Guozijian
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Korean name
Hangul국자감
Hanja
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ
ᠵᡠᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ
ᡥᡡᠸᠠᡧᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝ
ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ
Möllendorffgurun-i juse be hūwašabure yamun
Biyong, the imperial lecture hall in Beijing Guozijian
The imperial lecture hall and classrooms in Beijing Guozijian
Juniperus chinensis from Six Dynasties, the symbol of Nanjing Guozijian
Stele Forest in Xi'an, where collects many ancient steles from Chang'an Guozijian of the Tang dynasty

The Guozijian,[1] sometimes translated as the Imperial College, Imperial Academy, Imperial University, National Academy, or National University,[2] was the national central institution of higher learning in Chinese dynasties after the Sui dynasty. It was the highest institution of academic research and learning in China's traditional educational system, with the function of administration of education.

History

Formerly it was called the Taixue (lit.'Imperial University'). The Taixue for Gongsheng (tribute students) from the populace was part of the Guozijian, along with Guozixue for noble students. The central schools of the Taixue were established as far back as 3 CE, when a standard nationwide school system was established and funded during the reign of Emperor Ping of Han.[3] The institution was known as the Guozijian beginning in the Sui dynasty. During the Ming dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor promoted the study of law, math, calligraphy, equestrianism, and archery at the Guozijian.[4]

In 1905, the Guozijian was shut down. During the 1898 reform of the Qing dynasty, the education and administrational functions of the Guozijian were mainly replaced by the Imperial Capital University (also translated as Imperial University of Peking), which later became the modern Peking University.

Locations

Entrance of the Imperial Academy in Huế, central Vietnam

Guozijian were located in the national capital of each Chinese dynasty, such as Chang'an, Luoyang, Kaifeng, and Hangzhou. In early years of the Ming, the Guozijian was in Nanjing. Afterwards, the Ming had two capitals, so there were two Guozijian: one in Nanjing (which later became Nanjing University) and one in Beijing. During the Qing dynasty, the Guozijian was in Beijing.

The Beijing Guozijian, located on Guozijian Street in the Dongcheng District, was the imperial college during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties; most of the current buildings were built during the Ming dynasty.[5] It was the last Guozijian in China and the predecessor of Peking University.

Vietnam

Quốc tử giám quan phòng (國子監關防), the office seal of the Imperial Academy of the Nguyễn dynasty.

In Vietnam, the Imperial Academy (Vietnamese: Quốc Tử Giám) existed from the Trần dynasty onwards.[citation needed] Several notable chairmen of the Guozijian were Chu Văn An, Nguyễn Phi Khanh, and Vũ Miên. The first Imperial Academy in Vietnam was based at the Temple of Literature in Hanoi, which survives to this day.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Yuan, 194.
  2. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
  3. ^ Yuan, 193.
  4. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
  5. ^ "Guozijian". James P. Geiss Foundation. Archived from the original on 2017-08-13. Retrieved 2008-08-07.

Sources