This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Darbari Kanada" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Darbari Kanada
ThaatAsavari
Time of dayMidnight
ArohanaS R (M)g, M P (n)d n S'
AvarohanaS' (n)d n P M P (M)g, M R S
VadiR
SamavadiP
SynonymDurbari
Similar

Darbari Kanada, or simply Raga Darbari (pronounced darbāri kānada), is a raga in Carnatic music. It is a janya ragam (derived scale) of 20th Melakarta raga Natabhairavi. Being an ancient raga, its original name is unknown. It is believed to be borrowed into Hindustani classical music by Miyan Tansen, the famous 16th-century composer in emperor Akbar's court. It belongs to the Kanada family. This tradition is reflected in the name itself; Darbar is the Persian derived word in Hindi meaning "court." As the most familiar raga in the Kanada family, it may sometimes also be called Shuddha Kanada or pure Kanada. It belongs to the Asavari thaat.[1] This raag is called raaga Kaanada in Yakshagana Karnataka state dance. It is also sometimes written as Durbari and Durbarikanada.[2]

In Hindustani classical music

In Hindustani music, Darbari follows almost its original style of singing from the Carnatic music. It is a grave raga, played deep into the night, considered to be one of the more difficult to master, and with the potential for profound emotional impact.[3]

Darbari is a very serious raga and hence, slow and elaborate meend and andolan are generally more preferred than light and frivolous ornamentations like murki or khatka. The improvisation of Darbari is done more in the mandra saptak, or lower octave. The ascension of arohana is in the lower and middle octaves. In the avarohana the note Ga (gandhar) komal is used in a slow vibrato (andolan) on this note. Similarly, komal Dha is also used by Andolan. The Andolan of komal Ga and komal Dha add to the gravity of the raga. The association of the notes Ni and Pa sounds pleasing. Its Vadi swara is Re and Samavadi is Pa.

arohana: S R (R)g, (R)g M P d n S'

avarohana: S' d n P M P (M)g, (M)g M (S)R, S

For reference, the set of notes in the Asavari thaat is S R g M P d n, and for Darbari, the role of the komal gandhar is crucial, as is dwelling on the lower komal dhaivat for some time. Other ragas in the Kanada family include Abhogi Kanada, Shahana Kanada, and Adana (Adana is part of the Kanada Raga group).

Important recordings

In Carnatic music

It is an ubhaya vakra sampurna rāgam derived from the 20th melakarta rāgam Natabhairavi.[4] It is an extremely melodious raga. It can create extreme and unparalleled emotional impact.It is said to evoke feeling of sadness,longing and romance to listeners.Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on the notations used):

This scale uses the notes chatusruti rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham.[4]

Compositions in Carnatic music

Film songs

Song Movie Composer Artists
Duniya Bananewale Ziddi (1964 film) S. D. Burman Manna Dey
Mitava Laut Aye Ri Sangeet Samrat Tansen S. N. Tripathi Manna Dey
Ud Ja Bhanwar Maya Kamal Ka Rani Roopmati (1959 film) S. N. Tripathi Manna Dey
Dil Jalta Hai To Jalane De Pahali nazar (1945 film) Anil Biswas (composer) Mukesh (singer)
Nainheen Ko Raah Dikha Prabhu Bhakta Surdas Gyan Dutt Mukesh (singer)
Teri Duniya Mein Dil Lagta Nahin Bawre Nain Roshan (music director) Mukesh (singer)
Woh Mohabbat Woh Wafhayen Noor Jehan (film) Roshan (music director) Mohammed Rafi
Kitna Hasin Hai Mausam Azaad (1955 film) C. Ramchandra Lata Mangeshkar & C. Ramchandra
Daiya Re Daiya Laj Mohe Lage Leader (1964 film) Naushad Asha Bhosle
Duniya Badal Gayi Babul (1950 film) Naushad Talat Mahmood & Shamshad Begum
Guzre Hain Aaj Ishq Men Dil Diya Dard Liya Naushad Mohammed Rafi
Kabhi Dil Dil Se Takarata To Hoga Anokhi Ada (1948 film) Naushad Shamshad Begum
Mohabbat Ki Jhuti Kahani Pe Roye Mughal-e-Azam Naushad Lata Mangeshkar
O Duniya Ke Rakhwale Baiju Bawra (film) Naushad Mohammed Rafi
Sargam Baiju Bawra (film) Naushad Amir Khan (singer)
Tumse Hi Ghar Ghar Kahalaya Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan Sudhir Phadke Mukesh (singer)
Ab Mori Vinti Suno Bhagwaan Taj(1956 film) Hemant Kumar Mohammed Rafi
Ab Kahan Jayen Ham Ujala (film) Shankar–Jaikishan Manna Dey
Ham Tujh Se Muhabbat Kar Ke Awaara Shankar–Jaikishan Mukesh (singer)
Jhanak Jhanak Tori Baje Payeliya Mere Huzoor Shankar–Jaikishan Manna Dey
Koi Matwala Ayaa Mere Dware Love in Tokyo Shankar–Jaikishan Lata Mangeshkar
Tu Pyar Ka Sagar Hai Seema (1955 film) Shankar–Jaikishan Manna Dey & Chorus
Sarfaroshi Ki Tammana Shaheed (1965 film) Prem Dhawan Mohammed Rafi & Manna Dey & Rajendra Mehta
Agar Mujhse Muhobbat Hai Aap Ki Parchhaiyan Madan Mohan (composer) Lata Mangeshkar
Basti Basti Parbat Parbat Railway Platform (film) Madan Mohan (composer) Mohammed Rafi
Main Nigahen Tere Chehare se Aap Ki Parchhaiyan Madan Mohan (composer) Mohammed Rafi
Tere Dar Pe Ayaa Hun Laila Majnu (1976 film) Madan Mohan (composer) Mohammed Rafi
Tuthe Hue Khvabon Ne Madhumati Salil Chowdhury Mohammed Rafi
Raha Gardishon Men Haradam Do Badan Ravi (composer) Mohammed Rafi
Tora Man Darpan Kahalay Kaajal Ravi (composer) Asha Bhosle
Chandi Ki Divar Na Todi Vishwas (film) Kalyanji–Anandji Mukesh (singer)
Tumhe Zindagi Ke Ujale Mubarak Purnima (film) Kalyanji–Anandji Mukesh (singer)
Suhani Chaandni Raaten Hamen Sone Nahin Deti Mukti (1977 film) Laxmikant–Pyarelal Mukesh (singer)
Satyam Shivam Sundaram Satyam Shivam Sundaram Laxmikant–Pyarelal Lata Mangeshkar
Mere Mehboob Shayad Aaj Kuchh Kitne Paas Kitne Door (1976 film) Chand Pardesi Chandrani Mukherjee
Ham Tum Se Juda Ho Ke Ek Sapera Ek Lutera(1965 film) Usha Khanna Mohammed Rafi
Pag Ghoongroo Bandh Meera Naachi Thi Namak Halaal Bappi Lahiri Kishore Kumar
Dekha Hai Pehli Baar Saajan Nadeem–Shravan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam & Alka Yagnik
Bahut Pyaar Karte Hai Saajan Nadeem–Shravan Anuradha Pudwal & S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Shairana Si Hai Zindagi Ki Faza Phir Teri Kahani Yaad Aayee Anu Malik Alka Yagnik
Har Taraf Har Jagah Saaya Anu Malik Shreya Ghoshal, Kunal Ganjawala
Jogi Aaya Black & White (2008 Hindi film) Sukhwinder Singh Sukhwinder Singh & Sadhana Sargam
Tu Jo Nahin Hai to Kuch Bhi Nahin Hai Woh Lamhe... Pritam Glenn John

Language: Malayalam

See also: Malayalam

Song Movie Composer Singer
Aalapanam Ente Sooryaputhrikku Illayaraja K.S. Chitra, K.J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Ariyathe Ariyathe Ravanaprabhu Suresh Peters K.S. Chitra, P. Jayachandran
Aayiram Padasarangal Nadi G. Devarajan K. J. Yesudas
Azhake Amaram Raveendran K.S. Chitra, K.J. Yesudas
Idayaraaga Uncle Bun
Dukhame Pushpanjali M. K. Arjunan K. J. Yesudas
Ponnil Kulichu Ninnu Sallapam Johnson K. S. Chitra, K. J. Yesudas
Thoomanjin Nenchilothungi Samooham K.J. Yesudas
Sindhoorappoo Manassil Gamanam Bichu Thirumala K. S. Chitra, K. J. Yesudas
Shivadam Shivanamam Mazhavillu Mohan Sithara M.G. Sreekumar, K. S. Chithra
Thamara Noolinal Mullavalliyum Thenmavum Ousepachan G. Venugopal, Gayatri Asokan

Language: Tamil

See also: Tamil language

Song Movie Composer Singer
Maravai Puthainthavodu Thiruneelakantar Papanasam Sivan M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar
Mullai Malar Mele Uthama Puthiran G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Azhagu Dheivam Pesum Dheivam K. V. Mahadevan
Chinna Siriya Vannaparavai Kungumam T. M. Soundararajan, S. Janaki
Nee Varavillaiyenil Aadharavedhu Mangaiyar Thilakam Susarla Dakshinamurthi M. Sathyam
Bagavaane Mounam Eno Rambaiyin Kaadhal T. R. Pappa Seerkazhi Govindarajan
Pon Enben Siru Policekaran Magal Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy P. B. Sreenivas, S. Janaki
Naanichivandhana Karnan (1964 film) Thiruchi Loganathan
Vasanthathil Orr Naal Moondru Dheivangal M. S. Viswanathan P. Susheela
Thiruppugazhai Pada Pada Gowri Kalyanam
Kelviyin Nayagane Apoorva Raagangal Vani Jairam
Indha Pachaikillikoru Needhikku Thalaivanangu K. J. Yesudas, S. Varalakshmi
Kanavugale Aayiram T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Maruthamalai Maamaniye Dheivam Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan Madurai Somu
Isaimedaiyil Intha Velayil Ilamai Kaalangal Illayaraja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vidhaitha Vidhai Ethanai Konam Ethanai Parvai Deepan Chakravarthy, B. S. Sasirekha
Kalyana Thennila Mounam Sammadham K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra
Poomaalai Vaangi Vanthaan Sindhu Bhairavi K.J. Yesudas
Agaya Vennilavey Arangetra Velai K.J. Yesudas, Uma Ramanan
Marugo Marugo Sathileelavathi Kamal Haasan, K.S. Chitra
Mannava Mannava Walter Vetrivel Sunandha
Velli Nilave Nandhavana Theru S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Uma Ramanan
Enakku Piditha Paadal (Jonpuri Traces) Julie Ganapathi Vijay Yesudas, Shreya Ghoshal
Aasaigalo Oru Kodi Arthangal Ayiram Shankar–Ganesh S. Janaki
Antha Indira Logame Ponnu Pidichirukku Chandrabose
Pudhu Vellai Mazhai Roja A. R. Rahman Unni Menon, Sujatha Mohan
Kaatre En Vasal Rhythm P. Unnikrishnan, Kavita Krishnamurthy
Kelamal Kaiyile Azhagiya Tamil Magan Sriram Parthasarathy, Saindhavi
Oru Deivam Thantha Poove Kannathil Muthamittal P. Jayachandran, Chinmayi
Thenmerku Paruva Kaatru Karuththamma P. Unnikrishnan, K.S. Chitra, Vikram
Naane Varugiren Ok Kanmani Sathya Prakash, Shashaa Tirupati
Veera Raja Veera (has more of Adana (Raga; also has a little bit of Anandi Kalyan and Hamir) Ponniyin Selvan: II Shankar Mahadevan, K S Chitra & Harini
Atri Thingal Sivappathigaram Vidyasagar Madhu Balakrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Orey Manam Villain (2002 film) Hariharan, Chandana Bala Kalyan
Malaikaatru vanthu Vedham Hariharan, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Nee Kaatru Naan Maram Nilaave Vaa Hariharan, K.S. Chitra
Malare Mounama Karnaa S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Thenamara Thoopukulle Therku Theru Machan Deva
Eppadi Eppadi Indhu
Tajmahale Periya Thambi Hariharan, Anuradha Sriram
Paatha Kolusu Saththam Shenbhagam S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Thalaiva Naan Gandhi Pirantha Mann Kuzhandhai Velu, S. Janaki
Vinnothaney Thennavan Yuvan Shankar Raja Srinivas, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Pookal Pookum Madrasapattinam G. V. Prakash Kumar Roop Kumar Rathod, Harini, Andrea Jeremiah, and G. V. Prakash Kumar
Azhagu Saivam Uthara Unnikrishnan(National Award for Best Female playback singer)
Manasellam Mazhaiye Saguni Sonu Nigam, Saindhavi & G. V. Prakash Kumar
Uyirin Uyire Thaandavam Saindhavi, G. V. Prakash Kumar, Sathya Prakash
Kuzhanthaikku Pasiyeduthal Mani Rathnam Sirpy Arunmozhi, Sujatha Mohan
Chillendru Ezhumalai Mani Sharma S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sujatha Mohan
Uyire Uyire Sollividava Jassie Gift G. V. Prakash Kumar
Velli Nilavae Eeswaran S. Thaman ML Gayatri

Language: Telugu

Song Movie Composer Singers
Pavana Guna Rama Bhakta Potana V. Nagayya V. Nagayya
Sivasankari Sivanandalahari Jagadeka Veeruni Katha Pendyala Nageswara Rao Ghantasala
Namo Bhootanatha Satya Harishchandra (1965 Telugu film) Pendyala (composer) Ghantasala (musician) & S. Varalakshmi
Aanati Kaavalena gaanaaniki samayamu Amara Sandesam(1954 film) K.Prasada Rao & Kelkar
Nee Kougililo Taladachi Nee Chetulalo Kanumoosi Karthika Deepam (film) Satyam (composer) P. Susheela
Sri Hanuman Gurudev Charanamulu Hanuman Chalisa in Telugu M. S. Ramarao M. S. Ramarao

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R  S M P   
    • Western: C D E C F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:    P M P  R S
    • Western: C A B G F G E D C

References

  1. ^ Hindustani Sangeetha Paddhati (4 volumes, Marathi) (1909–1932). Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Sangeet Karyalaya (1990 reprint). ISBN 81-85057-35-4.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) This book, which establishes the Thaat system, has been widely translated.
  2. ^ Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  3. ^ Rajan P. Parrikar (11 December 2000). "The Kanada Constellation (Part 1/3)". South Asian Women's Forum. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  4. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications