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The following is a list of empresses and queens consort of China. China has periodically been divided into kingdoms as well as united under empires, resulting in consorts titled both queen and empress. The empress title could also be given posthumously.

Empresses and queens consort

The title of empress consort (皇后, húanghòu) could also be given posthumously. The posthumous empresses are listed separately by the year they were given the title.

Zhou dynasty

Name Birth Became Queen Ceased to be Queen Death Spouse
Tai Si c. 12th century BC 1099 BC 1050 BC c. 11th century BC King Wen
Queen Yi Jiang (邑姜) 1046 BC 1043 BC King Wu
Wáng Sì (王姒) King Cheng
Wáng Jiāng (王姜) King Kang
Queen Fáng (房后) King Zhao
Wáng Zǔ Jiāng (王俎姜) King Mu
Wáng Guī (王媯) King Gong
Wáng Bó Jiāng (王伯姜) King Yi
Wáng Jīng (王京) King Xiao
Wáng Jí (王姞) King Yi
Shēn Jiāng (王姞) King Li
Queen Jiang 827 BC 782 BC King Xuan
Queen Shēn (申后) 782 BC 772 BC King You
Bao Si (褒姒) 779 BC 771 BC
Jì Jì Jiāng (紀季姜) King Huan
Chén Guī (陈妫) King Hui
Queen Dí (翟后) King Xiang
Qí Jiāng (周灵王) King Ling
Queen Mù (穆后) 527 BC King Jing

Western Han dynasty

Name Parents Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
Empress Lü Zhi Lü Wen, Prince Xuan of Lü

Princess Consort Xuan

241 BC 202 BC 195 BC 18 Aug 180 BC Emperor Gaozu of Han
Empress Zhang Yan Zhang Ao, Prince of Zhao

Princess Yuan of Lu

192 BC 192 BC 188 BC 163 BC Emperor Hui of Han
Empress Lü Lü Lu (呂祿) c.205 BC 184 BC 180 BC c.180 BC Emperor Houshao of Han
Empress Dou Dou Chong, Marquis Ancheng 205 BC 179 BC 179 BC 157 BC 135 BC Emperor Wen of Han
Empress Bo 158 BC 157 BC 151 BC 147 BC Emperor Jing of Han
Empress Wang Zhi Wang Zhong

Zang Er

173 BC 150 BC 126 BC
Empress Chen Jiao Chen Wu, Marquess of Tangyi

Liu Piao, Princess Guantao

141 BC 130 BC c.110 BC Emperor Wu of Han
Empress Wei Zifu Madam Wei (衛媼) 128 BC 91 BC
Empress Shangguan Lady Huo 89 BC(?) 84 BC 83 BC 74 BC: 37 BC Emperor Zhao of Han
Empress Xu Pingjun Xu Guanghan c.90 BC c. 76 BC 74 BC 71 BC Emperor Xuan of Han
Empress Huo Chengjun Huo Guang

Lady Xian

70 BC: 66 BC 54 BC
Empress Wang Wang Fengguang, Marquess of Qiongcheng 64 BC 49 BC 16 BC
Empress Wang Zhengjun Wang Jin, Marquess of Yangping

Li Qin

71 BC c.50 BC 48 BC 33 BC 13 AD Emperor Yuan of Han
Empress Xu Xu Jia, the Marquess of Ping'en 31 BC 18 BC 8 BC Emperor Cheng of Han
Empress Zhao Feiyan c. 32 BC 16 BC 7 BC 1 BC
Empress Fu Fu Yan, Marquis of Kongxiang 6 BC 1 BC Emperor Ai of Han
Empress Wang Wang Mang

Lady Wang

8 BC 4 AD 5 AD 23 AD Emperor Ping of Han

Xin dynasty

Name Parents Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
Empress Wang Wang Xian, Marquess of Yichin 9 AD 21 AD Emperor Wang Mang
Empress Shi Shi Chen (史諶) 23 AD

Eastern Han dynasty

Three Kingdoms period

Cao Wei

Shu Han

Eastern Wu

Jin dynasty

Huan Chu dynasty

Sixteen Kingdoms period

Cheng Han

Han-Zhao

Later Zhao

Ran Wei

Former Liang

Later Liang

Western Liang

Northern Liang

Southern Liang

Former Qin

Later Qin

Western Qin

Former Yan

Later Yan

Northern Yan

Southern Yan

Xia

Northern and Southern dynasties

Liu Song

Southern Qi

Northern Wei

Western Wei

Eastern Wei

Northern Qi

Liang dynasty

Chen dynasty

Northern Zhou

Main article: Empress of Northern Zhou

Sui dynasty

Tang dynasty

Wu Zetian, an empress consort who became an imperial ruler during the Tang dynasty and during the emperor Gaozong. After the death of her husband, she became the sole ruler of China for more than two decades.
Qin
Han (Dingyang)
Xia
Yan
Qi

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Qi

Former Shu

Yan

Later Liang

Southern Han

Later Tang

Wu

Min

Southern Tang

Later Jin

Yin

Later Han

Later Zhou

Northern Han

Song dynasty

Empress Zheng of the Song dynasty

Yuan dynasty

See also: List of Yuan empress consorts

Empress Chabi, consort to Kublai Khan

Ming dynasty

Empress Xiaocigao, Ming dynasty
Empress Xu, Ming dynasty

Southern Ming

Qing dynasty

Emperor Empress consort* Picture Birth Became empress consort Ceased to be empress consort Death
Hong Taiji Jerjer, Empress Xiaoduanwen
of the Mongol Borjigit clan
31 May 1599 August 1636 21 September 1643
husband's death
28 May 1649
Fulin, the Shunzhi Emperor Erdeni Bumba, Empress
of the Mongol Borjigit clan
27 September 1651 25 October 1653
deposed
Alatan Qiqige, Empress Xiaohuizhang
of the Mongol Borjigit clan
5 November 1641 July/August 1654 5 February 1661
husband's death
7 January 1718
Xuanye, the Kangxi Emperor Empress Xiaochengren
of the Manchu Hešeri clan
3 February 1654 October/November 1665 6 June 1674
Empress Xiaozhaoren
of the Manchu Niohuru clan
1653 18 September 1677 18 March 1678
Empress Xiaoyiren
of the Manchu Tunggiya clan
23 August 1689 24 August 1689
Yinzhen, the Yongzheng Emperor Duoqimuli, Empress Xiaojingxian
of the Manchu Ula-nara clan
28 June 1681 28 March 1723 29 October 1731
Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor Empress Xiaoxianchun
of the Manchu Fuca clan
28 March 1712 23 January 1738 8 April 1748
Empress
of the Manchu Nara clan
11 March 1718 2 September 1750 19 August 1766
Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor Empress Xiaoshurui
of the Manchu Hitara clan
2 October 1760 12 February 1796 5 March 1797
Empress Xiaoherui
of the Manchu Niohuru clan
20 November 1776 27 May 1801 2 September 1820
husband's death
23 January 1850
Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor Empress Xiaoshencheng
of the Manchu Tunggiya clan
5 July 1792 28 December 1822 16 June 1833
Empress Xiaoquancheng
of the Manchu Niohuru clan
24 March 1808 18 November 1834 13 February 1840
Yizhu, the Xianfeng Emperor Empress Xiaozhenxian
of the Manchu Niohuru clan
12 August 1837 November/December 1852 22 August 1861
husband's death
8 April 1881
Zaichun, the Tongzhi Emperor Empress Xiaozheyi
of the Manchu Arute clan
25 July 1854 15 October 1872 12 January 1875
husband's death
27 March 1875
Zaitian, the Guangxu Emperor Jingfen, Empress Xiaodingjing
of the Manchu Yehe-nara clan
28 January 1868 26 February 1889 14 November 1908
husband's death
22 February 1913

Manchukuo

Emperor Empress consort* Picture Birth Became empress consort Ceased to be empress consort Death
Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor Wanrong, Empress Xiaokemin
of the Manchu Gobulo clan
13 November 1906 1 March 1934 17 August 1945
monarchy abolished
20 June 1946

Empresses dowager

The title of Empress dowager (皇太后, húangtàihòu) was automatically given to a former Empress consort and widow of an Emperor. The title, Empress dowager, could be granted a widow of an Emperor even when she had not been the Empress consort during the reign of her spouse. Therefore, a separate list is given of the Empresses dowager, which, in some cases, equals the list of Empresses consort, and in other cases, not.

Han dynasty

Northern Dynasties

Northern Wei

Tang dynasty

Song dynasty

Yuan dynasty

Ming dynasty

Qing dynasty

Empress Dowager Cixi, Qing dynasty

Grand empresses dowager

Further information: Grand empress dowager § Chinese grand empresses dowager

Empresses whose titles were granted posthumously

Sui dynasty

Tang dynasty

Song dynasty

Yuan dynasty

Ming dynasty and Southern Ming dynasty

Qing dynasty

Empress Xiaoyichun, Qing dynasty

See also

References

Bibliography