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Bedroom on the Detmold Open-air Museum premises
Bedroom on the Detmold Open-air Museum premises

A bed is an item of furniture that is used as a place to sleep, rest, and relax.[1][2]

Most modern beds consist of a soft, cushioned mattress on a bed frame. The mattress rests either on a solid base, often wood slats, or a sprung base. Many beds include a box spring inner-sprung base, which is a large mattress-sized box containing wood and springs that provide additional support and suspension for the mattress. Beds are available in many sizes, ranging from infant-sized bassinets and cribs, to small beds for a single person or adult, to large queen and king-size beds designed for two people. While most beds are single mattresses on a fixed frame, there are other varieties, such as the murphy bed, which folds into a wall, the sofa bed, which folds out of a sofa, the trundle bed, which is stored under a low, twin-sized bed and can be rolled out to create a larger sleeping area, and the bunk bed, which provides two mattresses on two tiers as well as a ladder to access the upper tier. Temporary beds include the inflatable air mattress and the folding camp cot. Some beds contain neither a padded mattress nor a bed frame, such as the hammock. Other beds are made specifically for animals.

Beds may have a headboard for resting against, and may have side rails and footboards. "Headboard only" beds may incorporate a "dust ruffle", "bed skirt", or "valance sheet" to hide the bed frame. To support the head, a pillow made of a soft, padded material is usually placed on the top of the mattress. Some form of covering blanket is often used to insulate the sleeper, often bed sheets, a quilt, or a duvet, collectively referred to as bedding. Bedding is the removable non-furniture portion of a bed, which enables these components to be washed or aired out.

Etymology

Modern day beds.
Modern day beds.

In Europe, mattresses were stuffed with straw, chaff, animal hair (for instance horsehair, used for its resilience), coarse wool, or down feathers, and stacked, softest topmost. This pile of mattresses, and the sheets, blanket, and pillows, was what early Europeans called a "bed"; it might be packed away during the day (a usage which survives in words like featherbed). The bedframe, even when present, supported the bed, but was not considered part of it.[3]: 674–5 vol1  Later innovations made bedframes more portable, and increased their importance.[3]: 481vol3 : 674vol1 : 675–6 vol1 

History

See also: bed base

Prehistory

In August 2020 scientists reported the discovery of the oldest grass bedding from at least 200,000 years ago, much older than the oldest previously known bedding. They speculate that insect-repellent plants and ash layers, sometimes due to burned older grass beddings, found beneath the bedding have been used for a dirt-free, insulated base and to keep away arthropods.[4][5][6]

Ancient history

Tutankhamun's gilded bed from the 14th century BC, a bier from his tomb, fashioned to resemble the goddess Sekhmet, the fierce lioness who was the protector of the kings in life and death, Cairo Museum
Tutankhamun's gilded bed from the 14th century BC, a bier from his tomb, fashioned to resemble the goddess Sekhmet, the fierce lioness who was the protector of the kings in life and death, Cairo Museum

Early beds were little more than piles of straw or some other natural material (e.g. a heap of palm leaves, animal skins, or dried bracken).[7] An important change was raising them off the ground, to avoid drafts, dirt, and pests.[citation needed] In the Miocene period, lasting from twenty-three to five million years ago, before the emergence of humans, apes began creating beds composed of a sleeping platform including a wooden pillow.[8]

Sub-Saharan Africa

Bedding dated around to 3600 BC was discovered in Sibudu Cave, South Africa.[9] The bedding consists of sedge and other monocotyledons topped with the leaves of Cryptocarya woodii.[9]

Europe

The stone boxes are thought to have held bedding. Skara Brae (occupied 3180 BC to about 2500 BC)
The stone boxes are thought to have held bedding. Skara Brae (occupied 3180 BC to about 2500 BC)

Beds found in a preserved northern Scottish village, which were raised boxes made of stone and likely topped with comfortable fillers, were dated to between 3200 BC and 2200 BC.[10]

The Odyssey, an ancient Greek epic poem, describes the bed of its protagonist, Odysseus, and explains that he crafted the bed for himself and his wife, Penelope, out of a huge olive tree trunk that used to grow on the spot.[11] The poem's presumed author, Homer, also mentions the inlaying of the woodwork of the bed with gold, silver, and ivory.[11]

Ancient Roman mattresses were stuffed with reeds, hay, or wool. Feathers were used towards the end of the Republic, when custom demanded luxury. Small cushions were placed at the head and sometimes at the back. The bedsteads were high and could only be ascended by the help of steps. They were often arranged for two people, and had a board or railing at the back, as well as the raised portion at the head. The counterpanes were sometimes very costly, generally purple embroidered with figures in gold; and rich hangings fell to the ground masking the front. The bedsteads themselves were often of bronze inlaid with silver, and Elagabalus had one of solid silver. In the walls of some houses at Pompeii bed niches are found which were probably closed by curtains or sliding partitions. Ancient Romans had various kinds of beds for repose. These included:

The Greeks and Romans were also having their meals in bed. They would recline on one side and reach out to pick up food from a nearby table.[14]

Near East

The Egyptians had high bedsteads which were ascended by steps, with bolsters or pillows, and curtains to hang around.[15] The elite of Egyptian society such as its pharaohs and queens even had beds made of wood, sometimes gilded. Often there was a head-rest as well, semi-cylindrical and made of stone, wood, or metal.[16] Ancient Assyrians, Medes, and Persians had beds of a similar kind, and frequently decorated their furniture with inlays or appliques of metal, mother-of-pearl, and ivory.

Headrest with two images of the God Bes, c. 1539–1190 BCE, Brooklyn Museum
Headrest with two images of the God Bes, c. 1539–1190 BCE, Brooklyn Museum

The adjacent image showcases a headrest. Headrests like this were used in life to support the head while sleeping. They are also found supporting a mummy's head in the coffin. This headrest perhaps was made specifically for the tomb, since the offering prayer has been inscribed on the supporting column, although the prayer may have been added after the death of the owner.[17]

Medieval history

Medieval Europeans lay on the floor on beds of leaves covered with skins, or in a kind of shallow chest filled with leaves and moss.[citation needed][dubious ] In the early Middle Ages they laid carpets on the floor or on a bench against the wall, placed upon them were mattresses stuffed with feathers, wool, or hair, and used skins as a covering. Curtains were hung from the ceiling or from an iron arm projecting from the wall.[18] They appear to have generally lain naked in bed, wrapping themselves in large linen sheets which were stretched over the cushions.

Southampton Medieval Merchant's House bedroom
Southampton Medieval Merchant's House bedroom

In the 12th century, luxury increased and bedsteads were made of wood much decorated with inlaid, carved, and painted ornamentation. They also used folding beds, which served as couches by day and had cushions covered with silk laid upon leather. At night a linen sheet was spread and pillows placed, while silk-covered skins served as coverlets. The Carolingian manuscripts show metal bedsteads much higher at the head than at the feet, and this shape continued in use until the 13th century in France, many cushions being added to raise the body to a sloping position. In 12th-century manuscripts, the bedsteads appear much richer, with inlays, carving, and painting, and with embroidered coverlets and mattresses in harmony. Curtains were hung above the bed and a small hanging lamp is often shown.[citation needed]

In the 14th century the woodwork became of less importance, generally being entirely covered by hangings of rich materials. Silk, velvet, and even cloth of gold were frequently used. Inventories from the beginning of the 14th century give details of these hangings lined with fur and richly embroidered. It was then that the Four poster bed (also known as a tester bed) made its first appearance, the bed being slung from the ceiling or fastened to the walls, a form which developed later into a room within a room, shut in by double curtains, sometimes even to exclude all drafts. The space between the bed and the wall was called the ruelle, and very intimate friends were received there. The 14th century was also the time when feather beds became highly prized possessions.[18] Beds in aristocratic residences can be distinguished by enclosed curtains, these beds would have mattresses and pillows that were filled with feathers. Sheets were made of linen and blankets of wool. Rails attached to the beds would be for hanging clothes or to hold candles. In less wealthy houses, the bed would be made of three planks and a mattress made of dried heather or fern, they would sleep with a single sheet and an old blanket.[19]

In the 15th century beds became very large, reaching 7 to 8 feet (2.1 to 2.4 m) by 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m). The mattresses were often filled with pea-shucks, straw, or feathers. At this time great personages were in the habit of carrying most of their property about with them, including beds and bed hangings, and for this reason the bedsteads were for the most part mere frameworks to be covered up; but about the beginning of the 16th century bedsteads were made lighter and more decorative, since the lords remained in the same place for longer periods.[citation needed]

Modern history

In the 17th century, which has been called "the century of magnificent beds", the style a la duchesse, with tester and curtains only at the head, replaced the more enclosed beds in France, though they lasted much longer in England. Louis XIV had an enormous number of sumptuous beds, as many as 413 being described in the inventories of his palaces. Some of them had embroideries enriched with pearls, and figures on a silver or golden ground. The great bed at Versailles had crimson velvet curtains on which "The Triumph of Venus" was embroidered. So much gold was used that the velvet scarcely showed.

Napoleon's bed (château de Compiègne)
Napoleon's bed (château de Compiègne)

In the 18th century feather pillows were first used as coverings in Germany, which in the fashions of the bed and the curious etiquette connected with the bedchamber followed France for the most part. The beds were a la duchesse, but in France itself there was great variety both of name and shape. The custom of the "bed of justice" upon which the king of France reclined when he was present in parliament, the princes being seated, the great officials standing, and the lesser officials kneeling, was held to denote the royal power even more than the throne.

Louis XI is credited with its first use and the custom lasted until the end of the monarchy. In the chambre de parade, where the ceremonial bed was placed, certain persons, such as ambassadors or great lords, whom it was desired to honour, were received in a more intimate fashion than the crowd of courtiers. At Versailles women received their friends in their beds, both before and after childbirth, during periods of mourning, and even directly after marriage—in fact in any circumstances which were thought deserving of congratulation or condolence. During the 17th century this curious custom became general, perhaps to avoid the tiresome details of etiquette. Portable beds were used in high society in France until the end of the Ancien Régime. The earliest of which mention has been found belonged to Charles the Bold. They had curtains over a light framework, and were in their way as fine as the stationary beds.

Iron beds appear in the 18th century; the advertisements declare them as free from the insects which sometimes infested wooden bedsteads. Elsewhere, there was also the closed bed with sliding or folding shutters, and in England—where beds were commonly quite simple in form—the four poster was the usual citizen's bed until the middle of the 19th century.

Bed sizes

A 10 feet high ancient bed in National Museum of Bangladesh
A 10 feet high ancient bed in National Museum of Bangladesh

Main article: Bed size

Bed sizes vary considerably around the world, with most countries having their own standards and terminology.

Notable examples

The Great Bed of Ware, one of the largest beds in the world
The Great Bed of Ware, one of the largest beds in the world

One of the largest beds in the world is the Great Bed of Ware, made in about 1580. It is 3.26 metres (10.7 ft) wide, 3.38 metres (11.1 ft) long. The bed is mentioned by Shakespeare in Twelfth Night. It is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. Another bed in the V&A is the Golden Bed created by William Burges in 1879.[20]

In 1882, an Indian Maharajah had a bed made of solid silver. At each corner of the bed there was a life-sized statue of a naked woman holding a fan. When the Maharajah lay on the bed, his weight started a mechanism that made the women wave their fans.[21]

In 1865, a convertible bed in the form of an upright piano was available, which could provide home entertainment while saving space.[22]

Types

See also: Category:Beds

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Lit à la polonaise (Polish style bed),[23] Royal Castle in Warsaw, 18th century.
Lit à la polonaise (Polish style bed),[23] Royal Castle in Warsaw, 18th century.
Patent #322,177, on 14 July 1885 issued to Sarah E. Goode for a cabinet bed
Patent #322,177, on 14 July 1885 issued to Sarah E. Goode for a cabinet bed
Drawing of a candle-lit mourning bed (Trauergerüst) for abbess Franziska Christine von Pfalz-Sulzbach, 1776
Drawing of a candle-lit mourning bed (Trauergerüst) for abbess Franziska Christine von Pfalz-Sulzbach, 1776
Chinese style beds
Chinese style beds

There are many varieties of beds:

Frames

Main article: Bed frame

Bed frames, also called bed steads, are made of wood or metal. The frame is made up of head, foot, and side rails. For heavy duty or larger frames (such as for queen- and king-sized beds), the bed frame also includes a center support rail. The rails are assembled to create a box for the mattress or mattress/box spring to sit on.

Types include:

Although not truly parts of a bed frame, headboards, footboards, and bed rails can be included in the definition. Headboards and footboards can be wood or metal. They can be stained, painted, or covered in fabric or leather.

Bed rails are made of wood or metal and are attached to a headboard and footboard. Wooden slats are placed perpendicular to the bed rails to support the mattress/mattress box spring. Bed rails and frames are often attached to the bed post using knock-down fittings.[25][26] A knock-down fitting enables the bed to be easily dismantled for removal. Primary knock-down fittings for bed rails are as follows:

Safety rails, or cot sides, can be added to the sides of a bed (normally a child or elderly person's bed) to stop anyone falling out of the sides of the bed.[27] A safety rail is normally a piece of wood that attaches to the side rails, on one or both sides of the bed. They are made so that they can be easily removed when no longer required.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bed". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  2. ^ "Bed". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  3. ^ a b Dictionnaire de l'ameublement et de la décoration depuis le XIIIe siècle jusqu'à nos jours, Havard, Henry, 1838-1921
  4. ^ "200,000 years ago, humans preferred to sleep in beds". phys.org. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  5. ^ "The oldest known grass beds from 200,000 years ago included insect repellents". Science News. 13 August 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  6. ^ Wadley, Lyn; Esteban, Irene; Peña, Paloma de la; Wojcieszak, Marine; Stratford, Dominic; Lennox, Sandra; d'Errico, Francesco; Rosso, Daniela Eugenia; Orange, François; Backwell, Lucinda; Sievers, Christine (14 August 2020). "Fire and grass-bedding construction 200 thousand years ago at Border Cave, South Africa". Science. 369 (6505): 863–866. Bibcode:2020Sci...369..863W. doi:10.1126/science.abc7239. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 32792402. S2CID 221113832. Archived from the original on 6 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  7. ^ Miller, Scott (14 June 2011). The President and the Assassin: McKinley, Terror, and Empire at the Dawn of the American Century. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-679-60498-3. Archived from the original on 3 June 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  8. ^ "Chimpanzees Make Beds That Offer Them Best Night's Sleep". National Geographic News. 18 April 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b Wadley L, Sievers C, Bamford M, Goldberg P, Berna F, Miller C. (2011). Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa Archived 29 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Science 9 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6061 pp. 1388-1391
  10. ^ "Skara Brae – The Furniture". orkneyjar.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  11. ^ a b Grethlein, Jonas (12 March 2020). "Odysseus and His Bed: From Significant Objects to Thing Theory in Homer". The Classical Quarterly. 69 (2): 467–482. doi:10.1017/S0009838820000063. S2CID 216372888. Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  12. ^ Chambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728). "Bed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1st ed.). James and John Knapton, et al. p. 94.
  13. ^ "BED". History of Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  14. ^ "13 facts about the history of the bed". Archived from the original on 13 July 2019.
  15. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1910). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. At the University Press.
  16. ^ Smardzewski, Jerzy (18 June 2015). Furniture Design. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-19533-9. Archived from the original on 3 June 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  17. ^ "Headrest with Two Images of the God Bes". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
  18. ^ a b "Medieval Furniture & Home Decor". furniturestyles.net. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  19. ^ Mortimer, Ian (2009). The Time Traveller's Guide to Medieval England: A Handbook for Visitors to the Fourteenth Century. London: Vintage. pp. 160–161, 165. ISBN 9781845950996.
  20. ^ "The Golden Bed". Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  21. ^ Independent (24 September 2015). "India's royal riches: The maharajas' opulent lifestyle". Independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  22. ^ Brooklyn Museum. "Decorative Arts: Convertible Bed in Form of Upright Piano". Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  23. ^ (in English) "Bed (Lit à la Polonaise)". getty.edu. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
  24. ^ "Captain's bed". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  25. ^ "Historical Guide: Bed Hardware". whitechapel-ltd.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2006.
  26. ^ "Bed Rail Fastener Options". home-improvement-and-financing.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  27. ^ "Bed Safety Rails". sleepcompare.com. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.