A prepared guitar, in which various metal objects have been inserted between the strings and the neck.

In music, extended technique is unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playing musical instruments employed to obtain unusual sounds or timbres.[1]

Composers’ use of extended techniques is not specific to contemporary music (for instance, Hector Berlioz’s use of col legno in his Symphonie Fantastique is an extended technique) and it transcends compositional schools and styles. Extended techniques have also flourished in popular music. Nearly all jazz performers make significant use of extended techniques of one sort or another, particularly in more recent styles like free jazz or avant-garde jazz. Musicians in free improvisation have also made heavy use of extended techniques.

Examples of extended techniques include bowing under the bridge of a string instrument or with two different bows, using key clicks on a wind instrument, blowing and overblowing into a wind instrument without a mouthpiece, or inserting objects on top of the strings of a piano.

Twentieth-century exponents of extended techniques include Henry Cowell (use of fists and arms on the keyboard, playing inside the piano), John Cage (prepared piano), and George Crumb. The Kronos Quartet, which has been among the most active ensembles in promoting contemporary American works for string quartet, frequently plays music which stretches the manner in which sound can be drawn out of instruments.

Examples

Vocal

Main article: Extended vocal technique

Bowed string instruments

Main article: Bowed string instrument extended technique

Plucked string instruments

Piano

Main article: Piano extended technique

Woodwind instruments

Brass instruments

Percussion

Electronic

Organ

Playing on stops that are partially drawn (has an effect only if the stops are on purely mechanical action, with a slider windchest). Manipulating stops while holding one or more notes (possible on most organs, but most effective if the stops are on purely mechanical action, with a slider chest).

Other instruments

Main article: Experimental musical instrument

Notable composers

Notable performers

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Bass

Bassoon

Cello

Clarinet

Drums and percussion

Flute

Guitar

Harp

Horn

Oboe

Piano

Saxophone

Trombone

Tuba

Trumpet

Viola

Violin

Voice

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ Burtner, Matthew (2005). "Making Noise: Extended Techniques after Experimentalism Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine", NewMusicBox.org.
  2. ^ "Cello Map :: Index". www.cellomap.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-29. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  3. ^ a b Dierickx, Zachary (2018). The Clarinet Works of Jörg Widmann: A Performance Guide to Fantasie for Clarinet Solo with a Survey of Unaccompanied Clarinet Repertoire and Guide to Contemporary Techniques (DMA). Ohio State University. Archived from the original on 2019-06-02. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
  4. ^ "Garth Knox – Violist Composer". www.garthknox.org. Retrieved 2017-10-28.
  5. ^ "Anne Lanzilotti".
  6. ^ Ceolin Elena; Tisato Graziano; Zattra Laura. "Demetrio Stratos Rethinks Voice Techniques: A Historical Investigation at ISTC in Padova" (PDF). Proceedings of the SMC Conference 2011 (Sound and Music Computing), Padova 6–9 July 2011. pp. 48–55. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2013-01-11.

Further reading