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A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally. Accounting is a part of the business cluster.[1][2] In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used.[3] Clusters are also important aspects of strategic management.


The term business cluster, also known as an industry cluster, competitive cluster, or Porterian cluster,[4] was introduced and popularized by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990).[5] The importance of economic geography, or more correctly geographical economics, was also brought to attention by Paul Krugman in Geography and Trade (1991).[6] Cluster development has since become a focus for many government programs. The underlying concept, which economists have referred to as agglomeration economies, dates back to 1890, and the work of Alfred Marshall.

Michael Porter claims that clusters have the potential to affect competition in three ways: by increasing the productivity of the companies in the cluster, by driving innovation in the field, and by stimulating new businesses in the field. According to Porter, in the modern global economy, comparative advantage, whereby certain locations have special endowments (i.e., harbor, cheap labor) helping them overcome heavy input costs, has become less relevant. Now, competitive advantage, in which companies make productive use of inputs, requiring continual innovation, is more important.[3] Porter argues that economic activities are embedded in social activities; that 'social glue binds clusters together'.[7] This is supported by recent research showing that particularly in regional and rural areas, significantly more innovation takes place in communities which have stronger inter-personal networks.[8]

Put in another way, a business cluster is a geographical location where enough resources and competences amass reach a critical threshold, giving it a key position in a given economic branch of activity, and with a decisive sustainable competitive advantage over other places, or even a world supremacy in that field (e.g. Silicon Valley and Hollywood).

A cluster is most of the time the result of initiatives, since it implies to convince current competitors to work jointly. The initiative usually comes from the political sphere (e.g. the different Singaporian clusters [9]), but it can also come from the industry itself[10] (e.g. the initiative of Bart J. Groot, the director of Dow Olefinverbund GmbH, a major chemicals complex at the intersection of three Eastern German states (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia after the reunification. The goal was to "encourage coordination among political and administrative officials" of Mitteldeutschland.)[11]


By composition

Following development of the concept of inter organizational networks in Germany and practical development of clusters in the United Kingdom; many perceive there to be four methods by which a cluster can be identified:

It is also expected – particularly in the German model of organizational networks – that interconnected businesses must interact and have firm actions within at least two separate levels of the organizations concerned.

By type of comparative advantage

Several types of business clusters, based on different kinds of knowledge, are recognized:


The process of identifying, defining, and describing a cluster is not standardized. Individual economic consultants and researchers develop their own methodologies. All cluster analysis relies on evaluation of local and regional employment patterns, based on industrial categorizations such as NAICS or the increasingly obsolete SIC codes. Notable databases providing statistical data on clusters and industry agglomeration include:

An alternative to clusters, reflecting the distributed nature of business operations in the wake of globalization, is hubs and nodes.

The Silicon Valley case

In the mid- to late 1990s several successful computer technology related companies emerged in Silicon Valley in California. This led anyone who wished to create a startup company to do so in Silicon Valley. The surge in the number of Silicon Valley startups led to a number of venture capital firms relocating to or expanding their Valley offices. This in turn encouraged more entrepreneurs to locate their startups there.

In other words, venture capitalists (sellers of finance) and dot-com startups (buyers of finance) "clustered" in and around a geographical area.

The cluster effect in the capital market also led to a cluster effect in the labor market. As an increasing number of companies started up in Silicon Valley, programmers, engineers etc. realized that they would find greater job opportunities by moving to Silicon Valley. This concentration of technically skilled people in the valley meant that startups around the country knew that their chances of finding job candidates with the proper skill-sets were higher in the valley, hence giving them added incentive to move there. This in turn led to more high-tech workers moving there. Similar effects have also been found in the Cambridge IT Cluster (UK).[19]

The Digital Media City case

In the late 1990s, the Seoul Metropolitan Government in South Korea developed the Digital Media City (DMC), a 135-acre complex, four miles outside of the city's central business district in the Sangam-dong district. With Seoul's rapidly growing cluster of multi-media, IT, and entertainment industries, the Digital Media City, through its vibrant agglomeration, helped to promote these industries and companies whose core business required use of information, communication, and media technologies. DMC grew and prospered as a global business environment, raising Seoul as an east-Asian hub of commerce. The cluster of its digital media-related, high-tech firms spawned partnerships which in turn leveraged both human and social capital in the area. Eventually, DMC fed the innovation of more than 10,000 small-scale Internet, game, and telecommunication firms located in Seoul.[20]

In development of DMC, the Seoul government leveraged initial funding by private technology partners and developers. It is also provided IT broadband and wireless networks to the area as well as needed infrastructure. The Seoul government even provided tax incentives and favorable land prices for magnet tenants who would attract other firms to the area due to established business relationships and through their presence which would in turn promote DMC as a prime location.[20]

With such a concentration of these entities, Seoul has become a major nexus of high-technology and digital media. It is home to digital media R&D firms across a range of types including cultural media creation, digital media technologies, digital broadcasting centers, technology offices, and entertainment firms. Just outside the DMC complex include international firm affiliates, schools, moderate to low income housing, commercial and convention facilities, entertainment zones, and the city's central rail station.[20] The cohesive connection of industry, cultural centers, infrastructure, and human capital has fostered Seoul as a strong metropolitan economy and South Korea, the Miracle on the Han River, as a storied nation transitioning from a manufacturing to an innovation economy.

Cluster effect

The cluster effect can be more easily perceived in any urban agglomeration, as most kinds of commercial establishments will tend to spontaneously group themselves by category. Shoe shops (or cloth shops), for instance, are rarely isolated from their competition. In fact, it is common to find whole streets of them.

The cluster effect is similar to (but not the same as) the network effect. It is similar in the sense that the price-independent preferences of both the market and its participants are based on each one's perception of the other rather than the market simply being the sum of all its participants actions as is usually the case. Thus, by being an effect greater than the sum of its causes, and as it occurs spontaneously, the cluster effect is a usually cited example of emergence.

Governments and companies often try to use the cluster effect to promote a particular place as good for a certain type of business. For example, the city of Bangalore, India has utilized the cluster effect in order to convince a number of high-tech companies to set up shop there. Similarly, Las Vegas has benefited through the cluster effect of the gambling industry. In France, the national industrial policy includes support for a specific form of business clusters, called "Pôles de Compétitivité", such as Cap Digital. Another good example is the Nano/Microelectronics and Embedded Systems" or in short "mi-Cluster" that was facilitated by "Corallia Cluster Initiative" in Greece. Corallia introduced a bottom-up, 3-phase programme framework for facilitating cluster development, and was short-listed among the final classification (finalists) for the DG REGIO's RegioStars 2009 Awards in the category "Research, Technological Development and Innovation".[21]

Clusters, were proved to boost the innovative activity among firms of the same industry. One of the main causes that might be highlighted is the competition between the companies. Moreover, except of stimulating a favorable conditions for the exchange of ideas, industry-specific regional concentrations, also create a thick labor market input. Hence innovations increase the accumulation of the knowledge in the region which influences on the local internal economies.[22]

The cluster effect does not continue forever though.[23] To sustain cluster performance in the long term, clusters need to manage network openness to business outside the cluster while facilitating strong inter-organisational relationships within the cluster.[24] Its relative influence is also dictated by other market factors such as expected revenue, strength of demand, taxes, competition and politics. In the case of Silicon Valley as stated above for example, increased crowding in the valley led to severe shortage of office and residential space which in turn forced many companies to move to alternative locations such as Austin, Texas and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina even though they would have liked to stay in the valley.

Sometimes cluster strategies still do not produce enough of a positive impact to be justified in certain industries. For instance, in the case of Builders Square, the home improvement retailer could not compete with industry leaders such as Home Depot when it could not realize the same low costs and contracts. As a result, it was presented with an option to form a merger with another home improvement retailer, Hechinger to better improve their business clusters and compete with Home Depot and other industry leaders. However, when it failed to do so, it slowly began to fail and eventually fell into bankruptcy. Although the merger attempted to create geographic clusters to compete with the low costs of other firms, costs were not lowered enough and eventually the plan failed, forcing Hechinger into Chapter 7 liquidation and Builders Square out of the industry.[25][26]

Clusters can also fail if the regional economy does not adapt with the times. In Detroit, when the automotive industry declined, the cluster and the city declined with it. Clusters can fail if they do not use their position to reinvent themselves and move into other industries before the tipping point is reached.[27]

In terms of the level of cluster members' innovation performance this type of a system can be usually characterized by a low level of uptake of different technologies due to the limited contacts that actors have with industrial companies focusing mainly on the same areas of interests.[28]

See also


  1. ^ JANUŠKA, M. Communication as a key factor in Virtual Enterprise paradigm support. In Innovation and Knowledge Management: A Global Competitive Advantage. Kuala Lumpur: International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2011. s. 1-9. ISBN 978-0-9821489-5-2
  2. ^ Porter, Michael E. (25 July 2016). "Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy". Economic Development Quarterly. 14 (1): 15–34. doi:10.1177/089124240001400105. S2CID 46341908.
  3. ^ a b Porter, M. E. 1998, Clusters and the New Economics of Competition, Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec98, Vol. 76 Issue 6, p77,
  4. ^ Term used, for example, by Eleanor Doyle and Connell Fanning in "The Role for Clusters in Irish Economic Development Policy", chapter 16 in Aylward, C. and O'Toole, R. (2007), Perspectives on Irish Productivity: A Selection of Essays by Irish and International Economists, published by Forfás.
  5. ^ Porter, M.E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press. 1–857 pgs.
  6. ^ Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and Trade. MIT Press. 1-142pg.
  7. ^ Porter, Michael (1998). On Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780875847955.
  8. ^ Wear, Andrew (2008). "Innovation and community strength in Provincial Victoria" (PDF). Australasian Journal of Regional Studies. 14 (2): 195.
  9. ^ Porter, M. E., Neo, B. S., & Ketels, C. H. (2010). Remaking Singapore.
  10. ^ Ziafati Bafarasat, A. (2018) “Theorizing” regime theory: A city-regional perspective, Journal of Urban Affairs, 40(3), pp.412-425.
  11. ^ Ketels, Christian H. M.; Fear, Jeffrey (10 August 2006). "Cluster Mobilization in Mitteldeutschland". Harvard Business School Teaching Note.
  12. ^ Porter, M. E., & Bond, G. C. (2004). The California wine cluster. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
  13. ^ Porter, M., Ramirez-Vallejo, J., & van Eenennaam, F. (2011). The Dutch flower cluster.
  14. ^ Saxenian, A., 1994. Regional Advantage. Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Harvard University Press.
  15. ^ Pentland, W. "World's 15 most inventive cities". Forbes. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  16. ^ Van Agtmael, A.; Bakker, F. (2016). The smartest places on earth: Why rustbelts are the emerging hotspots of global innovation. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610398169. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  17. ^ Altenburg, Tilman; Meyer-Stamer, JÖRG (September 1999). "How to Promote Clusters: Policy Experiences from Latin America". World Development. 27 (9): 1693–1713. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(99)00081-9.
  18. ^ Manning, Stephan (1 July 2008). "Customizing Clusters: On the Role of Western Multinational Corporations in the Formation of Science and Engineering Clusters in Emerging Economies". SSRN 1655502. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Huber, F. (1 February 2011). "Do clusters really matter for innovation practices in Information Technology? Questioning the significance of technological knowledge spillovers". Journal of Economic Geography. 12 (1): 107–126. doi:10.1093/jeg/lbq058.
  20. ^ a b c Frenchman, Dennis; Joroff, Michael. "Digital Media City". MIT Center for Real Estate. Archived from the original on 2021-09-17. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  21. ^ "RegioStars Awards 2009: Presentation of finalists". European Commission.
  22. ^ Baten, Jörg; Spadavecchia, Anna; Streb, Jochen; Yin, Shuxi (1 October 2007). "What made southwest German firms innovative around 1900? Assessing the importance of intra- and inter-industry externalities". Oxford Economic Papers. 59 (Supplement 1): i105–i126. doi:10.1093/oep/gpm032.
  23. ^ Eisingerich, A.B.; Boehm, L. (2007). "Group Analysis: Why Some Regional Clusters Work Better Than Others". The MIT Sloan Management Review Journal Report. 3: 1–3. Archived from the original on 2011-11-25.
  24. ^ Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Bell, Simon J.; Tracey, Paul (March 2010). "How can clusters sustain performance? The role of network strength, network openness, and environmental uncertainty". Research Policy. 39 (2): 239–253. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2009.12.007. hdl:10044/1/17881.
  25. ^ Bowie, Liz. "Hechinger merger could bring closings Builders Square in Pa., other states expected to spur consolidation". The Baltimore Sun.
  26. ^ Bowie, Liz. "Hechinger merger decision believed near Some analysts predict Green buyout, union with Builders Square". The Baltimore Sun.
  27. ^ Moretti, Enrico (2012). The New Geography of Jobs. New York, NY: Mariner Books. pp. 149–150. ISBN 9780544028050.
  28. ^ Helman, Joanna (January 2020). "Analysis of the Local Innovation and Entrepreneurial System Structure Towards the 'Wrocław Innovation Ecosystem' Concept Development". Sustainability. 12 (23): 10086. doi:10.3390/su122310086. ISSN 2071-1050.