2019 Luzon earthquake
UTC time2019-04-22 09:11:09
ISC event615412757
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local dateApril 22, 2019 (2019-04-22)[1]
Local time5:11:09 pm (PST)[1]
Duration27 seconds
Magnitude6.1 Mwp[1]
Depth20 km (12 mi)[1]
Epicenter14°59′N 120°21′E / 14.99°N 120.35°E / 14.99; 120.35
San Marcelino, Zambales (18km east of Castillejos, Zambales)
TypeStrike-slip[2]
Areas affectedCentral Luzon, Metro Manila, Calabarzon
Total damagePHP 539 million (US $10.5 million)[3]
Max. intensity[4]
TsunamiNone
LandslidesMt. Tapungso, Zambales[5]
Aftershocks1,049 (16 felt) (as of May 1, 2019)[3]
Casualties18 dead; 3 missing; 256 injured[3]

On April 22, 2019, a 6.1 magnitude earthquake[6] struck the island of Luzon in the Philippines, leaving at least 18 dead, three missing and injuring at least 256 others. Despite the fact that the epicenter was in Zambales, most of the damage to infrastructure occurred in the neighboring province of Pampanga, which suffered damage to 29 buildings and structures.[7]

Earthquake

United States Geological Survey shake map for the 2019 Luzon earthquake; a maximum Mercalli intensity scale value of 6.6 was observed in Gutad, Floridablanca, Pampanga

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) initially reported an earthquake of magnitude 5.7 striking at 17:11 PST with an epicenter two kilometers N 28° E of Castillejos, Zambales. The report was later revised to an earthquake of magnitude 6.1 with epicenter 18 kilometers N 58° E of Castillejos.[6]

The fault from which the earthquake originated is yet to be determined, with geologists focusing on two nearby fault systems, the Iba Fault and the East Zambales Fault, trying to ascertain the source of the earthquake.[2]

PHIVOLCS stated that the volcano Mount Pinatubo, located near the earthquake's epicenter, has not shown any "anomalous activity".[8] Pinatubo is known for its major eruption in 1991, which may have been related to a major 7.7 magnitude earthquake in 1990.[8] PHIVOLCS added that the earthquake could not trigger an eruption of Pinatubo, explaining that the volcano's magma supply has not sufficiently replenished since 1991 to allow for an eruption.[8]

Casualties

As of April 29, 2019, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council confirmed 18 deaths, 3 people missing and 256 injuries.[3] Of the 18 reported dead, five died in the collapsed four-storey Chuzon Supermarket in the municipality of Porac, seven elsewhere in the town, two in Lubao, one in Angeles City, and one in San Marcelino, Zambales.[9]

Damage and effects

Chuzon Supermarket before the earthquake
Ruins of the Chuzon Supermarket
Chuzon Supermarket in Porac before and after the earthquake

State seismologists said that Zambales had been spared from the earthquake destruction, despite the location of the epicenter being there, although the reports of fatalities and the damage have yet to be received by the local authorities.[10] The neighboring province of Pampanga suffered damage to 29 structures/buildings and was the area most affected by the earthquake, due to the province sitting on soft sediment and alluvial soil.[2]

There have been at least 421 aftershocks reported but only 8 were felt.[11]

Government Infrastructures

The Bataan-Pampanga boundary arch collapsed,[12] and the control tower and passenger's terminal of Clark International Airport damaged.[13] In Central Luzon, 5 dams were damaged and in need of immediate repairs, with an estimated cost of 20 million pesos, according to the National Irrigation Administration (NIA).[14]

Commercial Buildings

The site where the most casualties occurred during the earthquake was a branch of the Chuzon Supermarket in Porac, Pampanga which collapsed, killing five people. CCTV footage from the store showed the collapse of the second floor of the building just 10 seconds into the earthquake.[15][16] The Department of the Interior and Local Government ordered the suspension of operations of all Chuzon branches and investigated its collapse.[17] Some branches resumed operations in 2020.

Power

Strong earthquakes in Luzon
1985
1985
1970
1970
1977
1977
2019
2019
The 2019 Luzon earthquake (Mw 6.1) and all large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7.0) in Central Luzon. These were in 1968 (Casiguran), 1970,[18] 1977 (in Cagayan Valley),[19] 1985,[20] 1990, and 1999.
Geologically, to the left is the Manila Trench and the Iba Fault in Zambales. In the center is the Digdig Fault in Nueva Ecija. To the right is the diagonal Casiguran Fault in Aurora, then the East Luzon Trench.

Power outages were reported in the provinces of Bataan, La Union, Pampanga and Pangasinan,[21] as well as in parts of Quezon, Batangas, Camarines Sur and Sorsogon, but were later corrected. The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP) issued an alert level at yellow status on the Luzon grid after the initial earthquake.[22]

Schools, colleges and universities

Following the earthquake, classes in all levels were suspended. Numerous schools, universities and colleges that were affected by the earthquake announced class suspension for April 23 and 24.[23][24][25][26] The Department of Education ordered the thorough inspection of school buildings and facilities in the affected areas.[27] A 10-story building of Emilio Aguinaldo College along United Nations Avenue in Manila was reported to have tilted and leaned onto the adjacent building, causing its fiberglass terrace to hit the other building. Soil liquefaction underneath the building was seen as probable causes. One lane of United Nations Avenue was closed to vehicular traffic to ensure the safety of motorists. An assessment team composed of private and local government structural engineers stated that the building's structural integrity remains intact.[28][29]

Churches

Several churches in Pampanga were damaged or collapsed. The belfry of the 17th-century San Agustin Church in Lubao was partly damaged, while the bell tower of the 19th-century Santa Catalina de Alejandria Church in Porac collapsed.[30][31] The Holy Rosary Parish Church in Angeles City sustained damage to the church's ceiling, pillars and windows.[32]

Transport

Train services in Metro Manila were halted followed by an extensive inspection. All lines were closed for the rest of the day pending an inspection that later found no damage to the railway system.[33] A crack on the girder was reported at the Line 2 Recto Station, but was found to have existed before the earthquake and was superficial, according to the Department of Transportation (DOTr).[34]

Rescue efforts

The authorities began the search and rescue operations for the survivors in the collapsed supermarket in Porac; however, the operation was suspended when a 4.5-magnitude aftershock hit the neighboring town in Castillejos, Zambales on April 24 at 2:02 am (PST).[35][36]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Earthquake Information - 22 Apr 2019 - 05:11:09 PM". PHIVOLCS. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c De Guzman, Robie (April 23, 2019). "Phivolcs explains why Pampanga was hit hardest by Luzon quake". UNTV News & Rescue (in English and Filipino). Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d NDRRMC. "NDRRMC Update: SitRep No. 13 re Magnitude 6.1 Earthquake in Castillejos, Zambales" (PDF). Retrieved May 1, 2019.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "Final Report re Effects of Magnitude 6.1 Earthquake in Castillejos, Zambales (22 April 2019)" (PDF). Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  5. ^ "Pagguho sa Mt. Tapungso sa Zambales, ininspeksiyon". ABS-CBN News (in Tagalog). Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Earthquake Information NO.: 3". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  7. ^ "18 dead, over 280 injured in Central Luzon due to quake — NDRRMC". GMA News. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "No 'anomalous activity' in Mt. Pinatubo after Luzon quake: Phivolcs". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  9. ^ "Death toll in Luzon quake climbs to 16: NDRRMC". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  10. ^ "Why was Pampanga worse hit by quake than Zambales epicenter?". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  11. ^ Ramos, Christia Marie (April 23, 2019). "Phivolcs records 421 aftershocks, so far". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  12. ^ "Deadly Earthquake Strikes Northern Philippines". Benar News. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
  13. ^ "At least 7 injured as Clark airport damaged by Luzon earthquake". RAPPLER. April 22, 2019. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
  14. ^ "5 Central Luzon dams, facilities damaged by quake". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  15. ^ At 0:39 of video, the earthquake hits at CCTV timestamp 05:07:21 before losing the live transmission at 05:07:28. "Pagguho ng Chuzon supermarket". News5. Retrieved April 26, 2019 – via YouTube.
  16. ^ "Chuzon Supermarket CCTV footage during magnitude 6.1 Luzon Quake | ANC". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 25, 2019 – via YouTube.
  17. ^ "Pagguho ng supermarket sa Porac, Pampanga iniimbestigahan". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 23, 2019 – via YouTube. (0:01- ) "Apat na taon pa lamang nakatayo ang gusali ng Chuzon Supermarket sa mismong bayan ng Porac, Pampanga." / (1:54- ) "Pinasususpendi na ng DILG sa mga lokal na pamahalaan ang lahat ng business permits ng mga sangay ng Chuzon Supermarket."
  18. ^ "M 7.4 - Luzon, Philippines". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  19. ^ "M 7.0 - Luzon, Philippines". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  20. ^ "M 7.0 - Luzon, Philippines". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  21. ^ "Power outage hits Bataan, Pampanga after magnitude 6.1-quake". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  22. ^ "Alert level sa Luzon grid itinaas bunsod ng lindol". ABS-CBN News (in Tagalog). Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  23. ^ Edera, Erma. "Mayor Estrada declares suspension of classes in Manila". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  24. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin. "#WalangPasok: Class suspensions on Wednesday, April 24". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  25. ^ "Classes, work in some Central Luzon areas suspended Tuesday". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  26. ^ Tecson, Zorayda. "LOOK: UP Diliman cancels classes after earthquake". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  27. ^ "LOOK: UP Diliman cancels classes after earthquake". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  28. ^ Peralta, Janine. "No imminent danger for leaning Emilio Aguinaldo College building in Manila, engineers assure". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  29. ^ Adel, Rosette. "Engineers: EAC building tilt could be caused by 'liquefaction,' 'proximity of establishments'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  30. ^ "LOOK: Heritage churches in Pampanga closed due to damage". RAPPLER. April 23, 2019. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
  31. ^ "LOOK: Quake damages church, other structures in Pampanga". ABS-CBN News. April 22, 2019. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  32. ^ Cervantes, Ding. "Angeles heritage church closed for repairs". Philstar.com. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  33. ^ "MRT, LRT, PNR suspend operations after Luzon earthquake". Rappler. April 22, 2019. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  34. ^ Adel, Rosette (April 23, 2019). "DOTr: Recto station 'crack' not earthquake-related". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  35. ^ "Magnitude 4.5 aftershock jolts Zambales, felt in Metro Manila". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  36. ^ Michael Joe T. Delizo. "Search for survivors in Porac rubble halted temporarily due to aftershocks". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.