G minor
{ \magnifyStaff #3/2 \omit Score.TimeSignature \key g \minor s16 \clef F \key g \minor s^"" }
Relative keyB-flat major
Parallel keyG major
Dominant keyD minor
SubdominantC minor
Component pitches
G, A, B, C, D, E, F

G minor is a minor scale based on G, consisting of the pitches G, A, B, C, D, E, and F. Its key signature has two flats. Its relative major is B-flat major and its parallel major is G major.

The G natural minor scale is:

\omit Score.TimeSignature \relative c'' {
  \key g \minor \time 7/4 g^"G natural minor scale" a bes c d es f g f es d c bes a g
  \clef F \key g \minor
} }

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The G harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

\omit Score.TimeSignature \relative c'' {
  \key g \minor \time 7/4 g^"G harmonic minor scale" a bes c d es fis g fis es d c bes a g
} }
\omit Score.TimeSignature\relative c'' {
  \key g \minor \time 7/4 g^"G melodic minor scale (ascending and descending)" a bes c d e fis g f! es! d c bes a g
} }

Scale degree chords

Mozart's use of G minor

Main article: Mozart and G minor

G minor has been considered the key through which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart best expressed sadness and tragedy,[1] and many of his minor key works are in G minor, such as Piano Quartet No. 1 and String Quintet No. 4. Though Mozart touched on various minor keys in his symphonies, G minor is the only minor key he used as a main key for his numbered symphonies (No. 25, and the famous No. 40). In the Classical period, symphonies in G minor almost always used four horns, two in G and two in B alto.[2] Another convention of G minor symphonies observed in Mozart's No. 25 and Mozart's No. 40 was the choice of E-flat major, the subdominant of the relative major B, for the slow movement, with other examples including Joseph Haydn's No. 39 and Johann Baptist Wanhal's G minor symphony from before 1771.[3]

Notable works in G minor

See also: List of symphonies in G minor

See also


  1. ^ Hellmut Federhofer, foreword to the Bärenreiter Urtext edition of Mozart's Piano Quartet in G minor. "G-Moll war für Mozart zeitlebens die Schicksaltonart, die ihm für den Ausdruck des Schmerzes und der Tragik am geeignetsten erschien." ("G minor was, for Mozart, the most suitable fate-key throughout his life for the expression of pain and tragedy.")
  2. ^ H. C. Robbins Landon, Mozart and Vienna. New York: Schirmer Books (1991): 48. "Writing for four horns was a regular part of the Sturm und Drang G minor equipment." Robbins Landon also notes that Mozart's No. 40 was first intended to have four horns.
  3. ^ James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, Elements of Sonata Theory (Oxford University Press: 2006) p. 328