SAR
Temporal range: 736–0 Ma[1]
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
Clade: TSAR
Clade: SAR
Burki et al., 2007
Clades
Synonyms
  • Harosa Cavalier-Smith, 2010

SAR or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.[2][3][4][5] The name is an acronym derived from the first letters of each of these clades; it has been alternatively spelled "RAS".[6][7]

The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith (2010).[8] Adl et al. (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as:[6]

Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001 (Rhizaria), Tetrahymena thermophila Nanney & McCoy 1976 (Alveolata), and Thalassiosira pseudonana Cleve 1873 (Stramenopiles). This is a node-based definition in which all of the specifiers are extant.

Note that as a formal taxon, "Sar" has only its first letter capitalized, while the earlier abbreviation, SAR, retains all uppercase letters. Both names refer to the same group of organisms, unless further taxonomic revisions deem otherwise. Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata (Chromista and Alveolata) and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged with Rhizaria.[9] This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. (2009) to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them.[10]

Phylogeny

Based on a compilation of the following works.[11][12][13][14]

TSAR

Telonemia

SAR/
Rhizaria

Phytomyxea Engler & Prantl 1897 em. Cavalier-Smith 1993

Vampyrellida West 1901 emend. Hess et al. 2012 {Vampyrellidea Cavalier-Smith 2017}

Filosa Leidy 1879 s.s.

Marimyxia Cavalier-Smith 2017

Retaria Cavalier-Smith 2002 s.s.

Halvaria
Alveolata

Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. n. Copeland 1956

Myzozoa Cavalier-Smith and Chao 2004

Heterokonta

Platysulcidae Shiratori, Nkayama & Ishida 2015

Sagenista Cavalier-Smith 1995 stat. n. 2006

Bikosea Cavalier-Smith 2013

Placidozoa Cavalier-Smith 2013

Gyrista

Bigyromonadea Cavalier-Smith 1998

Oomycota Arx 1967

Hyphochytriomycota Whittaker 1969

Pirsoniales Cavalier-Smith 1998

Ochrophyta Cavalier-Smith 1986 (Brown, golden & yellow algae)

Harosa

See also

References

  1. ^ Laura Wegener Parfrey, Daniel J G Lahr, Andrew H Knoll, Laura A Katz (16 August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. doi:10.1073/PNAS.1110633108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989. Wikidata Q24614721.
  2. ^ Archibald JM (January 2009). "The puzzle of plastid evolution". Current Biology. 19 (2): R81-8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.067. PMID 19174147. S2CID 51989.
  3. ^ Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, Skjaeveland A, Nikolaev SI, Jakobsen KS, Pawlowski J (August 2007). Butler G. (ed.). "Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups". PLOS ONE. 2 (8): e790. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..790B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMC 1949142. PMID 17726520.
  4. ^ Hampl V, Hug L, Leigh JW, Dacks JB, Lang BF, Simpson AG, Roger AJ (March 2009). "Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (10): 3859–64. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3859H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807880106. PMC 2656170. PMID 19237557.
  5. ^ Frommolt R, Werner S, Paulsen H, Goss R, Wilhelm C, Zauner S, et al. (December 2008). "Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (12): 2653–67. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn206. PMID 18799712.
  6. ^ a b Adl SM, Simpson AG, Lane CE, Lukeš J, Bass D, Bowser SS, et al. (September 2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–93. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233.
  7. ^ Baldauf SL (2008). "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 46 (3): 263–273. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08060 (inactive 31 May 2021). S2CID 512766. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-20.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
  8. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology Letters. 6 (3): 342–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060. PMID 20031978.
  9. ^ Dawkins R, Wong Y (2016). Ancestor's Tale. pp. 573–577. ISBN 978-0544859937.
  10. ^ Burki F (May 2014). "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (5): a016147. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147. PMC 3996474. PMID 24789819.
  11. ^ Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015). "A higher level classification of all living organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0119248. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1019248R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. PMC 4418965. PMID 25923521.
  12. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016). "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes". HAL Archives-ouvertes: 1–462.
  13. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (January 2018). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255 (1): 297–357. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3. PMC 5756292. PMID 28875267.
  14. ^ Strassert JF, Jamy M, Mylnikov AP, Tikhonenkov DV, Burki F (April 2019). "New Phylogenomic Analysis of the Enigmatic Phylum Telonemia Further Resolves the Eukaryote Tree of Life". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 36 (4): 757–765. doi:10.1093/molbev/msz012. PMC 6844682. PMID 30668767.