Cultural Revolution. The Young Pioneers Movement was restarted in October 1978.

The transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong and Macau in 1997 and 1999 respectively has not seen the expansion of CCP organizations (except two small working committees in Liaison Office of HK & Macau) to those areas, including the Young Pioneers.

Membership

Young Pioneers consist of children between the ages of six and fourteen; upon reaching the age of fourteen, members automatically exit the Young Pioneers and may optionally go on to join the Communist Youth League.[3]

Most elementary school students are Young Pioneers by the time they graduate from grade school. Most of the schools require students of the right age to become Young Pioneers.[4] There were an estimated 130 million Young Pioneers in China, as of 2002.[5]

Young Pioneers are immersed in CCP ideology and wear red scarves as a symbol of their commitment. However, children often participate in the Young Pioneers without a full understanding of what they're signing up for because they may not have the maturity or understanding to fully comprehend the implications or the ideology behind the organization. Joining the Young Pioneers is also seen as a normal part of growing up, a rite of passage, or a social expectation in China.

Organization

According to the Young Pioneers constitution,[3] each school or village organizes a Pioneer Battalion (大队; Dàduì), which is divided into Pioneer Companies (中队; Zhōngduì) each corresponding to a class, which is then further divided into Pioneer Squads/Teams (小队; Xiǎoduì) each with a handful of members. Each team has a leader (队长; Duìzhǎng) and an assistant leader (副队长; Fùduìzhǎng), ; each of the school Companies is led by a committee of between three and seven members; and a Young Pioneers Committee (队委会; Duìwěihuì) of between seven and fifteen members serve as the battalion leadership staff. Adult leaders are chosen from either the Communist Youth League or from local teaching staff (called counselor, 辅导员; Fǔdǎoyuán).

Young Pioneers are also directed by a number of Working Committees (少先队工作委员会; Shǎoxiānduìgōngzuòwěiyuánhuì or 少工委; Shǎogōngwěi in short) at different levels over the battalion level up to the National Permanent Standing Commission (中国少年先锋队全国工作委员会; Zhōngguó Shǎonián Xiānfēngduì Quánguó Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì or 全国少工委; Quánguó Shǎogōngwěi in short), Working Committees of different levels are responsible to the Congresses of Young Pioneers (少先队代表大会; Shǎoxiānduì Dàibiǎodàhuì or 少代会; Shǎodàihuì in short) at the same level. The current chairperson of the NPSC-YPC is He Junke.

Constitution

The Constitution was officially passed on June 1, 1954, on international Children's Day. It has since been amended many times. The full text is available on Wikisource.

Symbols

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Flag

According to the Young Pioneers Constitution, the flag is red, symbolizing the victory of the Revolution; the five-pointed star in the middle symbolizes the leadership of the CCP, while the torch symbolizes brightness down the path of communism.

The Pioneer Battalion flag is 90 x 120 cm, while the flag of each Company is 60 x 80 cm, with an isosceles triangle (60 x 20 cm) removed from the right side. The removed triangle corresponds to the red scarf worn by Young Pioneers.

Emblem

The emblem consists of the star, the torch, and a banner reading "The Young Pioneers of China".

Scarf

The red scarf (Chinese: 红领巾; pinyin: hónglǐngjīn) is the only uniform item. Young Pioneers are often referred to simply as "Red Scarves"; the investiture ceremony often consists of new members having their scarves tied for them by existing members. Children wearing red scarves are a ubiquitous sight in China.

The red scarf is generally worn around the neck and tied, with no woggle. Some local groups also come up with other uniform items.

The Young Pioneers Constitution explains that the scarf corresponds to the missing triangle on the Pioneer Company flag. The Constitution also explains that the red of the scarf comes from the blood sacrificed by martyrs of the Revolution, and that all members should therefore wear the scarf with reverence.

Salute, Slogan, Conduct, Promise

The Young Pioneers Salute consists of bending the right arm and raising the right hand directly above the head, the palm flat and facing downwards, and the fingers together. It symbolizes that the interests of the People supersede all.

The Motto (and Summons) is:

To which the response is:

The stipulated conduct of Young Pioneers, according to the constitution, is:

The Young Pioneers pledge is:

Song

The Young Pioneers song is We are the heirs of communism (Chinese: 《我们是共产主义接班人》; pinyin: Wǒmen shì Gòngchǎnzhǔyì Jiēbānrén). It was originally the theme song of Heroic Little Eighth-Routers (Chinese: 《英雄小八路》; pinyin: Yīngxióng Xiǎo Bālù), a 1961 film about the 1958 Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and a real-life group of children who stayed on the frontlines of coastal Fujian in order to help the war effort against Kuomintang forces.

Full dress uniform

Similar to other members of the Pioneer movement worldwide, the full dress uniform is white or blue shirt or polo with undershirt (or skirts for girls) and pants with the red scarf and badges attached to the shirt, with an optional headdress such as a beret. Sometimes even school uniforms are used, the addition being the red scarf, the optional headdress cap and the organizational and rank badges. During sports events YPs wear athletic uniforms.

See also

References

  1. ^ "中国1.3亿少先队员将举行全国代表大会_CCTV.com_中国中央电视台" [China's 130 million young pioneers to hold a national congress]. news.cntv.cn. May 30, 2010.
  2. ^ Marquis, Christopher; Qiao, Kunyuan (2022). Mao and Markets: The Communist Roots of Chinese Enterprise. Kunyuan Qiao. New Haven: Yale University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv3006z6k. ISBN 978-0-300-26883-6. JSTOR j.ctv3006z6k. OCLC 1348572572.
  3. ^ a b "中国少年先锋队章程-中国少年先锋队" [China Youth Pioneer Charter]. zgsxd.k618.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-12-10. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  4. ^ "All Chinese Private Colleges to Have Communist Youth Groups". People's Daily. July 23, 2003.
  5. ^ "社区、农村两大难点考验少先队" [Two major difficulties in the community and the countryside test the Young Pioneers]. People's Daily. April 13, 2002. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2014.