Comune di Bressanone
|Coordinates: 46°43′N 11°39′E / 46.717°N 11.650°E|
|Province||South Tyrol (BZ)|
|• Mayor||Peter Brunner (SVP)|
|• Total||84.86 km2 (32.76 sq mi)|
|Elevation||560 m (1,840 ft)|
(31 December 2020)
|• Density||270/km2 (690/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Saint Albuin|
|Saint day||February 2|
Brixen (German: [ˈbrɪksn̩] (listen), locally [ˈb̥ʀɪksn̩]; Italian: Bressanone [bressaˈnoːne]; Ladin: Porsenù or Persenon)[pronunciation?] is a town in South Tyrol, northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano.
Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, with a population of nearly twenty-three thousand. It is located at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers, and today it is the capital of the Eisack district community.
The Brenner Pass, on the Italian-Austrian border, is 45 km to the north of Brixen, and Bolzano lies 40 km to the south. To the east lies the Plose mountain massif with three peaks, the closest of which being the Telegraph peak (Monte Telegrafo) (2,486m), formally known as Fröllspitze. On the western side, there is the Königsangerspitze mountain (Monte Pascolo) (2,439m) and the Pfeffersberg slope (Monteponente), both of which are located within the Sartnal Alps.
Brixen is especially known for its skiing, with a major ski resort, the Plose.
Brixen is made up of about 22 smaller villages and hamlets called Frazioni. They include: Afers/Eores, Albeins/Albes, Elvas, Gereuth/Caredo, Karnol/Cornale, Klerant/Cleran, Kranebitt/Costa d'Elvas, Mahr/Elvas La Mara, Mairdorf/Villa, Mellaun/Meluno, Milland/Millan, Pairdorf/Perara, Pinzagen/Pinzago, Plabach/Rivapiana, Rutzenberg/Monte Ruzzo, Sarns/Sarnes, St. Andrä/Sant'Andrea, St. Leonhard/San Leonardo, Tils/Tiles, Tötschling/Tecelinga, Tschötsch/Scezze, and Untereben.
The area of Brixen has been settled since the Upper Paleolithic (8th millennium BC). Other settlements from the late Stone Age have been found and in 15 BC, the area was conquered by the Romans, who had their main settlement in the nearby Säben (Sabiona). They held it until around 590, when it was occupied by Bavarians.
The first mention of Brixen dates to 901 in a document issued by the King of Germany, Louis III the Child, in which the farm of Prihsna was presented to Bishop Zacharias of Säben. As time passed, 'Prihsna' turned into the current name of Brixen. The bishops moved here from Säben in 992, after the cathedral had been finished.
In 1048, the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo, was made pontiff as Pope Damasus II by emperor Henry III. His reign was especially short, lasting only 23 days before dying. Rumours circulated that Poppo had been poisoned by Gerhard Brazutus, an ally to both Pope Benedict IX, whom Poppo had just dethroned, and to be Pope Gregory VII. These claims have not proven to be substantial and a modern conjecture suggests he died of malaria.
On 15 June 1080, at the request of Henry III, the synod of Brixen condemned Pope Gregory VII over the Investiture Controversy, a conflict during the 11th and 12th century over the ability to appoint bishops.
In 1115, a first line of walls encircling Brixen was completed. In 1174, and later again in 1234 and 1445, Brixen was devastated by fires.
During the German mediatisation in 1802, Brixen was awarded to the Austrian Empire, only to be ceded to the Bavarians in 1805 after the Austrians suffered a great loss to Naploen and his Allies at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Bavarians set up the District Court of Brixen, a regional judicial and administrative court for South Tyrol. The court only lasted nine years before in 1814, the Congress of Vienna returned Brixen to the Austrians.
Some time between 1851 and 1855, the Czech journalist and writer Karel Havlíček Borovský was exiled to Brixen by the Austrian government.
In 1866, after the Austro-Prussian War, the Austrians were on the verge of collapse. So in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Compromise was arranged, Austria was to became Cisleithania, a constituent of Austria-Hungary, of which Brixen was now a part of too.
In 1915, the Treaty of London was concluded, its objective would be, in part, to entice Italy to join the Triple Entente. One section, Article 4, promised the Italians the Austrian territory of South Tyrol, in order to create a new Italian-Austrian frontier. In 1919, after the victories of the allies, Brixen, according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, had officially fallen to Italy along with the rest of South Tyrol.
Under Mussolini, Brixen and the surrounding villages experienced an enormous growth, as part of the fascist effort to consolidate territorial subdivisions in the country. In 1928 this included the addition of Milland, Sarns, and Albeins, as well as Elvas and Kranebitt which were annexed from Natz, a neighbouring municipality.
During WW2, the Austrians attempted to reclaim South Tyrol but were unsuccessful.
After the war, Austria deemed the post-war treaty to be unsatisfactory, raising The South Tyrolean Question (Die Südtirolfrage). The Austrians believed, along with the South Tyroleans, that the region should be autonomous to protect minorities. South Tyrol has 69.4% native German speaking population, and a 4.5% native Ladin speaking population, with the two languages making up a majority in 111 out of the 116 municipalities in South Tyrol.
In 1972 South Tyrol, as a part of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, was granted autonomy.
The oldest coat of arms dates back to 1297 with the lamb, known then from 1304 as a symbol of the lamb. On 13 November 1928, a shield with the city walls and a gate on the lawn in the upper half and the lamb in the lower was adopted. The emblem is a turned argent lamb with an or halo on a gules background; the right foreleg supports a flag with a gules cross. The emblem was granted in 1966.
Outside the city is Rodeneck Castle, one of the most powerful of its time. It has precious frescoes from the early 13th century. Also important are Reifenstein Castle and Trostburg Castle in Waidbruck. In the latter lived the adventurer and minstrel Oswald von Wolkenstein.
According to the 2011 census, the majority of the population speaks German as first language (72.82%). The remainder of the inhabitants speak Italian and Ladin as first languages, with percentages of 25.84% and 1.34%, respectively.
The rock band, Frei.Wild, has its origin in Brixen.
Brixen has a railway station on the Brenner Railway, which connects the town to Verona and Innsbruck. It has an individual fare structure for public transport within the Tirol-Südtirol zone.
(D for Germany, A for Austria)
On 11 December 2016, ÖBB took over Deutsche Bahn's night trains. The Munich-Milan service was withdrawn.
By road, the town has two exits on the Brenner Autobahn that connects Brixen to the Brenner Pass.
Brixen is twinned with: