Copper(I) fluoride
Unit cell, ball and stick model of copper(I) fluoride
IUPAC name
Copper(I) fluoride
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
Cuprous fluoride
3D model (JSmol)
  • InChI=1S/Cu.FH/h;1H/q+1;/p-1 checkY
  • InChI=1/Cu.FH/h;1H/q+1;/p-1
  • F[Cu]
  • [Cu]F
Molar mass 82.544 g·mol−1
Density 7.1 g cm−3
GHS labelling:
GHS06: ToxicGHS09: Environmental hazard
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Copper(I) chloride
Copper(I) bromide
Copper(I) iodide
Other cations
Silver(I) fluoride
Gold(I) fluoride
Related compounds
Copper(II) fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Copper(I) fluoride or cuprous fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuF. Its existence is uncertain. It was reported in 1933 to have a sphalerite-type crystal structure.[3] Modern textbooks state that CuF is not known,[4] since fluorine is so electronegative that it will always oxidise copper to its +2 oxidation state.[5] Complexes of CuF such as [(Ph3P)3CuF] are, however, known and well characterised.[6]

Synthesis and reactivity

Unlike other copper(I) halides like copper(I) chloride, copper(I) fluoride tends to disproportionate into copper(II) fluoride and copper in a one-to-one ratio at ambient conditions, unless it is stabilised through complexation as in the example of [Cu(N2)F].[7]

2CuF → Cu + CuF2

See also


  1. ^ "Copper Monofluoride - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
  2. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0150". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ Ebert, F.; Woitinek, H. (1933). "Kristallstrukturen von Fluoriden. II. HgF, HgF2, CuF und CuF2". Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 210 (3): 269–272. doi:10.1002/zaac.19332100307.
  4. ^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 737–738. ISBN 978-0-13-175553-6.
  5. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 1183–1185. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  6. ^ Gulliver, D. J.; Levason, W.; Webster, M. (1981). "Coordination Stabilised Copper(I) Fluoride. Crystal and Molecular Structure of Fluorotris(triphenylphosphine)copper(I)·Ethanol (1/2), Cu(PPh3)3F·2EtOH". Inorg. Chim. Acta. 52: 153–159. doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)88590-4.
  7. ^ Francis, Simon G.; Matthews, Steven L.; Poleshchuk, Oleg Kh; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C. (2006-09-25). "N2-Cu-F: A Complex of Dinitrogen and Cuprous Fluoride Characterized by Rotational Spectroscopy". Angewandte Chemie. 118 (38): 6489–6491. doi:10.1002/ange.200601988. PMID 16937427.