CityLink

Aerial perspective of the ramp going onto the M2. March 2019.jpg
Western Link at the Footscray Road interchange, West Melbourne on 1 March 2019
CityLink is located in Melbourne
Northwest end
Northwest end
Southeast end
Southeast end
Coordinates
General information
TypeFreeway
LocationMelbourne
Length21 km (13 mi)
Opened1999
Maintained byTransurban Limited
Route number(s)
  • (2018-present)
    (Western Link)
  • (1999-present)
    (Southern Link)
Former
route number
  • Metro Route 43 (1999-2018)
    (Western Link)
  • National Route 79 (1970-2013)
    (Western Link, Strathmore-Travancore)
Major junctions
Western Link
North end Tullamarine Freeway
Strathmore, Melbourne
 
South end West Gate Freeway
Port Melbourne, Melbourne
Southern Link
West end West Gate Freeway
Southbank, Melbourne
 
East end Monash Freeway
Kooyong, Melbourne
Highway system

CityLink is a network of tollways in Melbourne, Australia, linking the Tullamarine, West Gate and Monash Freeways and incorporating Bolte Bridge, Burnley Tunnel and other works. In 1996, Transurban was awarded the contract to augment two existing freeways and construct two new toll roads – labelled the Western and Southern Links– directly linking a number of existing freeways to provide a continuous, high-capacity road route to, and around, the central business district. CityLink uses a free-flow tolling electronic toll collection system, called e-TAG. CityLink is currently maintained by Lendlease Services.

History

The first mention of a southern and western inner city bypass was in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan. The plan advocated for reservations and set aside sinking funds for the new inner city freeway system. It was one of the few freeways connecting to the inner city (along with the Eastern Freeway to Clifton Hill) which was not later abandoned.

The proposal to build CityLink was first announced in May 1992 and received the State Government's formal approval in mid-1994. The contract was awarded in 1995 to a consortium of Australia's Transfield Holdings and Japan's Obayashi Corporation, named Transurban Consortium.[1] Transurban was formed in March 1996 to operate CityLink when completed.[2] The total value of the project was estimated in 1996 at about $1.8 billion, and the concession to operate the road was initially due to expire in 2034.[3] This concession has since been extended, and is now due to expire in 2045.[4]

CityLink was built by the Transfield Obayashi joint venture under contract to Transurban between 1996 and 2000. The design and construction of the Western Link was subcontracted to Baulderstone Hornibrook, and the supply of the electronic tolling system was subcontracted to Translink Systems, a company jointly owned by Transfield and Transroute of France. The ongoing operation and maintenance of City Link was subcontracted by Transurban to Translink Operations, also jointly owned by Transfield and Transroute, which would manager the performance of CityLink assets.[5] In May 1999, the operations were reorganised, with Transurban taking over the customer service operations from Translink Operations, who would retain responsibility for management of the tolling system, roadside assistance and maintenance.[6]

The CityLink project was eight times larger than any other road project in Melbourne of that time. Toll plazas for manual tolling were deemed impractical, and delays associated with plaza operations would have decreased the advantages of using the new road. The decision to use only electronic toll collection was made in 1992; at a time when there was little practical experience of such systems.[7] The first of the sections opened to traffic in August 1999, with tolling commencing on 3 January 2000 before final completion occurred on 28 December 2000 with tolling commencing the same year.[8]

When CityLink opened in 1999, the Southern Link was signed as M1 and the Western Link was signed as Metropolitan Route 43. Metropolitan Route 43 previously terminated at the Tullamarine Freeway/Calder Freeway interchange but it was extended along CityLink to end in Port Melbourne. Whilst National Route 79 officially remained part of the Western Link from the opening until 2013 (as the previous Tullamarine Freeway carried this designation from Calder Freeway to Flemington Road), CityLink signage did not show any National Route 79 signage and was exclusively signed as Metropolitan Route 43. With Victoria's conversion to the newer alphanumeric system in the late 1990s, Metropolitan Route 43 slowly began transition to M2 and was finally replaced with M2 in 2018. Despite this, a number of Metropolitan Route 43 shields remain visible to this day.

The passing of the Road Management Act 2004[9] granted the responsibility of overall management and development of Victoria's major arterial roads to VicRoads. CityLink is a privately-owned and operated tollway, but in June 2004, VicRoads became responsible for managing the CityLink concession contract and the state's assets (such as physical infrastructure including roads, bridges, tunnels and the tolling system operated by CityLink, due to be transferred to the state at the end of the concession period) under that contract, in an effort to improve the integration of CityLink with the rest of the road network.[10] Later in 2004, it re-declared the Tullamarine Freeway to terminate at Mount Alexander Road (sign-posted as Bulla Road) in Strathmore, south of Essendon Airport:[11] CityLink's Western Link officially begins east of this interchange in Strathmore, and ends with its interchange with West Gate Freeway in Port Melbourne. At the same time, VicRoads also re-declared the West Gate Freeway to terminate at Princes Highway East (today Kings Way) in Southbank, and the Monash Freeway to commence in Kooyong:[11] CityLink's Southern Link officially runs between these two points at Southbank and Kooyong.

Infrastructure

Existing roads

Previously, the city centre was served by three separate freeways:

CityLink saw the linking of all three of these freeways: extending both the South Eastern and Tullamarine Freeways to join the West Gate Freeway. This also subsumed an existing portion of both the South Eastern and Tullamarine Freeways into the new project: while these portions were widened and upgraded, as part of the CityLink project they were also tolled, attracting criticism from road users.

New roads

Western Link

The elevated Western Link extended the existing Tullamarine Freeway, lengthening it to terminate it five kilometres further south at the West Gate Freeway in Port Melbourne, for a total distance of 12.9 km.[12] It included a new major bridge (the Bolte Bridge, named after former Victorian Premier Sir Henry Bolte) over the Yarra River in the Docklands district; a long elevated section over Dudley Flats and Moonee Ponds Creek and a tube-like sound barrier in Flemington where the road passes close to a number of community housing towers. A short distance to the north of the sound tube, a massive sculptural work was placed, called the Melbourne International Gateway, consisting of a giant yellow beam hanging diagonally across the road (nicknamed the "Cheesestick") and a row of smaller red beams alongside the road (the "Zipper", or "rack of lamb"). The existing portion of Tullamarine Freeway between Flemington Road and Bulla Road was subsumed into the Western Link, and was also widened, with a transit lane being added in each direction between Flemington Road and Pascoe Vale Road.

This section of Freeway was originally designated in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F14 Freeway Corridor.

Southern Link

The underground Southern Link directly connects the ends of the West Gate and Monash Freeways into one continuous through-way, for a total distance of 8.0 km.[13] This link comprises the Burnley and Domain Tunnels which pass under the Royal Botanic Gardens and the Yarra River, each tunnel channelling traffic in different directions. The existing portion of South Eastern Freeway between Toorak Road and Batman Avenue was subsumed into the Southern Link, and was also widened.

This section of Freeway was shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F9 Freeway corridor as a surface-level road.

Batman Avenue

The Exhibition Street Extension – not a part of the initial project, as it had been promoted as a bypass that would keep cars out of the CBD[14] – consisted of a new four-lane, divided road extending south from the intersection of Flinders and Exhibition Streets in the CBD and spanning the Jolimont rail yards to connect with Batman Avenue near Melbourne Park Tennis Centre. Construction was managed by VicRoads on behalf of the Department of Infrastructure and began in November 1997, for a total distance of 1.9 km[15] completed to coincide with the opening of CityLink.[16] The alignment of Batman Avenue, previously following the northern bank of the Yarra River north of Swan Street to terminate at Swanston Street just north of Princes Bridge, was re-routed to follow this new road; the route 70 tram, previously using this alignment, was also re-routed to run on a dedicated median behind the Melbourne Park complex and re-join the new road before it crossed the rail lines,[8] commencing along this new route from 7 June 1999.[17] It was officially opened as Batman Avenue on 1 November 1999;[18] the former alignment is now a pedestrianised walking track. Costing $30 million, the access road was built as part of CityLink and therefore attracts tolls.[16]

CityLink–Tulla Widening (2015–2018)

Project overview

New ramp under construction at Bell Street as part of the CityLink Tulla Widening Project (2016)
New ramp under construction at Bell Street as part of the CityLink Tulla Widening Project (2016)

The freeway had extensive upgrades between 2015 and 2018, including the addition of lanes as part of the CityLink Tulla Widening Project.

Original proposal (2014)

The original project was announced in April 2014 by then-Premier Denis Napthine as an unsolicited proposal by Transurban, with Transurban providing the bulk of the funds for the upgrade.[19] The original design would have involved the widening of the entire Western Link of Citylink up to Bulla Road (Stage 1) and the Tullamarine Freeway from Bulla Road to Melrose Drive (Stage 2). In addition, Transurban's tolling concession was extended by a year, to 2035.[20] Work on the original upgrade was expected to commence construction early–mid 2015, and was expected for completion by early–mid 2018.[21] The original project was designed to complement the former East West Link project which was cancelled after Daniel Andrews won government at the State election in November 2014. This led to the original project being postponed, scrapped and modified (with no provisions for the now defunct East West Link).

Final proposal (2015–2018)

In August 2015 a new proposal to widen the Citylink and Tullamarine Freeways was put into action by the recently elected Premier Daniel Andrews. The project consists of two stages which would increase the road's daily capacity as well as shorten trips between Melbourne Airport and the CBD during morning peak and afternoon peak times.[citation needed] The following upgrades started in October 2015 (Stage 1) and May 2016 (Stage 2).[citation needed] The entire project is completed by late 2018.[citation needed]

The upgrade involves the construction of a new lane in each direction from Melbourne Airport to Power Street, upgrades to the Bell Street, Flemington Road, English Street and Mickleham Road intersections, and the creation of a dedicated lane between the Calder and Tullamarine Freeways to Bell Street, to reduce weaving. Speed limits will be lowered on parts of the freeway during construction work, and after construction, as a result of lane narrowing. The project will also install an electronic freeway management system, involving CCTV cameras, a variable speed limit, and electronic message signs.

Controversy has arisen due to the proximity of Strathmore Secondary College to the new ramp at Bell Street.[22] The removal of a tree as part of the Flemington Road intersection upgrade also resulted in public protest.[23]

Stage 1 (Bulla Road to Power Street)

Stage 2 (Melbourne Airport to Bulla Road)

Extra lanes

Part of the upgrade is adding more lanes between Melbourne Airport and the West Gate Freeway. Between the Citylink (Western Link) and the West Gate Freeway, one additional lane in each direction will be added consuming the current emergency lanes as well as lower the current speed limit from 100 km/h down to 80 km/h.

Tolling system

See also: e-TAG

e-TAG toll gantries on the Western Link
e-TAG toll gantries on the Western Link
Directional signage to Southern Link
Directional signage to Southern Link

There are no toll booths along the entire length of the system, so traffic flow is not impeded.

CityLink uses a DSRC toll system called e-TAG, where an electronic transponder is mounted on the inside of vehicles' windscreens. Gantries constructed over each carriageway record registration plates and detect the e-TAGs, and deduct toll amounts automatically from the account linked electronically to each tag. Where a tag is not detected, the vehicle's registration is recorded using an automatic number plate recognition system and checked against a database. For infrequent use of the system one can buy a Daypass – by phone, online, at any Australia Post outlet or at participating service stations. A Daypass can be bought in advance or afterwards (until midnight three days later). If payment has not been made, the vehicle's registered owner will be sent a late toll invoice in the mail, and if the late toll invoice is then not paid a fine will be issued by Civic Compliance Victoria.

In 2018 CityLink tolling accounts were rebranded as Linkt,[24] as part of parent company Transurban combining their existing retail brands.[25]

The concession period held by Transurban is due to end in 2045, after which the ownership of the road will be transferred to the state. It was originally due to end in January 2035, but was extended as part of a deal with Transurban to build the West Gate Tunnel project.[26][4]

Toll points

Multiple toll points are located along the CityLink, with each toll point charging a fixed fee.[27] The CityLink toll points also include the toll point at the Exhibition Street extension (Batman Avenue). The total toll incurred per trip is the smaller of the trip cap or the total price of toll points passed through.

The entry and exit ramps of CityLink (excluding West Gate Freeway) have been constructed in a way that travelling on any section of CityLink will always pass through at least one toll point. The only exception is eastbound travel between Punt Road and Church Street, which does not pass through a toll point and hence does not incur any tolls.[27]

This table is an excerpt from Toll roads in Australia

Toll prices as of 1 July 2022
Toll road Toll section or toll points Maximum toll price per trip Toll increase Toll concessionaire Expiry of toll concession
Cars Motorcycles Light Commercial Vehicles Heavy Commercial Vehicles


CityLink[28] Between Moreland Road and Brunswick Road $2.85 $1.43 $4.56 $8.56[a] Quarterly on 1 January, 1 April, 1 July, and 1 October Transurban 13 January 2045[29][30]
Between Racecourse Road and Dynon Road $2.85 $1.43 $4.56 $8.56[a]
Between Footscray Road and West Gate Freeway
(Bolte Bridge)
$3.57 $1.78 $5.71 $10.71[a]
Batman Avenue north of Olympic Boulevard
(Exhibition Street Extension)
$1.78 $0.89 $2.85 $5.35[a]
Batman Avenue entry south of Olympic Boulevard
(eastbound only)
$1.78 $0.89 $2.85 $5.35[a]
Batman Avenue exit south of Olympic Boulevard
(westbound only)
$4.63 $2.32 $7.41 $13.91[a]
Domain Tunnel
(westbound only)
$6.42 $3.21 $10.27 $19.27[a]
Punt Road exit
(westbound only)
$2.85 $1.43 $4.56 $8.56[a]
Burnley Tunnel
(eastbound only)
$6.42 $3.21 $10.27 $19.26[a]
Between Church Street and Burnley Street
(eastbound only)
$2.85 $1.43 $4.56 $8.56[a]
Between Yarra Boulevard and Toorak Road / Monash Freeway $2.85 $1.43 $4.56 $8.56[a]
Trip cap $10.70 $5.35 $17.12 $32.11[a]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Prices shown are daytime prices. Nighttime prices are two-thirds of daytime prices (night trip cap is $21.41).

Exits and Interchanges

Western Link

LGALocation[11][12][13]km[12][13]miExit[31]DestinationsNotes
Moonee ValleyEssendon Fields–Essendon North–Strathmore tripoint0.00.012 Tullamarine Freeway (M2) – Tullamarine, Melbourne AirportWestern Link's northern terminus: continues north-west as Tullamarine Freeway
Bulla Road (Metro Route 37 south) – Essendon, Moonee Ponds
MorelandStrathmore2.01.211 Pascoe Vale Road (Metro Route 35) – Glenroy, Moonee PondsNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
Pascoe Vale South2.61.6 Bell Street (Metro Route 40) – Coburg, Heidelberg, DoncasterSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
Pascoe Vale South–Brunswick West boundary4.42.710Moreland Road – Coburg, EssendonNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
Brunswick West5.23.2Toll Point
Moreland–Moonee Valley boundaryBrunswick West–Moonee Ponds boundary6.84.29 Brunswick Road (Metro Route 38 east) – Brunswick
Ormond Road (Metro Route 38 west) – Moonee Ponds, Maribyrnong
Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Moonee Valley–Melbourne boundaryTravancoreParkvilleFlemingtonNorth Melbourne quadripoint8.35.27 Flemington Road (Metro Route 60) – Flemington, City
Boundary Road (south) – North Melbourne
Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Flemington–North Melbourne–Kensington tripoint8.65.36 Racecourse Road (Metro Route 83) – Parkville, FlemingtonNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
MelbourneNorth Melbourne–Kensington boundary9.45.8Toll Point
West Melbourne10.46.54 Dynon Road (Metro Route 50) – Footscray, West MelbourneSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
West Melbourne–Docklands boundary116.83 Footscray Road (Metro Route 32) – Footscray, Docklands
West Gate TunnelPort of Melbourne, Werribee, Geelong, Avalon AirportSouthbound exit and northbound entrance, under construction as part of West Gate Tunnel project
Docklands11.77.3Toll Point
Yarra River11.8–
12.3
7.3–
7.6
Bolte Bridge
Port Melbourne12.98.02A
2B
Montague Street (Metro Routes 30/55) – South Melbourne, Docklands
Kings Way (Alt National Route 1) – St Kilda, Frankston
Southbound exit only
Cook Street – Port Melbourne
Salmon Street – Port Melbourne
Northbound entrance to the east only
1 West Gate Freeway (M1/Tourist Drive 2) – Laverton North, SouthbankWestern Link's southern terminus at trumpet interchange; signed as Exits 1E and 1W
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Southern Link

LGALocation[11][12][13]km[12][13]miExit[31]DestinationsNotes
MelbourneSouthbank138.1 West Gate Freeway (M1) – Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Melbourne and Avalon AirportsSouthern Link's western terminus: continues west as West Gate Freeway
W2 Kings Way (Alt National Route 1 south, Metro Route 60 north) – City, St Kilda, DandenongWestbound exit and eastbound entrance only
W1Power StreetCityWestbound and eastbound exit only
Yarra RiverBurnley Tunnel eastbound / Domain Tunnel westbound
14.89.2Toll Point (westbound into Domain Tunnel only)
Melbourne14.99.3E1Batman AvenueCityWestbound exit from and eastbound entrance to Batman Avenue Extension carriageway
Toll Point (westbound exit and eastbound entrance only)
Melbourne–Yarra boundaryMelbourne–Cremorne boundary15.19.4E2 Punt Road (Metro Route 29) – RichmondWestbound exit only, eastbound entrance via Harcourt Parade to Batman Avenue Extension carriageway
Toll Point (westbound exit only)
YarraCremorne–Richmond boundary15.59.6Cremorne Street – CremorneEastbound entrance to Batman Avenue Extension carriageway only
16.110.0Church Street – RichmondEastbound exit from Batman Avenue Extension carriageway only
Richmond16.510.3Toll Point (eastbound on Batman Avenue Extension carriageway only)
17.010.6Toll Point (eastbound out of Burnley Tunnel only)
Burnley17.110.6E3Burnley Street (north) – Richmond
Barkly Avenue (east) – Burnley
Westbound entrance (via Gibdon Street) and eastbound exits only
Batman Avenue Extension eastbound carriageway merges with Burnley Tunnel eastbound carriageway
17.811.1 Yarra Boulevard (Tourist Drive 2) – Richmond, KewWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
18.411.4Toll Point
StonningtonKooyongMalvern boundary21.013.0E4 Toorak Road (Metro Route 26) – Burwood, ToorakSingle-point urban interchange
Monash Freeway (M1) – Chadstone, Dandenong, Narre Warren, PakenhamSouthern Link's eastern terminus, continues southeast as Monash Freeway
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Batman Avenue

Batman Avenue is entirely contained within the City of Melbourne local government area.

Location[15]km[15]miDestinationsNotes
Melbourne CBD0.00.0Exhibition StreetCity, CarltonWestern terminus of road: continues north as Exhibition Street
Flinders Street (Metro Route 30) – Docklands, Richmond
0.10.062Hurstbridge, Mernda, Lilydale, Belgrave, Glen Waverley, Sandringham, Frankston, Pakenham and Cranbourne railway lines
0.40.25Tennis Centre Access RoadAccess to Melbourne Park only
0.60.37Toll Point
1.00.62 Olympic Boulevard (Metro Route 20) – Southbank, BurnleyNo right turn northbound into Olympic Boulevard eastbound
1.91.2Toll Point (at both westbound entrance and eastbound exit)
CityLink (M1) – Kooyong, Chadstone, Narre WarrenEastern terminus of road: continues southeast as Southern Link's Batman Avenue Extension carriageway
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Gallery

Controversies

As part of the development of CityLink, portions of existing roads were subsumed into the CityLink project: while they too were upgraded and expanded, tolling points were also added. Toll charges now apply to the former Monash Freeway between Toorak Road and Punt Road, and the former Tullamarine Freeway south of Bulla Road. Previously public roads, they did not incur tolls to use before.[32]

Some nearby roads were altered to restrict rat runs to stop people using neighbourhood back streets as short cuts to avoid the toll.[33] Some people have viewed this as local councils 'forcing' people to use CityLink.[34]

CityLink account holders can, if they make multiple trips in a day, pay more to use the road than a casual user. A 24-hour Pass, for example, is charged at a flat rate, but an account holder pays per trip. Account holders who make multiple trips in a single day may pay more than a pass customer would. However, CityLink recognises this and account customers can remove their e-TAG device and buy a pass for the day: just like casual customers. However, there is a limit to the number of passes that can be bought each 12 months. This limit applies to account holders and casual users.[35]

The contract between the government and CityLink's owner Transurban has protections for both parties. One of these is the ability for Transurban to make a claim against the state government if the state government does something that reduces the number of cars that could use CityLink. In 2001 Transurban commenced legal proceedings against the State of Victoria over the construction of Wurundjeri Way through the Melbourne Docklands. It was alleged that this 'free' road was competing with CityLink and causing it to earn less revenue.[36] This can potentially also be applied if the capacity of other roads or rail routes parallel to CityLink are expanded,[37][38] however the contract specifically excludes compensation if the metropolitan rail network is extended to Melbourne Airport.[39]

CityLink received negative media coverage when it was wrongly claimed that CityLink account holders' credit card details were stored on Transurban's public webserver and that someone had broken into the system and stolen tens of thousands of customers details. Customer details were stolen, not by an intruder via the web, but by a former employee who had misused access to the secure IT systems.[40]

The two CityLink tunnels have regularly featured as discussion points on talkback radio, firstly for air quality. In the early days of operation, the air quality in the tunnels appeared smoggy. CityLink worked a way around the problem by adjusting the venting system which improved quality and dispersed exhaust fumes more effectively.[41] The second issue was regarding the use of massive quantities of fresh drinking water pumped into the system to stabilise the tunnel environs. After some time, CityLink sought and obtained approval from the State Government to build a water recycling plant which meant they could rely primarily on recycled, and not drinking, water.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Andrew Nette. "CityLink and Nam Theun 2: Infrastructure for private profit" (PDF). terraper.org. Retrieved 17 July 2008.[dead link]
  2. ^ "About Us". Transurban. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  3. ^ Public Accounts and Estimates Committee (October 2006). Report on private investment in public infrastructure (PDF). parliament.vic.gov.au. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-9758189-1-6. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  4. ^ a b Willingham, Richard (20 February 2019). "Government introduces laws to extend CityLink tolls until 2045 to fund West Gate Tunnel". ABC News. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  5. ^ "City Link". Road Traffic Technology. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  6. ^ "City Link operations reorganised". Australian Financial Review. 18 May 1999. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  7. ^ M. G. Lay and K. F. Daley (July 2002). "The Melbourne City Link Project". Transport Policy. 9 (3): 261–267. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00020-3.
  8. ^ a b VicRoads. "Project Overview : CityLink". vicroads.vic.gov.au. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  9. ^ State Government of Victoria. "Road Management Act 2004" (PDF). Government of Victoria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  10. ^ "VicRoads Annual Report 2004-05". VicRoads. Melbourne: Victorian Government Library Service. 23 August 2005. p. 34.
  11. ^ a b c d VicRoads. "VicRoads – Register of Public Roads (Part A) 2015" (PDF). Government of Victoria. pp. 17–8, 43–5, 788. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e Google (26 October 2021). "CityLink (Western link)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e Google (26 October 2021). "CityLink (Southern link)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  14. ^ Public Transport Users Association. "Myth: The purpose of freeways is to bypass congested areas". ptua.org.au. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  15. ^ a b c Google (19 December 2021). "Batman Avenue" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  16. ^ a b "VicRoads Annual Report 1998-99". VicRoads. Melbourne: Victorian Government Library Service. 30 August 1999. p. 27.
  17. ^ "History of Melbourne Trams Routes from 1950 to 2009" (PDF). Yarra Trams. 16 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2017.
  18. ^ "Exhibition Street Extension Opening" (PDF). transurban.com.au. 26 October 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  19. ^ Johnston, Matt; Campbell, James (7 November 2014). "Victorian election 2014: $250m Tullamarine Freeway boom". Herald Sun. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  20. ^ Willingham, Richard (28 April 2014). "Tullamarine Freeway, CityLink to be expanded under $850m plan". The Age. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  21. ^ Cowie, Tom (5 October 2015). "CityLink and Tullamarine Freeway $1.3 billion widening to start". The Age. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  22. ^ "Strathmore school says CityLink Tulla project a risk to health and safety". The Age. 7 February 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  23. ^ Allaoui, Therese; Savino, Natalie (26 July 2016). "Parkville lemon-scented gum tree on Flemington Road set to be chopped down".
  24. ^ "Transurban Linkt brand identity". Behance. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  25. ^ "North East Link Bill 2020 - Research Paper". Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Melbourne toll calculator". Linkt. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  27. ^ "CityLink Pass and Toll Prices for 1 July – 30 September 2022" (PDF). Linkt. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  28. ^ "Transurban - Melbourne". Transurban. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Corporate Report" (PDF). Transurban. 2019. p. 95. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  30. ^ a b As signposted
  31. ^ "ABC Radio 'The World Today' – 'Melbourne drivers object to CityLink' – Wednesday, 14 June". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  32. ^ "Minister of Transport media release – 'Data Shows Improvement in City Link Traffic Flow'". 21 September 2000. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  33. ^ "Inquiry into Managing Transport Congestion by Moonee Valley City Council" (PDF). 4 January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  34. ^ CityLink – Types of Passes Archived 17 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Minister of Transport media release – 'Transurban Claim of $35 Million'". 1 March 2001. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  36. ^ "The Age – 'Tollway buyback would save money and ease traffic'". Melbourne. 3 February 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  37. ^ "The Age – 'Bracks' freeway folly will cost us dearly'". Melbourne. 29 April 2004. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  38. ^ PTUA: Myth: We can’t have airport trains because the Citylink contract forbids it
  39. ^ Transurban – Media release issued 5 Dec 2002 Archived 3 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ CityLink – Tunnel Brochure
  41. ^ CityLink – Using Water Wisely Brochure