This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (May 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article contains instructions, advice, or how-to content. The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to train. Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity, Wikibooks or Wikivoyage. (October 2021)

Chemical waste is any excess, unusable, or unwanted chemical, especially those that cause damage to human health or the environment.[1] Chemical waste may be classified as hazardous waste,[2] non-hazardous waste, universal waste, and household hazardous waste.[3] Hazardous waste is a material that displays one or more of four characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. This information, along with disposal requirements, is typically available on the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Chemical waste that is radioactive, radioactive waste, requires special means of handling and disposal. Biohazardous waste, although often chemical, falls into four categories and is handled differently.

Laboratory chemical waste in the US

Chemical waste category that should be followed for proper packaging, labeling, and disposal of chemical waste
Chemical waste category that should be followed for proper packaging, labeling, and disposal of chemical waste

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prohibits disposing of certain materials down drains.[4] Therefore, when hazardous chemical waste is generated in a laboratory setting, it is usually stored on-site in an appropriate waste carboy where it is later collected and disposed of by a specialist contractor in order to meet safety, health, and legislative requirements. For example, many university's Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) divisions/departments serve the collection and oversight role.[5][6][7][8]

Organic solvents and other organic waste is typically incinerated.[9][10][11][12] Some chemical wastes are recycled, such as waste elemental mercury.[13]

Laboratory waste containers

Laboratory waste containers
Laboratory waste containers

Packaging, labeling, and storage are the three requirements for disposing of chemical waste. (These guidelines are not applicable to biohazardous waste and radioactive waste).

Packaging

For packaging, chemical liquid waste containers should only be filled up to 75% capacity to allow for vapor expansion and to reduce potential spills which could occur from moving overfilled containers. Container material must be compatible with the stored hazardous waste.

In addition to the general packaging requirements mentioned above, incompatible materials should never be mixed in a single container (see below). Precipitates, solids, or other non-fluid wastes are typically stored separate from liquid waste.[14]

Labeling

All containers should be labeled with the group name from the chemical waste category and an itemized list of the contents. All chemicals or anything contaminated with chemicals pose a significant hazard. All waste must be appropriately packaged.[15]

Storage

When storing chemical wastes, the containers must be in good condition and should remain closed unless waste is being added. The container should be sturdy and leak-proof and must be labeled.[16] All liquid waste must be stored in leak-proof containers with a screw-top or other secure lid, not parafilm or other loose-fitting lids that can become dislodged in transit. A secondary containment (e.g., flammable cabinet or large plastic bin, etc.) should be used to capture spills and leaks from the primary container and segregate incompatible hazardous wastes, such as acids and bases.

Chemical compatibility guidelines

Main article: Compatibility (chemical)

Many chemicals may react adversely when combined. It is recommended that incompatible chemicals be stored in separate areas of the lab.[17][18]

Acids should be separated from alkalis, metals, cyanides, sulfides, azides phosphides, and oxidizers, as when acids combine with these types of compounds, violent exothermic reactions can occur possibly causing flammable gas, and in some cases explosions.

Oxidizers should be separated from acids, organic materials, metals, reducing agents, and ammonia, as when oxidizers combine with these types of compounds, flammable and sometimes toxic compounds can be created.

[19]

Environmental pollution

Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals comprise one of the few groups of chemicals that are specifically designed to act on living cells, which presents a special risk when they enter, persist and are dispersed into the environment.

With exception for downstream sewage treatment plants, the concentration of pharmaceuticals in water is probably extremely low. However, the effect that the chronic exposure to environmental pharmaceuticals chemicals adds to the effects of other chemicals in the cocktail is still not studied. The different chemicals might be potentiating synergistic effects (1+1=3). An extremely sensitive group in this respect are foetuses.

EPPPs are already found in water all over the world. The diffuse exposure might contribute to

  • extinction of species and imbalance of sensible ecosystems, as many EPPPs affect the reproductive systems of for example frogs, fish and mussels;[medical citation needed]
  • genetic, developmental, immune and hormonal health effects to humans and other species, in the same way as e.g. oestrogen-like chemicals;[medical citation needed]
  • development of microbes resistant to antibiotics, as is found in India.[20]

PPCPs

The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is on the rise with an estimated increase from 2 billion to 3.9 billion annual prescriptions between 1999 and 2009 in the United States alone.[21] PPCPs enter into the environment through individual human activity and as residues from manufacturing, agribusiness, veterinary use, and hospital and community use. In Europe, the input of pharmaceutical residues via domestic waste water is estimated to be around 80% whereas 20% is coming from hospitals.[22] Individuals may add PPCPs to the environment through waste excretion and bathing as well as by directly disposing of unused medications to septic tanks, sewers, or trash. Because PPCPs tend to dissolve relatively easily and do not evaporate at normal temperatures, they often end up in soil and water bodies.

Some PPCPs are broken down or processed easily by a human or animal body and/or degrade quickly in the environment. However, others do not break down or degrade easily. The likelihood or ease with which an individual substance will break down depends on its chemical makeup and the metabolic pathway of the compound.[23]
In 2022, the most comprehensive study of pharmaceutical pollution of the world's rivers finds that it threatens "environmental and/or human health in more than a quarter of the studied locations". It investigated 1,052 sampling sites along 258 rivers in 104 countries, representing the river pollution of 470 million people. It found that "the most contaminated sites were in low- to middle-income countries and were associated with areas with poor wastewater and waste management infrastructure and pharmaceutical manufacturing" and lists the most frequently detected and concentrated pharmaceuticals.[24][25]

River pollution

Pharmaceutical pollution of the world's rivers by chemical and region
Pharmaceutical pollution of the world's rivers by chemical and region

Textile industry

See also: Sustainable fashion, Supply Chain Act, Eco-tariff, and Environmental impact of fashion

Indigo color water pollution in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2005[better source needed]
Indigo color water pollution in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2005[better source needed]

The textile industry is one of the largest polluters in the globalized world of mostly free market dominated socioeconomic systems. Chemically polluted textile wastewater degrades the quality of the soil and water.[26] The pollution comes from the type of conduct of chemical treatments used e.g., in pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations[27] that many or most market-driven companies use despite "eco-friendly alternatives". Textile industry wastewater (TIWW) is considered to be one the largest polluters of water and soil ecosystems, causing e.g., "carcinogenic, mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and allergenic threats to living organisms".[28][29] The textile industry uses over 8000 chemicals in its supply chain,[30] also pollutes the environment with large amounts of microplastics[31] and has been identified in one review as the biggest pollution causing production sector.[32]

A campaign of big clothing brands like Nike, Adidas and Puma to voluntarily reform their manufacturing supply chains to commit to achieve zero discharges of hazardous chemicals by 2020 (global goal)[33][34] appears to have failed.


Textile industry also creates a lot of pollution that leads to externalities which causes big problems in the economy. The problem usually occurs when there is no division of ownership rights. This means that problem of pollution is mainly caused because of lacking information about which company pollutes and at what scale the damage was caused by the pollution.

Planetary boundary

A study by "Scienmag" defines a 'planetary boundary' for novel entities such as plastic and chemical pollution. The study reported that the boundary has been crossed.[35][36]

[37]

Regulation of chemical waste

Chemical waste may fall under regulation such as COSHH in the United Kingdom or the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as state and local regulations, also regulate chemical use and disposal.[38]

Chemical waste in Canadian aquaculture

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Chemical waste" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Chemical waste in oceans is becoming a major issue for marine life. There have been many studies conducted to try and prove the effects of chemicals in our oceans. In Canada, many of the studies concentrated on the Atlantic provinces, where fishing and aquaculture are an important part of the economy. In New Brunswick, a study was done on the sea urchin in an attempt to identify the effects of toxic and chemical waste on life beneath the ocean, specifically the waste from salmon farms. Sea urchins were used to check the levels of metals in the environment. It is advantageous to use green sea urchins because they are widely distributed, abundant in many locations, and easily accessible. By investigating the concentrations of metals in the green sea urchins, the impacts of chemicals from salmon aquaculture activity could be assessed and detected. Samples were taken at 25-metre intervals along a transect in the direction of the main tidal flow. The study found that there were impacts to at least 75 meters based on the intestine metal concentrations.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Chemical Waste−an overview". Science Direct. Elsevier. Retrieved 2021-07-06.
  2. ^ US EPA, OLEM (2015-07-23). "Hazardous Waste". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  3. ^ US EPA, OLEM (2015-11-25). "Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  4. ^ "Chemicals and Toxics Topics". www.epa.gov. 2016-11-17. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  5. ^ "Chemical Waste Management Guide | Environmental Health & Safety". www.bu.edu. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  6. ^ "Hazardous Waste Pick-Ups". Environment, Health & Safety. 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  7. ^ "Exploring Whether Chemical Management Services are a Potential Mechanism to Facilitate the Reduction, Reuse and Recycling of Chemicals in Educational Institutions" (PDF). EPA Archive document. August 29, 2022.
  8. ^ Magriotis, Zuy; Saczk, Adelir; Salgado, Hélvia; Rosa, Isael (2021-07-30). "Chemical Waste Management in Educational Institutions". Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development. 4 (1): 160–176. doi:10.7454/jessd.v4i1.1064. ISSN 2655-6847. S2CID 238922945.
  9. ^ "New hazardous waste incinerator comes online". cen.acs.org. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  10. ^ "Hazardous Waste Management Facilities and Units". www.epa.gov. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  11. ^ Shibamoto, T; Yasuhara, A; Katami, T (2007). "Dioxin formation from waste incineration". Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 190: 1–41. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-36903-7_1. ISBN 978-0-387-36900-6. PMID 17432330.
  12. ^ "Waste incineration". Summaries of EU Legislation. Luxembourg: European Union. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  13. ^ pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1196u/Circ_1196_U.pdf
  14. ^ "General Requirements". Environmental Health and Safety. University of Toronto. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  15. ^ "8. Management of Waste". Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council (US). 2011. ISBN 978-0-309-21158-1.
  16. ^ "Laboratory Waste Disposal" (PDF). University of Wisconsin. 2007.
  17. ^ "Chemical Storage Resources". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  18. ^ "Chemical Compatibility and Segregation Guides". Waste Disposal. National Institutes of Health (US). Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  19. ^ "How to Store and Dispose of Hazardous Chemical Waste". Research Safety. University of California at San Diego. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  20. ^ Kristiansson, Erik; Fick, Jerker; Janzon, Anders; Grabic, Roman; Rutgersson, Carolin; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Söderström, Hanna; Larsson, D. G. Joakim (2011). Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco (ed.). "Pyrosequencing of Antibiotic-Contaminated River Sediments Reveals High Levels of Resistance and Gene Transfer Elements". PLOS ONE. 6 (2): e17038. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617038K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017038. PMC 3040208. PMID 21359229.
  21. ^ Tong AY, Peake BM, Braund R (January 2011). "Disposal practices for unused medications around the world". Environment International. 37 (1): 292–8. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.10.002. PMID 20970194.
  22. ^ EU project report summary "Pharmaceutical Input and Elimination from Local Sources", 2012
  23. ^ "Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  24. ^ "Pharmaceuticals in rivers threaten world health - study". BBC News. 15 February 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  25. ^ Wilkinson, John L.; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; et al. (14 February 2022). "Pharmaceutical pollution of the world's rivers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (8). doi:10.1073/pnas.2113947119. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 35165193.
  26. ^ Pattnaik, Punyasloka; Dangayach, G. S.; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh Kumar (1 June 2018). "A review on the sustainability of textile industries wastewater with and without treatment methodologies". Reviews on Environmental Health. 33 (2): 163–203. doi:10.1515/reveh-2018-0013. ISSN 2191-0308. PMID 29858909. S2CID 44084197.
  27. ^ Madhav, Sughosh; Ahamad, Arif; Singh, Pardeep; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar (March 2018). "A review of textile industry: Wet processing, environmental impacts, and effluent treatment methods". Environmental Quality Management. 27 (3): 31–41. doi:10.1002/tqem.21538.
  28. ^ Kishor, Roop; Purchase, Diane; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando Romanholo; Bilal, Muhammad; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh (1 April 2021). "Ecotoxicological and health concerns of persistent coloring pollutants of textile industry wastewater and treatment approaches for environmental safety" (PDF). Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 9 (2): 105012. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2020.105012. ISSN 2213-3437. S2CID 233532794.
  29. ^ Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Mohammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ashraf, Moneeb; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra (28 February 2018). "Association of textile industry effluent with mutagenicity and its toxic health implications upon acute and sub-chronic exposure". Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 190 (3): 179. doi:10.1007/s10661-018-6569-7. ISSN 1573-2959. PMID 29492685. S2CID 3710964.
  30. ^ Nimkar, Ullhas (1 February 2018). "Sustainable chemistry: A solution to the textile industry in a developing world". Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry. 9: 13–17. doi:10.1016/j.cogsc.2017.11.002. ISSN 2452-2236.
  31. ^ Xu, Xia; Hou, Qingtong; Xue, Yingang; Jian, Yun; Wang, LiPing (20 November 2018). "Pollution characteristics and fate of microfibers in the wastewater from textile dyeing wastewater treatment plant". Water Science and Technology. 78 (10): 2046–2054. doi:10.2166/wst.2018.476. ISSN 0273-1223. PMID 30629532. S2CID 58649372.
  32. ^ Behera, Meerambika; Nayak, Jayato; Banerjee, Shirsendu; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Tripathy, Suraj K. (1 August 2021). "A review on the treatment of textile industry waste effluents towards the development of efficient mitigation strategy: An integrated system design approach". Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 9 (4): 105277. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2021.105277. ISSN 2213-3437. S2CID 233901225.
  33. ^ "Destination Zero: seven years of Detoxing the clothing industry" (PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  34. ^ "Greenpeace Calls Out Nike, Adidas and Puma for Toxic Clothing". Reuters. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  35. ^ "Chemical pollution has passed safe limit for humanity, say scientists". The Guardian. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  36. ^ Persson, Linn; Carney Almroth, Bethanie M.; Collins, Christopher D.; Cornell, Sarah; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Diamond, Miriam L.; Fantke, Peter; Hassellöv, Martin; MacLeod, Matthew; Ryberg, Morten W.; Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter; Villarrubia-Gómez, Patricia; Wang, Zhanyun; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky (1 February 2022). "Outside the Safe Operating Space of the Planetary Boundary for Novel Entities". Environmental Science & Technology. 56 (3): 1510–1521. Bibcode:2022EnST...56.1510P. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c04158. ISSN 0013-936X. PMC 8811958. PMID 35038861.
  37. ^ "Procedures for Laboratory Chemical Waste Disposal" (PDF). St. John's, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  38. ^ Hallam, Bill (April–May 2010). "Techniques for Efficient Hazardous Chemicals Handling and Disposal". Pollution Equipment News. p. 13. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2016.

Further reading