Brixen
Bressanone
Brixen  (German)
Porsenù/Persenon  (Ladin)
Gemeinde Brixen
Comune di Bressanone
Location of Brixen
Bressanone
Brixen Bressanone
Brixen
Bressanone
Location of Brixen
Bressanone in Italy
Brixen Bressanone
Brixen
Bressanone
Brixen
Bressanone (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol)
Coordinates: 46°43′N 11°39′E / 46.717°N 11.650°E / 46.717; 11.650Coordinates: 46°43′N 11°39′E / 46.717°N 11.650°E / 46.717; 11.650
CountryItaly
RegionTrentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
ProvinceSouth Tyrol (BZ)
Frazionisee list
Government
 • MayorPeter Brunner (SVP)
Area
 • Total84.86 km2 (32.76 sq mi)
Elevation
560 m (1,840 ft)
Population
 (31 August 2015)[2]
 • Total21,416
 • Density250/km2 (650/sq mi)
DemonymsGerman: Brixner
Italian: brissinesi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
39042
Dialing code0472
Patron saintSaint Albuin
Saint Ingenuin
Saint dayFebruary 2
WebsiteOfficial website

Brixen (German pronunciation: [ˈbrɪksn̩]; Italian: Bressanone [bressaˈnoːne]; Ladin: Porsenù or Persenon)[pronunciation?] is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano.

Geography

First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and cultural capital of the valley. It is located at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano and 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of the Brenner Pass, on the Italy-Austrian border. It is flanked on the eastern side by the Plose and Telegraph (Monte Telegrafo) mountains (2,504 m) and on the western side by the Königsanger (Monte Pascolo) (2,436 m) mountain.

Brixen is especially known as a major skiing resort (the Plose). Other activities include hydroelectric power, orchards, and vineyards.

Frazioni

Frazioni / incorporated villages: Afers (Eores), Albeins (Albes), Elvas, Gereuth, Karnol, Klerant (Cleran), Kranebitt (Costa d'Elvas), Mahr (La Mara), Mairdorf, Mellaun (Meluno), Milland, Pairdorf (Perara), Pinzagen (Pinzago), Plabach, Rutzenberg, St. Andrä (S.Andrea), St. Leonhard (S.Leonardo), Sarns (Sarnes), Tils (Tiles), Tötschling (Tecelinga), Tschötsch (Scezze), Untereben.

History

Main article: Bishopric of Brixen

The area of Brixen has been settled since the Upper Paleolithic (8th millennium BC). Other settlements from the late Stone Age have been found and in 15 BC, the area was conquered by the Romans, who had their main settlement in the nearby Säben (Sabiona). They held it until around 590, when it was occupied by Bavarians.

Säben Abbey

The first mention of Brixen dates to 901 in a document issued by the King of Germany, Louis III the Child, in it a territory called Prihsna is assigned to Zacharias, bishop of Säben. As time passed, "Prihsna" turned into the current name of Brixen. The bishops moved here from Säben in 992, after the Cathedral had been finished.

In 1039, the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo, was elevated to Pope by emperor Henry III. However his reign lasted for only 23 days. In the same century, Brixen became the seat of an independent ecclesiastical principate which, in the following years, struggled for existence against the neighbouring county of Tyrol. In 1080, the synod of Brixen condemned Pope Gregory VII. In 1115, a first line of walls encircling Brixen was completed.

The bishopric was secularized in 1803 and annexed by the Austrian Empire. Between 1851 and 1855, the Czech journalist and writer Karel Havlíček Borovský was exiled by the Austrian government to Brixen. After the end of World War I, Brixen was annexed by Italy.

Coat-of-arms

The oldest coat of arms dates back to 1297 with the lamb, known then from 1304 as a symbol of the lamb. On 13 November 1928, a shield with the city walls and a gate on the lawn in the upper half and the lamb in the lower was adopted. The emblem is a turned argent lamb with an or halo on a gules background; the right foreleg supports a flag with a gules cross. The emblem was granted in 1966.[3]

Main sights

Outside the city is Rodeneck Castle, one of the most powerful of its time. It has precious frescoes from the early 13th century. Also important are Reifenstein Castle and Trostburg Castle in Waidbruck. In the latter lived the adventurer and minstrel Oswald von Wolkenstein.

Gallery

Society

Cathedral of Brixen.
Cathedral of Brixen.

Linguistic distribution

According to the 2011 census, the majority of the population speaks German as first language (72.82%). The remainder of the inhabitants speak Italian and Ladin as first languages, with percentages of 25.84% and 1.34%, respectively.[7]

Language 2001[8] 2011[7]
German 73.13% 72.82%
Italian 25.65% 25.84%
Ladin 1.23% 1.34%

Culture

St Jacob Church
St Jacob Church

The rock band, Frei.Wild, has its origin in Brixen.

Notable people

Sport

Transport

Brixen railway station
Brixen railway station

Brixen has a railway station on the Brenner Railway, which connects the town to Verona and Innsbruck. It has an individual fare structure for public transport within the Tirol-Südtirol zone.

Italy

Germany/Austria/South Tyrol

(D for Germany, A for Austria)

On 11 December 2016, ÖBB took over Deutsche Bahn's night trains. The Munich-Milan service was withdrawn.

By road, the town has two exits on the Brenner Autobahn that connects Brixen to the Brenner Pass.

Twin towns - sister cities

Brixen is twinned with:[9]

Sports

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ Heraldry of the World: Brixen-Bressanone
  4. ^ "St.-Michaelstor / Weißer Turm - Brixen, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy - Signs of History on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  5. ^ "Glockenspiel Weißer Turm - Brixen, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy - Carillon on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  6. ^ "Brixner 179 - Dezember 2004". Issuu. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  7. ^ a b "Volkszählung 2011/Censimento della popolazione 2011". Astat Info. Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol (38): 6–7. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
  8. ^ Oscar Benvenuto (ed.): "South Tyrol in Figures 2008", Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol, Bozen/Bolzano 2007, p. 16, table 10
  9. ^ "Città gemellate". brixen.it (in Italian). Brixen. Retrieved 2019-12-18.

Further reading

Media related to Brixen at Wikimedia Commons