Scientific classification

Tedersoo 2017

Tedersoo 2017

Cavalier-Smith 1997 em. Atkins 2000
  • Ancyromonadidae
  • Planomonadidae
  • Planomonadida Cavalier-Smith 2008

Ancyromonadida or Planomonadida is a small group of biflagellated protists found in the soil and in aquatic habitats, where they feed on bacteria.[1][2] Includes freshwater or marine organisms, benthic, dorsoventrally compressed and with two unequal flagellae, each emerging from a separate pocket. The apical anterior flagellum can be very thin or end in the cell membrane, while the posterior flagellum is long and is inserted ventrally or laterally. The cell membrane is supported by a thin single-layered theca and the mitochondrial crests are discoidal/flat.[3]

The group's placement is doubtful, as it seems to fall outside the five supergroups of eukaryotes.[4] Cavalier-Smith considers that they constitute a basal group to Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta and places it together with other related groups in Sulcozoa.[5] However, they appear more basal than Malawimonas, placing them in Loukouzoa, possibly as stem podiates, and depending on the placement of the root position of the Eukaryotes.[6][7]



Metamonada Cavalier-Smith 1987 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2003

Ancyromonadida Cavalier-Smith 1998 emend. Atkins 2000

Malawimonadea Cavalier-Smith 2003




Amoebozoa Lühe 1913 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1998


Breviatea Cavalier-Smith 2004

Apusomonadida Karpov & Mylnikov 1989



Cladogram of Ancyromonadida[9]

Fabomonas tropica


P. brevis

P. bulbosa

P. elongata

P. micra


A. atlantica

A. indica

A. kenti

A. sigmoides


N. longa


N. howeae

N. limna


  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2013). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa. European journal of protistology, 49(2), 115-178.
  2. ^ Cavalier-Smith T, Chao EE, Stechmann A, Oates B, Nikolaev S (October 2008). "Planomonadida ord. nov. (Apusozoa): ultrastructural affinity with Micronuclearia podoventralis and deep divergences within Planomonas gen. nov". Protist. 159 (4): 535–62. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2008.06.002. PMID 18723395.
  3. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura W.; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Schoch, Conrad L.; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W. (2012). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233.
  4. ^ Burki, F. (2014). "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (5): 1–17. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147. PMC 3996474. PMID 24789819.
  5. ^ Ruggiero, M. A., Gordon, D. P., Orrell, T. M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R. C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. y Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms.
  6. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Heiss, Aaron; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Yabuki, Akinori; Tice, Alexander K.; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken; Hashimoto, Tetsuo (2017-12-03). "Phylogenomics places orphan protistan lineages in a novel eukaryotic super-group". Genome Biol Evol. 10 (2): 427–433. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy014. PMC 5793813. PMID 29360967.
  7. ^ Torruella, Guifré; Mendoza, Alex de; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Antó, Meritxell; Chaplin, Mark A.; Campo, Javier del; Eme, Laura; Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Whipps, Christopher M. (2015). "Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi". Current Biology. 25 (18): 2404–2410. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.053. PMID 26365255.
  8. ^ Brown, Matthew W; Heiss, Aaron A; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Yabuki, Akinori; Tice, Alexander K; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo (2018-01-19). "Phylogenomics Places Orphan Protistan Lineages in a Novel Eukaryotic Super-Group". Genome Biology and Evolution. 10 (2): 427–433. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy014. ISSN 1759-6653. PMC 5793813. PMID 29360967.
  9. ^ a b Glücksman, Snell & Cavalier-Smith (2013). "Phylogeny and evolution of Planomonadida (Sulcozoa): Eight new species and new genera Fabomonas and Nutomonas". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 179–200. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.08.007. PMID 23369787.