湛若水 (Zhan Ruoshui)
湛若水 (Zhan Ruoshui)

Zhan Ruoshui (Chinese: 湛若水; pinyin: Zhàn Ruòshuǐ; Wade–Giles: Chan Joshui, 1466–1560), was a Chinese philosopher, educator and a Confucian scholar.


Zhan was born in Zengcheng, Guangdong. He was appointed the president of Nanjing Guozijian (南京國子監, the Imperial Nanjing University) in 1524. He was later appointed the Minister of Rites (禮部, which mainly administers national ceremony, sacrifice, imperial examination, education, diplomacy, etc.), Minister of Personnel (吏部), and then Minister of War (兵部) at Nanjing of the Ming dynasty.

As a scholar, Zhan is famous for mind theory. He was also a famous educator. In his life he founded and jointly founded more than 40 Shuyuan (書院, Confucian academies).

Zhan was a lifelong friend of the philosopher, general, and administrator Wang Yangming. He shared an appreciation of Lu Xiangshan idealism (xinxue), Daoism, and Buddhism with Wang, although their intellectual paths ultimately diverged.[1]


  1. ^ Mote, F.W. Imperial China 900-1800. p. 678.